Ilyushin Il-12

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Il-12
Ilyushin Il-12 OK-DBN CSA Orly 27.05.57.jpg
Ilyushin Il-12 of CSA Czechoslovak Airlines on a scheduled service at Paris Orly Airport in 1957
Role Transport aircraft
Manufacturer Ilyushin
First flight 15 August 1945
Primary user Aeroflot
Produced 1946-1949[1]
Number built 663
Variants Ilyushin Il-14

The Ilyushin Il-12 (NATO reporting name "Coach") was a Soviet twin-engine cargo aircraft, developed in the mid-1940s for small and medium-haul airline routes and as a military transport.

Design and development[edit]

The Il-12 was developed as a private venture by the Ilyushin Design Bureau from autumn 1943 and was intended as a replacement for the Lisunov Li-2, a license-produced version of the Douglas DC-3. The new aircraft followed a classical layout for a twin-engine transport, with a metallic structure, monoplane wings, a conventional tail section. One major improvement over the Li-2 design was the tricycle landing gear, which allowed better visibility when taxiing and landing. Initially the Il-12 was designed for 29 passengers in a pressurized fuselage, with projected maximum range is assumed of 5,000 kilometers at a cruising speed 400 kph. The aircraft was to use four M-88B engines already proven in use on the Ilyushin Il-4.

However, during development, the M-88B engines had to be replaced by two ACh-31 diesel engines (each producing 1,500 hp). The plans for a pressurized fuselage were abandoned and the number of passengers reduced to 27. The Il-12 made its maiden flight on 15 August 1945.[2] It was soon decided to re-engine the aircraft with Shvetsov ASh-82 radial engines with the revised aircraft flying on 9 January 1946.[2]

The Il-12 was found to have problems with vibration during testing, having poor engine out characteristics and requiring a strut under the rear fuselage to prevent tipping during loading due to center-of-gravity problems.[3] Further problems was the use of magnesium near the engines which in case of engine fire could cause an uncontrolled fire, damaging the wing structure. (This was later revealed by a crash of an Ilyushin Il-12 near Voronezh which killed all on board, following an engine fire. Subsequently, as a result of the accident investigation, the magnesium was replaced by aluminium alloys and the fire extinguishing system was redesigned.)[4] However, once these problems were resolved, factory test pilots praised the quality of the new aircraft, which contributed to the decision to launch the Il-12 in series production.

The fuselage of the Il-12 had a considerable volume, and was equipped with eight rectangular windows on each side. The crew consisted of three and the aircraft could transport 32 soldiers, 32 parachutists or cargo. There was also a civil version, which although designed to carry up to 32 passengers, was limited in Aeroflot service to 21, with normally only 18 carried.[3] At that passenger load, it meant that use of the Il-12 for passenger use was un-economic.

A total of 663 Il-12s were manufactured.[3] The aircraft was later improved into the Ilyushin Il-14.

Operational history[edit]

The Il-12 was revealed to the public on 1 May 1947, when a group of aircraft participated in the annual May Day flyby over Red Square in Moscow. Performance testing was completed by 20 May, and the first regular passenger service by the Il-12 on Aeroflot began in June 1947. The first regular international use of the Il-12 was on the Moscow-Sofia route in 1948. The Il-12 was used on Aeroflot's services to Paris from 1954.

Within the USSR, the Il-12 was placed on Aeroflot's longest route: Moscow-Khabarovsk, with the flight lasting 28 hours, including five refueling stops. From 1956, the Il-12 (modified for use on ice runways) supported the Soviet expeditions to Antarctica. Aeroflot continued to use the Il-12 on some routes until the end of 1970.

Export sales[edit]

The first export customer for the Il-12 was LOT Polish Airlines, who placed an order for five Il-12Bs after it was displayed at the Poznan Fair in Poland in the spring of 1948. This was followed by Czech Airlines, who purchased 10 aircraft from 1949–1951, TAROM in Romania from 1949, and at least 20 aircraft to CAAC in China.

Variants[edit]

  • Il-12A : Basic passenger version with 27 seats standard, also produced in versions with 6, 11, 16, 18, 21 and 32 seats.
  • Il-12B : Modification from 1948, fitted with an improved de-icing system, lengthened nosewheel and a small dorsal fin fillet.
  • Il-12D : military transport version for the Soviet Air Force launched in 1948, for 38 paratroops or military cargo to 3700 kg.
  • Il-12T : transport version for arctic operations, with a large cargo door on the left side of the fuselage.

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Of the 663 Il-12s produced, 46 have been lost in accidents with a total of 462 fatalities.

Date Tail number Location Casualties Description Refs
1 July 1947 CCCP-Л1317 Soviet UnionVnukovo Unknown Crashed on takeoff due to loss of speed following engine failure. [5]
18 December 1947 CCCP-Л1343 Soviet Unionnear Severny Airport 7/25 Aeroflot Flight 6 stalled and crashed while attempting to land following a go-around due to engine failure. [6]
1 September 1948 CCCP-Л1465 Soviet UnionSeverny Airport 1 Crashed on takeoff. The flight engineer reduced engine power after the landing gear was raised. The aircraft entered a descent until it struck terrain. A propeller blade broke off and penetrated the fuselage, killing a passenger. [7]
9 September 1948 CCCP-Л1427 Soviet Unionnear Baimakovo Aerodrome 5/5 Crashed following a loss of control during a test flight. The pilot was practicing flying with one engine shut down. The instructor feathered the propeller too soon after a go-around with the flaps deployed. The aircraft entered a turn with a loss of speed and then entered a dive. [8]
12 October 1948 CCCP-Л1450 Soviet Unionnear Yevlakh 10/10 Disappeared in the Caucasus Mountains while operating a Tashkent-Baku-Tbilisi-Sochi passenger service. The aircraft was never found. [9]
23 December 1948 CCCP-Л1731 Soviet Unionnear Valuyevo 4/4 Mid-air collision. The Il-12 was to be handed over to a crew from Aeroflot's Georgian division. The crew did not turn up in time, so the aircraft was handed over to a crew from the Uzbek division instead. The aircraft then departed Khodynka for Tashkent, although ATC did not know of the change in the flight plan. The Il-12 collided with a TS-62 that was being ferried from Vnukovo to Bykovo; the Il-12 lost both engines while the tail of the TS-62 was sheared off. [10][11]
19 January 1949 CCCP-Л1381 Soviet Unionnear Stalino Airport 2+8/9 Crashed shortly after takeoff due to double engine failure. Two people on the ground also died when the aircraft crashed into a house. [12]
13 May 1949 CCCP-Л1791 Soviet Unionnear Novosibirsk 25/25 Crashed in bad weather. While on approach to Novosibirsk, the aircraft entered a thunderstorm and was struck by lightning. The pilot attempted to leave the storm but flew into an area of heavy rain with hail and squall with low visibility. During the descent the aircraft lost control and crashed into a mound 12 km (7.5 mi) from the airport. [13]
21 July 1949 CCCP-Л1714 Soviet Unionnear Marga 13/14 Crashed in a forest following loss of power due to engine failure. [14]
25 August 1949 CCCP-Л1844 Soviet Unionnear Kabansky 14/14 Struck a mountain after descending too low. [15]
20 September 1949 CCCP-Л1462 Soviet Unionnear Savasleyka 3/4 Crashed due to a loss of power following engine failure. [16]
19 July 1950 CCCP-Л1340 Soviet Unionnear Tbilisi Airport 4/11 Struck a hill while on a training flight. The trainee pilot deviated from the glide scope and approach pattern. The aircraft hit the top of a 175 m (574 ft) hill that was not indicated on the flight map. [17]
30 July 1950 CCCP-Л1803 Soviet Unionnear Karaganda Airport 25/25 Crashed after takeoff due to engine failure. Six minutes after takeoff the crew radioed that the number one engine had failed. While attempting to return to the airport control was lost while in a left turn and the aircraft crashed. [18]
11 August 1950 CCCP-Л1706 Soviet Unionnear Koltsovo Airport 2/27 While on approach to Sverdlovsk in fog, the aircraft descended below the glide scope, striking tree tops short of and to the right of the runway. The aircraft then crashed in a meadow. [19]
9 January 1951 CCCP-Л1811 Soviet UnionBlack Sea off Tuapse 8/8 While descending for Sochi, the aircraft was struck by lightning at 900 m (3,000 ft). The left rear fuel tank exploded, starting a fire. The aircraft crashed out of control in the Black Sea. [20]
17 November 1951 CCCP-Л1775 Soviet Unionnear Vnukovo 23/23 Crashed shortly after takeoff due to wing icing. [21]
18 July 1952 SP-LHC Polish People's RepublicWarsaw 0 Crashed on landing, written off. [22]
5 October 1952 CCCP-Л1328 Soviet Unionnear Skvoritsy 24/24 Mid-air collision. The Il-12, operating as Aeroflot Flight 376, was on approach to Leningrad and was descending to 1,200 m (3,900 ft) when it collided with Aeroflot Flight 381, operated by a Douglas TS-62 (CCCP-Л1055) that had just departed Leningrad and was climbing to 2,700 m (8,900 ft). [23]
23 January 1953 CCCP-Л1435 Soviet Unionnear Kazan Airport 6/6 Mid-air collision. The Il-12 was operating a Kazan-Moscow-Novosibirsk cargo service as Aeroflot Flight 22 and had just taken off from Kazan when it collided with an Li-2 (CCCP-Л4582) that was on approach to Kazan from Moscow. The Li-2 lost its left engine, while the Il-12's tail was sheared off. [24]
14 June 1953 CCCP-Л1375 Soviet Unionnear Zugdidi 18/18 Aeroflot Flight 229 crashed following wing failure. While en route to Tbilisi, the aircraft entered a thunderstorm and was struck by lightning and entered an uncontrolled dive. The pilot attempted to abruptly recover from the dive but this placed excessive load on the wings, causing the outer wing sections to separate. The aircraft crashed nose-down on a wooded hillside. [25]
27 July 1953 Unknown Chinanear Mao-erh-Shan 21/21 Shot down by USAF F-86 Sabre 51-12959 and became the last aircraft destroyed during the Korean War. The F-86 pilot identified the aircraft as a North Korean Il-12. A long burst of gunfire was enough to shoot down the Il-12, which turned out to be a Soviet airliner flying through North Korean airspace to Vladivostok. [26][27]
27 October 1953 CCCP-Л1765 Soviet UnionMagadan 22/28 Aeroflot Flight 783 crashed shortly after takeoff due to wing icing; the aircraft was also overloaded. [28]
4 November 1953 CCCP-Л1367 Soviet Unionnear Magdagachi Airport 5/5 Unknown [29]
27 September 1954 CCCP-Л1365 Soviet Unionnear Severny Airport 29/29 Aeroflot Flight 10 struck trees and crashed into a slope of a ravine in poor visibility. Deadliest Il-12 accident. [30]
28 October 1954 CCCP-Л1789 Soviet UnionKrasnoyarsk Territory 19/19 Aeroflot Flight 139 struck the side of Mount Sivukha. [31]
5 December 1954 CCCP-Л1320 Soviet Unionnear Alma-Ata 1/19 Aeroflot Flight 98 crashed in a military facility shortly after takeoff. At a height of 100–120 m (330–390 ft) the left engine caught fire. The propeller was feathered and the fire died down. The aircraft later began to lose altitude. The crew increased power to the right engine, but speed and altitude decreased. The aircraft struck several obstacles before striking a brick shed and concrete debris. The cause of the fire was traced back to poor maintenance. [32]
4 March 1955 CCCP-Н479 Soviet Unionnear Kepino 4/25 Force-landed 115 km (71 mi) from Arkhangelsk. Shortly after passing Mezen, the left engine caught fire. The pilot started an emergency descent for a forced landing on the ice. Four minutes later, the burning engine fell off and the pilot managed to make a forced landing, but the aircraft collided with trees, destroying the cockpit section. [33]
15 September 1955 CCCP-Л1359 Soviet UnionKomarovo 7/7 Unknown [34]
26 April 1956 Unknown East GermanyBerlin-Bohnsdorf 3/6 Collided with a church bell tower while on approach in fog. Although the aircraft was unconfirmed, it was probably an Il-12. [35]
8 September 1956 CCCP-Н525 Soviet UnionDikson Airport 0 Unknown [36]
24 November 1956 OK-DBP SwitzerlandEglisau 23/23 Crashed in a field 12 km (7.5 mi) from Kloten Airport. [37]
7 August 1957 CCCP-Л1828 Soviet UnionMagdagachi Airport 1/17 Unknown [38]
30 September 1957 CCCP-Л1389 Soviet Unionnear Akshi 27/28 Unknown [39]
27 October 1957 CCCP-Н442 North Pole drifting ice station SP-7 1/6 Struck terrain while flying too low on approach. [40]
18 December 1957 CCCP-Л1309 Soviet UnionPoktoy 27/27 Aeroflot Flight 10 disappeared while operating a Khabarovsk-Magdagachi-Moscow passenger service. The wreckage was found in June 1958 on a mountain 30 km (19 mi) west of Birobidzhan. While the aircraft was parked and during taxiing, gusty winds at the airport damaged the rudder which failed 26 minutes into the flight and caused a loss of control. [41]
9 June 1958 CCCP-Л1364 Soviet Unionnear Magadan 24/24 Aeroflot Flight 105 struck a hillside in bad weather. [42]
19 September 1958 CCCP-Л3904 Soviet Unionnear Lazo 28/28 While en route to Khabarovsk, the crew became disoriented. ATC failed to report the position of the aircraft. The aircraft ran out of fuel and struck a wooded mountain slope. [43]
January 1959 CCCP-04249 AntarcticaMirny Station 0 Struck ice hummocks on landing, collapsing the landing gear. [44]
29 November 1959 CCCP-01426 Soviet UnionIrkutsk Airport 4/4 Unknown [45]
21 July 1960 CCCP-01405 Soviet UnionMinsk 1+7/28 Unknown [46]

Operators[edit]

 Bulgaria
 Czechoslovakia
 People's Republic of China

Imported 42 IL-12 airliners from 1950 to 1951 used to airlift to Lhasa during the Incorporation of Tibet into the People's Republic of China. Some were refitted to aerial survey airplanes later. Retired in 1986.

 Laos
 Poland
 Romania
 Mongolia
 Soviet Union
 North Korea

Specifications (Il-12)[edit]

Data from The Osprey Encyclopedia of Russian Aircraft from 1875 - 1995[3]

General characteristics

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 407 km/h (220 kn, 253 mph) at 2,500 m (8,200 ft)
  • Range: 1,500 km with 26 passengers (810 nmi, 932 mi)
  • Endurance: 4.5 hr
  • Service ceiling: 6,500 m (21,325 ft)
  • Climb to 5,000 m (16,400 ft): 15 minutes

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ "Ilyushin Il-12". Planepictures.net. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Dates of Maiden Flights by Aircraft Designed by "Ilyushin" Design Bureau." Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Ilyushin Aviation Complex. Retrieved: 13 November 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d Gunston 1995, p. 110.
  4. ^ Gordon, Komissarov and Komissarov 2004, pp. 160–161.
  5. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1317 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-20.
  6. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1343 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-20.
  7. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1465 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-20.
  8. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1427 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-20.
  9. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1450 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  10. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1731 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-20.
  11. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L861 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-20.
  12. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1381 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  13. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1791 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  14. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1714 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  15. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1844 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  16. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1462 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  17. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1340 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  18. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1803 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  19. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1706 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  20. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1811 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  21. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1775 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  22. ^ Accident description for SP-LHC at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  23. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1328 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  24. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1435 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  25. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1375 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  26. ^ "Up From Kitty Hawk 1947-1953." airforce-magazine.com. Retrieved: 17 July 2011.
  27. ^ Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  28. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1765 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  29. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1367 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  30. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1365 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  31. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1789 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  32. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1320 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  33. ^ Accident description for CCCP-N479 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  34. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1359 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  35. ^ Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  36. ^ Accident description for CCCP-N525 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  37. ^ Accident description for OK-DBP at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  38. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1828 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  39. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1389 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  40. ^ Accident description for CCCP-N442 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  41. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1309 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  42. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L1364 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  43. ^ Accident description for CCCP-L3904 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  44. ^ Accident description for CCCP-04249 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  45. ^ Accident description for CCCP-01426 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-22.
  46. ^ Accident description for CCCP-01405 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2016-01-25.
  47. ^ Stroud 1968, p. 99.
  48. ^ Stroud 1968, p. 100.
  49. ^ Stroud 1968, p. 110.
Bibliography
  • Gordon, Yefim, Dmitry Komissarov and Sergei Komissarov. OKB Ilyushin: A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft. Hinckley, Leicestershire, UK: Midland Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-85780-187-3.
  • Gunston, Bill. The Osprey Encyclopedia of Russian Aircraft from 1875 - 1995. London: Osprey Aerospace, 1995. ISBN 1-85532-405-9.
  • Stroud, John. Soviet Transport Aircraft since 1945. London: Putnam, 1968. ISBN 0-370-00126-5.