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Location in the Philippines
|Regional center||San Fernando (La Union)|
|• Total||13,012.60 km2 (5,024.19 sq mi)|
|Population (2015 census)|
|• Density||390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|ISO 3166 code||PH-01|
The Ilocos Region (Ilocano: Rehion/Deppaar ti Ilocos; Pangasinan: Sagor na Baybay na Luzon; Filipino: Rehiyon ng Ilocos) is an administrative region of the Philippines, designated as Region I, occupying the northwestern section of Luzon. It is bordered by the Cordillera Administrative Region to the east, the Cagayan Valley to the northeast and southeast, and the Central Luzon to the south. To the west lies the South China Sea.
The region comprises four provinces: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union and Pangasinan. Its regional center is San Fernando, La Union. The 2000 Census reported that the major languages spoken in the region are Ilocano at 66.36% of the total population at that time, Pangasinan with 27.05%, and Tagalog with 3.21%.
Region 1 was first inhabited by the aboriginal Negritoes before they were pushed by successive waves of Malay/Austronesian immigrants that penetrated the narrow coast. Tingguians in the interior, Ilocanos in the north, and Pangasinense in the south settled the region. Before the administration of Ferdinand Marcos, Pangasinan was not a part of the region.
The Spanish arrived in the 16th century and established Christian missions and governmental institutions to control the native population and convert them to Catholicism. Present-day Vigan in Ilocos Sur province became the diocesan seat of Nueva Segovia. Ilocanos in the northern parts were less easily swayed, however, and remained an area filled with deep resentments against Spain. These resentments bubbled to the surface at various points in the Ilocos provinces' history as insurrections, most notably that of Andres Malong and Palaris of Pangasinan, Diego Silang and his wife Gabriela Silang in 1764, and the Basi Revolt in the 19th century. However, it was the Pangasinenses in the south who were the last to be stand against the Spaniards.
In 1901, the region came under American colonial rule, and in 1941, under Japanese occupation.
During 1945, the combined American and the Philippine Commonwealth troops including with the Ilocano and Pangasinese guerillas liberated the Ilocos Region from Japanese forces during the Second World War.
The Ilocos Region occupies the narrow plain between the Cordillera Central mountain range and the South China Sea, and the northern portion of the Central Luzon plain, to the north-east of the Zambales Mountains.
|km2||sq mi||/km2||/sq mi|
|La Union||San Fernando||15.7%||786,653||1,497.70||578.27||530||1,400||1||19||576|
• Figures for Pangasinan include the independent component city of Dagupan.
|City||Population (2015)||Area||Density||City class||Income class||Province||Coordinates|
|San Fernando||121,812||102.72||39.66||1,200||3,100||Component||3rd||La Union|
Although the economy in the southern portion of the region, esp. Pangasinan, is anchored on agro-industrial and service industry, the economy in the northern portion of the region is anchored in the agricultural sector. The economy in Pangasinan is driven by agro-industrial businesses , such as milkfish (bangus) cultivation and processing, livestock raising, fish paste processing (bagoong), and others. Income in the Ilocos provinces or northern portion mostly come from cultivating rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, and fruits; raising livestock such as pigs, chicken, goats, and carabaos (water buffalos).
The distribution of the economic activity in the region may be seen from the collection of tax revenue of the national government. The bulk of the collections come from Pangasinan, which posted 61% of the total.
The service and light manufacturing industries are concentrated in the cities. Dagupan is mostly driven by its local entrepreneurs, which have started to expand its network up to the national level. San Fernando in La Union also has an international shipping port and the upgraded and soon to be developed San Fernando International Airport. While Laoag in Ilocos Norte has an international airport.
The tourism industry, driven by local airlines and land transportation firms in the area like Farinas Transit Company and Partas, focuses on the coastal beaches and on eco-tourism. There are fine sands stretching along Bauang, La Union and the rest of the region.
|Population census of
|Source: National Statistics Office|
Pangasinan is the historical homeland of the Pangasinenses. The population of Pangasinan comprises approximately 60% of the total population of the region. The Ilocanos started migrating to Pangasinan in the 19th century. Pangasinan was formerly a province of Region III (Central Luzon) before President Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 1, 1972, incorporating it into Region I. Minority groups include the Tingguian and Isneg communities that inhabit the foothills of the Cordillera mountains.
The population is predominantly Roman Catholic with strong adherents of Protestantism such as the Aglipayan denomination further north of the country. There are also adherents to other Christian denominations, such as Iglesia ni Cristo, Mormons, and the like. There is also an undercurrent of traditional animistic beliefs especially in rural areas. The small mercantile Chinese and Indian communities are primarily Buddhists, Taoists, and Hindus.
- Marcos Museum and Mausoleum
- Sinking Belltower, Laoag
- Paoay Lake
- Fort Ilocandia Hotel
- Paoay Golf Course
- Paoay Church (UNESCO World Heritage Site)
- Laoag Cathedral
- Aglipay Shrine
- Valdez Center (San Nicolas, Ilocos Norte Business Center)
- Malacanang of the North
- Patapat Viaduct
- Ilocos Norte Capitol
- Cape Bojeador Lighthouse
- Bangui Wind Farm
- Ilocos Norte Museum
- Kapurpurawan Rock Formation
- Juan Luna Shrine
- Ricarte Park and Shrine
- Bacarra Church
- Badoc Church
- Sarrat Church
- La Paz Sand Dunes
- Vigan (UNESCO World Heritage Site)
- Vigan Colonial Houses
- Vigan Cathedral
- Sinait Church (Sanctuary of Santo Cristo Milagroso)
- Ilocos Sur Capitol
- Santa Maria Church (UNESCO World Heritage Site)
- Pinsal Falls (Largest Waterfall in Region I - Santa Maria)
- Bantay Church and Belltower (Sanctuary of Nuestra Senora de La Caridad)
- Quirino Bridge in Bantay
- Plaza Maestro Complex, Vigan
- Tirad Pass
- Sundial in Tagudin
- Santiago Cove
- Paraiso ni Juan in Narvacan
- Hundred Islands National Park
- Pangasinan Capitol
- The Shrine of Our Lady of Manaoag
- San Carlos City Plaza
- San Juan River in San Carlos
- Bonuan Blue Beach in Dagupan
- Antong Falls
- Cacupangan Cave
- Mount Balungao
- Manleluag Spring Protected Landscape
- Sanctuario de Senor Divino Tesoro
- Salasa Church
- Lingayen Gulf War Museum
- Bolinao Museum
- Oceanographic Marine Laboratory
- Red Arrow Marker of the World War II 32nd US Infantry Division
- Umbrella Rocks
- Urduja House
- St. John Cathedral Garden
- Caves in Bolinao
- Boat ride in Pantal River
- Cape Bolinao Lighthouse in Bolinao
- Narciso Ramos Sports and Civic Center
- Tondol Beach
- Tambobong White Beach
- Sangbay Falls
Notable people from the region
- José Burgos, one of the Gomburza martyrs during the Spanish Occupation
- Ferdinand Marcos, tenth President of the Philippines
- Elpidio Quirino, sixth President of the Philippines
- Fidel V. Ramos, twelfth President of the Philippines
- Artemio Ricarte, Filipino general during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War
- Diego Silang, male revolutionary leader during the Spanish Occupation
- Gabriela Silang, female revolutionary leader during the Spanish Occupation
- Census of Population (2015): Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population (Report). PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "Ilocos Region: To Reach Five Millionth Mark in Nine Years (Results from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing, NSO); Table 8. Language/Dialect Generally Spoken in the Households: Ilocos Region, 2000". National Statistics Office. 31 January 2003. Archived from the original on 28 April 2003. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- Presidential Decree No. 1, 1972
- Culture and History by Nick Joaquin
- "List of Regions". National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on 2008-10-27. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "PSGC Interactive; List of Provinces". Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original on January 21, 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- "PSGC Interactive; List of Cities". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- National Statistical Coordination Board
- "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities" (PDF). 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 28, 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
- Rosario Mendoza Cortes, Pangasinan, 1801-1900: The Beginnings of Modernization
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