Ilyushin Il-76

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Il-76
IL-76MD - TankBiathlon2013 (modified).jpg
A Russian Air Force Il-76MD
Role Strategic and tactical airlifter
National origin Soviet Union / Russia
Design group Ilyushin
Built by Tashkent Aviation Production Association
Aviastar-SP
First flight 25 March 1971
Introduction June 1974[1]
Status In service
Primary users Soviet Air Forces (historical)
Russian Air Force
Ukrainian Air Force
Indian Air Force
Produced 1971–present
Number built 960+[2]
Variants Ilyushin Il-78
Beriev A-50
KJ-2000

The Ilyushin Il-76 (Russian: Илью́шин Ил-76; NATO reporting name: Candid) is a multi-purpose, fixed-wing, four-engine turbofan strategic airlifter designed by the Soviet Union's Ilyushin design bureau. It was first planned as a commercial freighter in 1967, as a replacement for the Antonov An-12. It was designed to deliver heavy machinery to remote, poorly served areas. Military versions of the Il-76 have been widely used in Europe, Asia and Africa, including use as an aerial refueling tanker or command center.

The Il-76 has seen extensive service as a commercial freighter for ramp-delivered cargo, especially for outsized or heavy items unable to be otherwise carried. It has also been used as an emergency response transport for civilian evacuations as well as for humanitarian aid and disaster relief around the world. Due to its ability to operate from unpaved runways, it has been useful in undeveloped areas. Specialized models have also been produced for aerial firefighting and zero-G training.

Design and development[edit]

The Il-76 is a high-wing freighter with four turbofans and a T-tail.

Origins[edit]

The aircraft was first conceived by Ilyushin in 1967 to meet a requirement for a freighter able to carry a payload of 40 tonnes (88,000 lb) over a range of 5,000 kilometres (2,700 nmi; 3,100 mi) in less than six hours, able to operate from short[vague] and unprepared airstrips, and capable of coping with the worst weather conditions likely to be experienced in Siberia and the Soviet Union's Arctic regions. It was intended to replace the Antonov An-12. Another intended version was a double-decked 250-passenger airliner but that project was cancelled. The Il-76 first flew in March 1971 (1971-03).[3]

Production of Il-76s was allocated to the Tashkent Aviation Production Association in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, then a republic of the Soviet Union. Some 860 of the basic transport variants were manufactured.[4] In the 1990s, modernized variants also equipped with Soloviev D-30 turbofan engines[5] were developed (MF, TF), with a cargo compartment 20 m (66 ft) long by 3.4 m (11 ft) wide by 3.4 m (11 ft) tall; these larger variants were not produced in significant quantity due to the financial difficulties being experienced by the Russian Air Force, which was the primary operator of the type.[citation needed] The prototype of the Il-76MF conducted its first flight on 1 August 1995.[citation needed]

Further development[edit]

From 2004 onwards, a number of aircraft in commercial service were modernized to the Il-76TD-90VD version; this involved the adoption of the newly developed PS-90 engine to comply with European noise limitations.[1] In 2005, the People's Republic of China placed an order for 34 new Il-76MDs and four Il-78 tankers.[citation needed] In June 2013, Russian military export agency Rosoboronexport announced an order by China for 12 Il-76MD aircraft.[6]

Landing gear of an Ilyushin Il-76

The Il-76 has also been modified into an airborne refuelling tanker, designated the Il-78, around 50 aircraft having been produced.[4] A variant of the Il-76 also serves as a firefighting waterbomber. Its airframe was used as a base for the Beriev A-50 'Mainstay' AEW&C (airborne early warning and control) aircraft; around 25 aircraft were made.[4] Another application for the type was found in Antarctic support flights and for conducting simulated weightlessness training for cosmonauts (akin to the "Vomit Comet" used by NASA).[7] Beriev and NPO Almaz also developed an airborne laser flying laboratory designated A-60, of which two were built, much of this project's details remaining classified.[8]

Il-76MD-90A[edit]

It was announced in 2010 that the production of a modernized Il-76, the Il-76MD-90A (also known as project Il-476 during the design stage), would begin; a proposed new production line would be located in Aviastar's facility in Ulyanovsk, Russia, and be operated in cooperation with the Tashkent works.[4] At that point, the construction of two Il-76MD-90A prototypes had begun at the Ulyanovsk facility.[9] The first Il-76MD-90A was rolled out at Aviastar's Ulyanovsk plant on 16 June 2014.[10] On 29 April 2015, it was reported that the Russian Air Force received the first Il-76MD-90A built at the Ulyanovsk plant "Aviastar-SP" from the 2012 contract for 39 aircraft.[11][12] The Russian Ministry of Defence (MoD) received its first serial production Ilyushin Il-76MD-90A airlifter on 2 April 2019.[13] As of late 2022, 27 aircraft are ordered to be delivered in the period up to 2028 and 14 had been built.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]

Operational history[edit]

The first aircraft was delivered to the Soviet Air Force in June 1974.[1] Next it became the main Soviet strategic transport aircraft. From 1976 it was operated by Aeroflot.

Video of Il-76MD landing on an unpaved runway

Between 1979 and 1991, the Soviet Air Force Il-76s made 14,700 flights into Afghanistan, transporting 786,200 servicemen, and 315,800 tons of freight. The Il-76 carried 89% of Soviet troops and 74% of the freight that was airlifted. As Afghan rebels were unable to shoot down high-flying Il-76s, their tactics were to try and damage it on takeoff or landing. Il-76s were often hit by shoulder-launched Stinger and Strela heat-seeking missiles and large-calibre machine gun fire, but because the strong airframes were able to take substantial damage and still remain operational, the aircraft had a remarkably low attrition rate during this period of conflict. Building on that experience, the bulk of the Canadian Forces equipment into Afghanistan was flown in using civilian Il-76s.[22] In 2006, the Russian Air Force had about 200 Il-76s. Civilian users in Russia have 108.[4]

On 3 August 1995, an Airstan Ilyushin Il-76 piloted by a Russian crew was forced down by a Taliban-controlled Afghanistan Air Force fighter in what became known as Airstan incident. The crew were imprisoned for nearly a year, but later escaped out of their confinement and managed to sneak into their aircraft still stuck at the airport and fly out of Afghanistan.[23]

USAF and IAF airmen work inside the cockpit of an Indian Il-76.

In 2004, a Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) Il-76 carried out a flight mission in Afghanistan, and later in 2011, PLAAF Il-76s were sent to Libya to evacuate Chinese citizens. The two missions were the reported first steps of PLAAF developing long-range transportation capability.[24]

On 23 March 2007, a Transaviaexport Il-76 was shot down by an anti-aircraft missile while taking off from Mogadishu, Somalia. Everybody on board, seven crew and four passengers, were killed.[25]

Syrian Air Force Il-76s, operating as civil Syrianair aircraft, have been reportedly used to ship weapons, money, and other cargo from Russia and Iran to Syria, according to a defected Syrian military pilot. Since the start of the war, in April 2011 (and up to July 2012), around 20 military flights have been conducted to and from Tehran, via Iraqi airspace. Further information exposes that since around 2012, Syrian Il-76s have regularly flown to Moscow's Vnukovo Airport to fetch shipments of Syrian banknotes that have been useful to Bashar al-Assad's government to survive Western sanctions.[26][27][28]

On 14 June 2014, a Ukrainian Air Force Il-76 was shot down by ground fire from pro-Russian separatists while on approach to landing at Luhansk, resulting in the deaths of 40 soldiers and nine crew members on board.[29][30][31]

On 30 January 2017, an IL-76 firebomber of the Russian EMERCOM agency was deployed to Chile to assist firefighters. This assignment took 39 days.[32]

All Il-76 transport aircraft in service with the RF Aerospace Forces will receive anti-missile systems. The aircraft reconfiguration started in the spring 2019.[33]

On 25 February 2022, during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, the Ukrainian State Special Communications Agency and US officials claimed that Russian Il-76s were shot down over Bila Tserkva.[34] Until September 2022 no wreckage of the alleged transport planes were ever found.[35]

On 4 April 2022, photographs of two destroyed Il-76s from the Ukrainian 25th Transport Aviation Brigade were displayed; these cargo planes were destroyed on the ground by Russian forces at Melitopol Airport.[36]

Variants[edit]

Prototypes and developmental variants[edit]

Il-76TD-90, Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines have larger diameter.
Il-76TD-90 / Il-76MD-90
Engine upgrades to Perm PS-90s.
Il-76 firebomber
Firefighting aircraft to drop exploding capsules filled with fire retardant.
Il-76PSD
SAR version of Il-76MF
Il-96
Early development of convertible passenger/cargo aircraft, (project only, designation re-used later)
Il-150
proposed Beriev A-50 with Perm PS-90 engines.
Beriev A-60
Airborne laser weapon testbed. (Il-76 version 1A)

Special purpose / research variants[edit]

Il-76LL with PD-14 engine prototype under testing, 2015
Il-76TD glass nose
Il-76LL SKIP testbed, 1999
Il-76LL
with reinforced wing (at least 3 aircraft) to be used as test-bed aeroplane for engine prototypes flight testing in Gromov Flight Research Institute.
Izdeliye-176
prototype Il-76PP.
Izdeliye-576
Izdeliye-676
Telemetry and communications relay aircraft, for use during trial programmes (prototype).
Izdeliye-776
Telemetry and communications relay aircraft, for use during trial programmes (prototype).
Izdeliye-976 ("SKIP", Il-976, or Il-76SK)[37] – (СКИП – Самолетный Контрольно-Измерительный Пункт, Airborne Check-Measure-and-Control Center)
Il-76/A-50 based Range Control and Missile tracking platform. Initially built to support Raduga Kh-55 cruise missile tests.
Izdeliye-1076
Special mission aircraft for unknown duties.
Izdeliye-1176
ELINT electronic intelligence aircraft, or Il-76-11

Military variants[edit]

Il-76MD-90A of the Russian Air Force
Il-76MD GSh-23 tail guns
Il-76MD cargo cabin
Il-76-Tu160 tailplane transporter
One-off temporary conversion to support Tu-160 emergency modification programme.
Il-76D
('D' for "Desantnyi", Десантный – "Paratrooper transport") has a gun turret in the tail for defensive purposes.
Il-76K/Il-76MDK/Il-76MDK-II
Zero-g cosmonaut trainer (dlya podgotovki kosmonavtov), used by Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center.
Il-76LL
Engine testbed, (ooniversahl'naya letayuschchaya laboratoriya).
Il-76M
Military transport version, (modifitseerovannyy – modified).
Il-76MD
Improved military transport version, (modifitseerovannyy Dahl'ny – modified, long-range).
Il-76MD Skal'pel-MT
Mobile Hospital
Il-76M / Il-76MD
Built without military equipment but designated as Ms and MDs (Gordon – 'Falsies')
Il-76MD-90
An Il-76MD with quieter and more economical Aviadvigatel PS-90 high-bypass turbofan engines.
Il-76MF
Stretched military version with a 6.6 m longer fuselage, PS-90A-76 engines, maximum takeoff weight of 210 tonnes and a lift capability of 60 tonnes. First flew in 1995, not built in series so far,[1] just built for Jordan.
Il-76PP
ECM aircraft, major problems with ECM equipment on the Izdeliye-176 only.
Il-76MD-M
Modernized Il-76MD for the Russian Air Force.[38][39][40]
Il-76MD-90A
An upgraded version with a new glass cockpit, upgraded avionics, new one-piece carbon-fibre wing, and Aviadvigatel PS-90A-76 engines. It was also known as Il-476 while in development.[10][41]
Il-76T/Il-76TD
Built as military aircraft but given civilian designations. (Gordon – 'Falsie')
Ilyushin Il-78/Il-78M/Il-78MD-90A
Aerial refuelling tanker.
Il-78 MKI
A customized version of the Il-78 developed for the Indian Air Force.
Il-82
Airborne Command Post/communications relay aircraft, (alternative designation – Il-76VKP-'version65S').
Il-84
Maritime Search and Rescue aircraft, (alternative designation – Il-76PS-poiskovo-spasahtel'nyy), not produced.
Beriev A-50/Beriev A-50M/Beriev A-50I/Beriev A-50E
Airborne Early Warning & Control aircraft. Beriev given control over the program.
Beriev A-100
An AEW&C version of the Il-76MD-90A.

Civil variants[edit]

A commercial variant of the Ilyushin Il-76, loading cargo at Ali Air Base, Iraq
An Il-76TD belonging to the IRGC, used as a firefighting aircraft
Il-76MGA
Initial Commercial freighter. (two prototypes and 12 production) equipped with Soloviev D-30 Turbofan engines.[42]
Il-76MD to Il-76TD conversions
Complete removal of military equipment, identified by crude cover over OBIGGS inlet in Starboard Sponson.
Il-76P / Il-76TP / Il-76TDP / Il-76MDP
Firefighting aircraft. The Il-76 waterbomber is a VAP-2 1.5-hour install/removal tanking kit conversion. The Il-76 can carry up to 13,000 U.S. gallons (49,000 liters) of water; 3.5 times the capacity of the C-130 Hercules. Since this kit can be installed on any Il-76, the designation Il-76TP, Il-76TDP are also used when those versions of the Il-76 are converted into waterbombers. The Il-76P was first unveiled in 1990.
Il-76T
('T' for Transport, Транспортный) unarmed civil cargo transport version. NATO code-name "Candid-A". It first flew on November 4, 1978.
Il-76TD
The civil equivalent of the Il-76MD, first flew in 1982, equipped with Soloviev D-30 Turbofan engines.[42]
Il-76TD-90
An Il-76TD with Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines and a partial glass cockpit.
Il-76TD-90VD
An Il-76TD with Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines and a partial glass cockpit. It was developed specially for Volga-Dnepr cargo company, which operates five aircraft as of 2021.[43]
Il-76TD-S
Civilian mobile Hospital, similar to Il-76MD Skal'pel-MT.
Il-76TF
Civil transport stretched version with Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines. It is the civil version of the Il-76MF (none produced).

Foreign variants[edit]

The A-50E/I Mainstay of the Indian Air Force
Beriev A-50E/I
For the Indian Air Force. Hosts Israeli Phalcon radar for AEW&C and Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines.[44]
Il-76MD tanker
Iraqi Air Force tanker conversions.
KJ-2000
Domestic Chinese airborne early warning and control conversion of Il-76, developed after A-50I was cancelled and currently in service with the armed forces of China.
CFTE engine testbed
The China Flight Test Establishment (CFTE) currently operates a flying testbed converted from a Russian-made Il-76MD jet transport aircraft to serve as a flying testbed for future engine development programmes. The first engine to be tested on the aircraft is the WS-10A "Taihang" turbofan, currently being developed as the powerplant for China's indigenous J-10 and J-11 fighter aircraft. Il-76MD #76456, acquired by the AVIC 1 from Russia in the 1990s, is currently based at CFTE's flight test facility at Yanliang, Shaanxi Province.
Baghdad-1
Iraqi development with a radar mounted in the cargo hold enabling it to serve as AEW&C, used in the Iran–Iraq War.
Baghdad-2
Iraqi development (with French assistance) with fibreglass-reinforced plastic radome over the antenna of the Thomson-CSF Tiger G surveillance radar with a maximum detection range of 350 km (190 nmi; 220 mi). One was destroyed on the ground during the 1991 Persian Gulf War; two others were flown to Iran where they remained.[45] At least one went into service with the IRIAF. One aircraft crashed following a midair collision with a HESA Saeqeh fighter, during the annual Iranian military parade in Teheran.[46] It can be distinguished from the Beriev A-50 by having the Il-76 navigator windows in the nose, which the A-50 does not.

Operators[edit]

Present and former Il-76 operators
  Military operators
  Civilian operators
  Military and civilian operators

Military and civil operators in 38 countries have operated 850+ Il-76 in large numbers. While Russia is the largest military operator of the Il-76, followed by Ukraine and India, Belarus' TransAVIAexport Airlines is the largest civilian operator.

Military operators[edit]

 Algeria
 Angola
 Armenia
 Azerbaijan
 Belarus
 China
  • People's Liberation Army Air Force operates 17 Il-76 aircraft, including three KJ-2000 AEW&C versions and some Il-78 tankers, with a further 30 due for delivery. However, the deal for new IL-476 is canceled, instead China received ten refurbished IL-76 from Russia and developed its own transport the Xian Y-20.[50][51]
 Egypt
 Equatorial Guinea
Indian Air Force Il-76
Indian Air Force Il-76
 India
 Iran
 Russia
 Sudan
 Syria
 Ukraine
 Uzbekistan

Former military operators[edit]

 Iraq
 Libya
  • The Libyan Air Force has operated the Il-76 although it may not remain in service.
 Soviet Union
  • Soviet Air Force – operated hundreds of the aircraft, with an inventory of 310 in 1987. Most were dispersed to the successor states upon the breakup of the Soviet Union.
 Yemen
 Zimbabwe

Civil operators[edit]

 Armenia
 Azerbaijan
 Bahrain
 Belarus
Air Almaty Il-76T
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
 Laos
  • Imtrec aviation of Cambodia operates Laos registered Il-76TD.
 Mali
 Moldova
 North Korea
 Russia
 Sierra Leone
  • Aerolift Sierra Leone operates Il-76 aircraft for special charter and cargo lift operations.[73]
 Sudan
 Syria
Ilyushin Il-76TD of Turkmenistan Airlines
 Turkmenistan
 Ukraine
 United Nations
 United States
 United Arab Emirates
 Uzbekistan

Former civil operators[edit]

 Angola
 Armenia
 Belarus
 Burkina Faso
 Cambodia
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Republic of the Congo
 Cuba
 Equatorial Guinea
 Georgia
  • Sun Way has operated the Il-76TD.[77]
 Hungary
 Iran
 Iraq
 Jordan
GST Aero IL-76 at Patriot Hills Base Camp, Antarctica
 Kazakhstan
 Latvia
  • Inversija operated three, including two Il-76Ts and one Il-76TD.
 Libya
 Moldova
  • Aerocom operated an Il-76MD as well as an Il-76T until as late as January 2005.
  • Airline Transport operated a number of Il-76 aircraft, losing three in accidents in 2004 and 2005.
 Russia
  • Aeroflot operated large numbers of aircraft, especially during Soviet years, often on behalf of the Soviet military. However, none remain in service with the airline.
  • Air STAN operated an Il-76TD.
  • ALAK operated Il-76 aircraft before its closure in 1999.
  • Aviaenergo operated the aircraft, but none remain in service.
  • Continental Airways has operated the Il-76 in the past, but does not do so currently.
  • Dacono Air has operated the Il-76.
  • Domodedovo Airlines has operated the Il-76, but none is currently in service.
  • KrasAir operated the Il-76, but none is currently in service.
  • Krylo Airlines operated two Il-76TDs into 2005.
  • Moscow Airways operated an Il-76TD in the early 1990s.
  • Novosibirsk Air Enterprise operated the Il-76, but none is currently in service.
  • Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise operated the Il-76, but none is currently in service.
 Serbia
 Soviet Union
  • Aeroflot was the main civil user of the aircraft during the period of the Soviet Union, although many of its aircraft were operated on behalf of the military.
  • Jet Air Cargo was one of the first civil operators of the Il-76 in Russia other than Aeroflot.
 Sudan
Loading BMD-1 in Ukrainian Air Force IL-76
 Ukraine
 Yemen

Accidents[edit]

An Il-76MD that was damaged during the Sknyliv air show disaster on 27 July 2002, during which the Sukhoi Su-27 involved struck a glancing blow against the aircraft's nose before crashing into spectators.

As of April 2018, a total of 80 Il-76 series aircraft have been written off in crashes and other accidents.[82] There were at average two Il-76 crashes or similar accidents per year since 1979, with more than 1000 casualties.[citation needed]

  • On 23 November 1979, a Soviet Air Forces Il-76, registration CCCP-86714, banked left during an approach to Vitebsk Airport. Control of the aircraft was lost and the aircraft crashed, killing the crew of seven; this was the first loss of an Il-76.[83]
  • On 11 December 1988, an Aeroflot Il-76 crashed on approach to Leninakan, Armenia killing 77 of the 78 on board. The aircraft was on an air relief operation following the 1988 Armenian earthquake.[84]
  • On 1 February 1990, a Soviet Air Forces Il-76 registration СССР-86021 crashed 14 minutes after takeoff from Panevėžys Air Base. The crashed killed all 8 members of the crew.[85]
  • On 19 August 1996, an Il-76T operating Spair Airlines Flight 3601, crashed while trying to land at Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport, killing all 14 occupants on board.[86]
  • On 12 November 1996, Kazakhstan Airlines Flight 1907, an Il-76 had a mid-air collision near New Delhi, India with a Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747, resulting in the loss of all 349 lives aboard both aircraft. The accident was ruled as pilot error, with the Il-76 aircraft failing to follow air traffic controller instructions.
  • On 27 November 1996, a Russian Air Force Ilyushin Il-76MD, registration RA-78804, flew into the hillside of a mountain, minutes after it departed Abakan Airport, and crashed 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) from the airport. All 21 occupants on board lost their lives in the accident.[87][88]
  • In July 1998, a Ukrainian Ilyushin-76 cargo plane took off from Ras Al Khaimah airport and crash landed into the sea nearby. All crew members on board died.[89]
  • On 2 December 2001, Armed Forces of the Russian Federation Flight 9064 crashed at Novaya Inya, Russia, following an onboard fire, killing 18 on board.
  • On 19 February 2003, an Ilyushin Il-76 crashed near Kerman, Iran under unspecified reasons (possibly weather-related). The crash killed 275 people, including hundreds of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard.
  • On 8 May 2003, the rear loading ramp of an Il-76 leased by the Congolese government unexpectedly opened at 10,000 feet after taking off from the capital Kinshasa. Initial reports stated that over 120 policemen and their families had been sucked out in 45 minutes,[90] but 14 people actually died.[91]
  • On 30 June 2008, an Ababeel Aviation Il-76 crashed while taking off from Khartoum on a relief flight, killing the 4 crew members, the only people on board the plane.[92]
  • On 2 July 2008, Click Airways Flight 1002, operated using an Ilyushin Il-76TD from Bagram Air Base to Al-Fujairah-Fujairah International Airport, suffered an Uncontained Engine Failure of its no. 3 engine at FL280. The failed engine parts struck the no. 4 engine resulting in its failure, as well as the fuselage and fuel tanks. The flight crew managed to successfully make an emergency landing at Zahedan, Iran. None of the three crew sustained injuries.[93]
  • On 15 January 2009, two Russian Ministry of Interior Il-76MDs were involved in a ground collision at Makhachkala Airport. One of the aircraft, registration RA-76825, was ready to depart and was positioned at the runway end when the other one, RA-76827, came in to land. The wing of the landing aircraft struck the flight deck of RA-76825 and a fire erupted. There were three fatalities in the departing aircraft, out of seven occupants on board. None of the 31 occupants aboard RA-76827 were hurt. RA-76825 was written off as a consequence of the accident.[94][95]
  • On 9 March 2009 Aerolift Il-76 S9-SAB crashed into Lake Victoria just after takeoff from Entebbe Airport, Uganda, killing all 11 people on board. Two of the engines had caught fire on takeoff. The aircraft was chartered by Dynacorp on behalf of AMISOM. The accident was investigated by Uganda's Ministry of Transport, which concluded that all four engines were time-expired and that Aerolift's claim that maintenance had been performed to extend their service lives and the certification of this work could not be substantiated.[96]
  • On 22 September 2009, Il-76MD "5-8208" of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force crashed near Varamin killing all seven people on board.[97] The crash was possibly the result of a midair collision with a Northrop F-5E Tiger II.[98]
  • On 1 November 2009, an Il-76 belonging to the Russian Ministry of the Interior, crashed near the city of Mirny within 2 kilometers after taking off. Eleven people on board were confirmed as killed.[99]
  • On 28 November 2010 Sun Way Flight 4412, Il-76 4L-GNI, crashed in a populated area of Karachi, Pakistan, shortly after taking off from Jinnah International Airport. All eight people on board were killed, along with two people on the ground. The aircraft was reported to have been trying to return to Jinnah after suffering an uncontained engine failure and fire.[100]
  • On 6 July 2011 a Silk Way Il-76, tail number 4K-AZ55, crashed into a mountain in Afghanistan, while on final to Bagram Air Force Base. Eight people on board were initially confirmed as killed, with one unaccounted.[101][102]
  • On 30 November 2012 an Aéro-Service[65] Il-76T (also reported as being operated by Trans Air Congo in the days after the accident[103]) crashed 850 meters short of runway 5L of the Congo's Maya-Maya Airport in Brazzaville while landing during a violent storm, killing 32, including the 5 aircrew, another person on board and 26 people on the ground.[104]
  • On 11 April 2018, an Algerian Air Force Ilyushin Il-76 military transport aircraft crashed shortly after take-off from Boufarik Airport, Boufarik, Algeria. All 257 people on board were killed, making the accident the deadliest air crash on Algerian soil.[105]
  • On 24 June 2022, a Russian Air Force IL-76 crashed and caught fire whilst landing near the city of Ryazan, killing 5 of the 9 people on board.[106][107]

Aircraft on display[edit]

  • UR-UCI (cn 083414444) preserved in the State Museum of Aviation, Kyiv-Zhulyany.[citation needed]

Specifications (Il-76TD)[edit]

Ilyushin Il-76.svg

Data from Ilyushin,[108] Aviadvigatel,[109] Volga-Dnepr Airlines.[110]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 5
  • Capacity: Il-76M 42,000 kg (92,594 lb); Il-76MD 48,000 kg (105,822 lb); Il-76MD-90A 60,000 kg (132,277 lb)
  • Length: 46.59 m (152 ft 10 in)
  • Wingspan: 50.5 m (165 ft 8 in)
  • Height: 14.76 m (48 ft 5 in)
  • Wing area: 300 m2 (3,200 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 92,500 kg (203,928 lb) Il-76TD-90
  • Max takeoff weight: 190,000 kg (418,878 lb) Il-76MD/TD
  • Powerplant: 4 × Soloviev D-30KP turbofans, 117.7 kN (26,500 lbf) thrust each [111]

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 900 km/h (560 mph, 490 kn)
  • Maximum speed: Mach 0.82
  • Range: 4,400 km (2,700 mi, 2,400 nmi) Il-76MD/TD with 52,000 kg (114,640 lb) payload.
  • Ferry range: 9,300 km (5,800 mi, 5,000 nmi) Il-76MD-90A with no payload.
  • Service ceiling: 13,000 m (43,000 ft)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.252
  • Minimum landing run: 450 m (1,476 ft) with thrust reversers

Armament

  • Guns: 2× 23 mm cannon in radar-directed manned turret at base of tail
  • Bombs: Some military models have 2 hardpoints under each outer wing capable of supporting 500 kg bombs.

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Butowski, Piotr. Iliuszyn Ił-76 powraca. Lotnictwo nr. 9/2004, p. 28-32 (in Polish)
  2. ^ [ Ilyushin Il-76: Russia's Versatile Jet Freighter]
  3. ^ "Ilyushin". Flightglobal. Flight International. 4 December 1996. Archived from the original on 2013-05-23.
  4. ^ a b c d e Butowski, Piotr. Rosyjski kontrakt na Ił-76 i Ił-78 dla Chin. Lotnictwo nr. 1/2007, pp. 54–55 (in Polish)
  5. ^ "Commercial aircraft of the world–Ilyushin Il-76". Flight International. 4283 (140): 66. 4–10 September 1991. Archived from the original on 16 November 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  6. ^ "IL-76MD aircraft will be provided to China". Archived from the original on 2013-06-24. Retrieved 2013-06-17.[unreliable source?]
  7. ^ "File:Марка России 2006г №1073-Самолет ИЛ-76ТД и научно-экспедиционное судно "Академик Федоров"; панорама станции.jpg". Stamps of Russia. Publishing and Trading Centre "Marka". 2006-01-26. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
  8. ^ "âÅÒÉÅ× á-60". airwar.ru. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  9. ^ "Поставки транспортников Ил-476 заказчикам начнутся в 2012 году – ВПК.name". Vpk.name. Archived from the original on 2011-01-24. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
  10. ^ a b "IL-476: Russia's New Medium-Heavy Transport Jet". Defense Industry Daily. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  11. ^ Первый серийный самолет Ил-76МД-90А передан Минобороны России [The first production aircraft Il-76MD-90A passed the Russian Defense Ministry]. RIA Novosti (in Russian). 29 April 2015. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. 
  12. ^ "Russian Defense Ministry Signs Multi-billion-dollar Plane Contract". RIA Novosti. 4 October 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-10-07.
  13. ^ "Russian MoD receives first serial production Il-76MD-90A airlifter | Jane's 360". Archived from the original on 2019-04-04. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  14. ^ "Минобороны переоценило транспортные самолеты". 28 May 2020 – via Kommersant.
  15. ^ "Russian radars track 30 foreign spy planes and six drones over week".
  16. ^ "ЦАМТО / / Предприятия ОАК выполнили гособоронзаказ в 2020 году". Archived from the original on 2021-11-08. Retrieved 2021-01-30.
  17. ^ "ЦАМТО / / Минобороны России получило новый военно-транспортный самолет Ил-76МД-90А". Archived from the original on 2021-12-10. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
  18. ^ "ЦАМТО / / Первый Ил-76МД-90А, собранный в АО "Авиастар-СП" на новой поточной линии, передан заказчику". Archived from the original on 2021-12-10. Retrieved 2021-09-10.
  19. ^ "Очередной серийный самолет Ил-76МД-90А передан в эксплуатацию". www.uacrussia.ru.
  20. ^ "ЦАМТО / / ОАК передала Минобороны транспортники Ил-76МД-90А и Ил-76МД-М".
  21. ^ https://tass.com/defense/1542553
  22. ^ Canadian Parliament Website Archived October 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ "Russian Air Crew, Held in Afghanistan, Escapes to UAE". Associated Press.
  24. ^ "IL-76s' mission in PLAAF, China". Archived from the original on 2011-10-15. Retrieved 2011-09-06.
  25. ^ Hassan, Mohamed Olad (24 March 2007). "Cargo Plane Shot Down in Somalia". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2012-11-03.
  26. ^ Wilson, Nigel (24 March 2013). "I flew secret missions carrying cash and weapons into Syria for Assad, pilot reveals". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 13 April 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  27. ^ Dafna Linzer, Jeff Larson (26 November 2012). "Flight Records Say Russia Sent Syria Tons of Cash". ProPublica. Archived from the original on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  28. ^ "NEWS – AZERBAIJAN – TURAN NEWS AGENCY". www.contact.az. Archived from the original on April 17, 2013.
  29. ^ "Ukrainian military plane with at least 49 aboard shot down". edition.cnn.com. 14 June 2014. Archived from the original on 17 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  30. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Military plane shot down in Luhansk". BBC Online. 14 June 2014. Archived from the original on 14 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  31. ^ "49 killed when Ukraine military plane downed: defence spokesman" Archived 2014-07-14 at the Wayback Machine. xin.msn.com
  32. ^ Gabbert, Bill (2017-02-27). "Russian IL-76 completes its assignment in Chile". Fire Aviation. Archived from the original on 2017-06-29. Retrieved 2017-06-12.
  33. ^ "Il-76 aircraft to receive new onboard defense systems".
  34. ^ "Live updates: Zelenskyy declines US offer to evacuate Kyiv". AP News. Associated Press. 25 February 2022.
  35. ^ "An unexpected air-to-air battle is raging over Ukraine. Here's what we know about the losses on both sides". Insider. 5 September 2022.
  36. ^ "Two IL-76MD strategic airlifter were destroyed from Russian strikes at Melitopol Air Base, Ukraine". AirLive. 7 April 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  37. ^ "The Ilyushin Il-76, A-50 AWACS / Aircraft 976". airvectors.net. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  38. ^ "ОАО "Ил" приступило к работам по модернизации... | ОАО "Ил"". ilyushin.org. Archived from the original on 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
  39. ^ "ЦАМТО / Новости / Первый модернизированный транспортный самолет Ил-76МД-М передан Минобороны России". armstrade.org. Archived from the original on 27 January 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  40. ^ "Russian Air Force receives first upgraded Ilyushin Il-76MD-M". airrecognition.com. Archived from the original on 27 January 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  41. ^ "First serial-production Ilyushin Il-76MD-90A strategic airlifter made its maiden flight". January 5, 2015. Archived from the original on January 13, 2015. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
  42. ^ a b "The Ilyushin Il-76". airvectors.net. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  43. ^ "IL-76TD – the heavy cargo-carrying ramp aircraft". Volga-Dnepr. Retrieved January 10, 2021. Volga-Dnepr has 5 modernized Ilyushin-76-TD-90-VD aircraft in its fleet.
  44. ^ "domain-b.com : Air Force starts flight tests of first Phalcon Il-76 airborne early warning system". domain-b.com. Archived from the original on 13 December 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  45. ^ Armistead, Leigh; Armistead, Edwin Leigh (2002). AEW&C and Hawkeyes – The Complete History of Airborne Early Warning. ISBN 9780760311400. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  46. ^ IRIAF IL-76MD "Simorgh" (Phoenix) AWACS Crash (Sep 22, 2009) on YouTube
  47. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 12
  48. ^ "Angola Air Force". rzjets.net. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
  49. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 13
  50. ^ "Il-76MF / Il-76MT". globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 27 January 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  51. ^ Cenciotti, David (7 November 2014). "China's new Y-20 cargo plane (that looks like a C-17/A-400M hybrid) lands at Zhuhai, parks close to C-17". theaviationist.com. Archived from the original on 27 January 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  52. ^ a b "Jordan gave Egypt two military transport Il-76MF". weaponews.com. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  53. ^ Hoyle Flight International 2021, pp. 17–18
  54. ^ "India Seeks To Bolster Transport With ten C-17s". Defense News. 2009-11-05. Retrieved 2010-11-06.[dead link]
  55. ^ "Indian Air Force :: Aircraft Fleet Strength". Bharat-rakshak.com. 2009-10-19. Archived from the original on 2011-06-09. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
  56. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 21
  57. ^ [The Military Balance 2016. — P. 195.]
  58. ^ [The Military Balance 2016. — P. 200.]
  59. ^ [The Military Balance 2016. — P. 201.]
  60. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 30
  61. ^ Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 32
  62. ^ Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 34
  63. ^ Cooper, Tom (2018). Hot Skies Over Yemen, Volume 2: Aerial Warfare Over the South Arabian Peninsula, 1994-2017. Warwick, UK: Helion & Company Publishing. pp. 33, I. ISBN 978-1-911628-18-7.
  64. ^ Cooper et al. 2011, p. 210
  65. ^ a b Hradecky, Simon (December 2, 2012). "Crash: Aero Services IL76 at Brazzaville on Nov 30th 2012, clipped trees then impacted buildings short of runway". Aviation Herald. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
  66. ^ [1] Archived October 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  67. ^ Retrieved 2 December 2015. FlightStats. Global Aviation Services 509 Flight Status Archived 2017-07-04 at the Wayback Machine
  68. ^ "Lease Archived 2009-09-24 at the Wayback Machine". AirAlmaty.kz
  69. ^ "Jet Line". Archived from the original on 2007-12-15. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  70. ^ "Volga-Dnepr evaluates stretched AN-124-102 for special aerospace and industrial payloads" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-28. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
  71. ^ "News". Archived from the original on 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-08.
  72. ^ "Fleet in Flight Radar". Archived from the original on 2017-09-25. Retrieved 2017-09-24.
  73. ^ "Ilyushin 76 Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine", Aerolift Archived 2007-03-12 at the Wayback Machine
  74. ^ a b c Cooper et al. 2011, p. 244
  75. ^ "Angola Air Charter". rzjets.net. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
  76. ^ a b Cooper et al. 2011, p. 245
  77. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "The Plane That Should NOT Have Been Flying". Mini Air Crash Investigation. 2020-11-25. Retrieved 17 January 2021 – via YouTube.
  78. ^ "Jordan International Air Cargo". Archived from the original on July 22, 2011.
  79. ^ a b Trgovao oružjem sa bivšim agentima KGB Archived 2015-06-10 at the Wayback Machine at Blic Online, 17-12-2009, retrieved 19-11-2013 (in Serbian)
  80. ^ "JUBA Cargo". Archived from the original on 2006-12-05. Retrieved 2006-12-30.
  81. ^ "Badr Airlines - Your Load in Good Hands!". June 24, 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-06-24.
  82. ^ "Ilyushin Il-76 hull losses". Aviation Safety Network. 9 August 2015. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  83. ^ Accident description for CCCP-86714 at the Aviation Safety Network
  84. ^ Accident description for CCCP-86732 at the Aviation Safety Network
  85. ^ "Accident description for CCCP-86021". Aviation Safety Network.
  86. ^ Accident description for RA-76513 at the Aviation Safety Network
  87. ^ Accident description for RA-78804 at the Aviation Safety Network
  88. ^ "IL-76 hits mountain". Flight International. 4 December 1996. Archived from the original on 2015-10-17.
  89. ^ "July 13, 1998: Cargo plane crashes off Ras Al Khaimah". gulfnews.com.
  90. ^ Astill, James (10 May 2003). "At 10,000 feet the door flipped open and scores of passengers were sucked out". The Guardian. Nairobi. Archived from the original on 2012-11-29.
  91. ^ "Safety Review" Archived 2014-01-04 at the Wayback Machine, Flight International, 20–26 January 2004 p. 39.
  92. ^ "Crash: Ababeel IL76 at Khartoum on June 30th 2008, hit ground immediately after takeoff".
  93. ^ Accident description for EK-76400 at the Aviation Safety Network
  94. ^ Accident description for RA-76827 at the Aviation Safety Network
  95. ^ Accident description for RA-76825 at the Aviation Safety Network
  96. ^ Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: Aerolift IL76 at Entebbe on Mar 9th 2009, impacted Lake Victoria after takeoff". The Aviation Herald. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  97. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 26 September 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  98. ^ "Iranian Military Planes Crashes in Annual Parade". Defensenews. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  99. ^ "Cargo Plane Crashes In Eastern Russia, 11 Dead". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Archived from the original on 27 January 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  100. ^ Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: Sun Way IL76 at Karachi on Nov 28th 2010, engine fire". The Aviation Herald. Archived from the original on 13 September 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  101. ^ Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: Silk Way IL76 near Bagram on Jul 6th 2011, impacted mountain". The Aviation Herald. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
  102. ^ "Cargo plane crash in Afghanistan". BBC News. 6 July 2009. Archived from the original on 2013-04-12.
  103. ^ "2012 Ilyushin 76T Accident". Accident description. aviation-safety.net. 30 November 2012. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  104. ^ "Plane crashes houses in Congo killing 30". heraldsun.com.au. Australian Associated Press (AAP). 30 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  105. ^ Walsh, Declan (11 April 2018). "Military Plane Crashes in Algeria, Killing at Least 257". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  106. ^ "Russian military cargo plane crashes, killing 5 crewmembers". ABC News. Retrieved 2022-06-24.
  107. ^ Reuters (2022-06-24). "Russian military cargo plane crashes, killing four - reports". Reuters. Retrieved 2022-06-24.
  108. ^ "IL-76TD-90." Archived 2009-11-03 at the Wayback Machine Ilyushin.
  109. ^ "PS-90A-76 Aircraft Engine." Archived 2012-04-01 at the Wayback Machine Aviadvigate.
  110. ^ "IL-76TD-90VD" (PDF). Volga-Dnepr Airlines. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-08-19.
  111. ^ Elodie Roux: Turbofan and Turbojet Engines: Database Handbook, Blagnac France, 2007, ISBN 9782952938013, p. 155

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cooper, Tom; Weinert, Peter; Hinz, Fabian; Lepko, Mark (2011). African MiGs, Volume 2: Madagascar to Zimbabwe. Houston: Harpia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9825539-8-5.
  • Eden, Paul (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London, UK: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
  • Hoyle, Craig (2021). "World Air Forces 2022". Flight International. Retrieved 12 December 2021.

External links[edit]