Ilyushin Il-76

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A Russian Air Force Il-76MD
Role Strategic and tactical airlifter
National origin Soviet Union / Russia
Design group Ilyushin
Built by Tashkent Aviation Production Association
First flight 25 March 1971
Introduction June 1974[1]
Status In service
Primary users Soviet Air Forces (historical)
Russian Aerospace Forces
Ukrainian Air Force
Indian Air Force
Produced 1971–present
Number built 969[2]
Variants Ilyushin Il-78
Beriev A-50
Beriev A-100

The Ilyushin Il-76 (Russian: Илью́шин Ил-76; NATO reporting name: Candid) is a multi-purpose, fixed-wing, four-engine turbofan strategic airlifter designed by the Soviet Union's Ilyushin design bureau as a commercial freighter in 1967, to replace the Antonov An-12. It was developed to deliver heavy machinery to remote, poorly served areas. Military versions of the Il-76 have been widely used in Europe, Asia and Africa, including use as an aerial refueling tanker or command center.

The Il-76 has seen extensive service as a commercial freighter for ramp-delivered cargo, especially for outsized or heavy items that cannot be carried by other means. It has also been used as an emergency response transport for civilian evacuations as well as for humanitarian aid and disaster relief around the world. Thanks to its ability to operate from unpaved runways, it has been useful in undeveloped areas. Specialized models have also been produced for aerial firefighting and zero-G training.

Design and development[edit]

The Il-76 is a high-wing freighter with four turbofans and a T-tail


The aircraft was conceived by Ilyushin in 1967 to meet a requirement for a freighter able to carry a payload of 40 tonnes (88,000 lb) over a range of 5,000 kilometres (2,700 nmi; 3,100 mi) in less than six hours, able to operate from short[vague] and unprepared airstrips, and capable of coping with the worst weather conditions likely to be experienced in Siberia and the Soviet Union's Arctic regions. It was intended to replace the Antonov An-12. Another project design for a double-decked 250-passenger airliner was cancelled. The Il-76 first flew in March 1971 (1971-03).[3]

Production of Il-76s was allocated to the Tashkent Aviation Production Association in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, then a republic of the Soviet Union. Some 860 of the basic transport variants were manufactured.[4] In the 1990s, modernized variants also equipped with Soloviev D-30 turbofan engines[5] were developed (MF, TF), with a cargo compartment 20 m (66 ft) long by 3.4 m (11 ft) wide by 3.4 m (11 ft) tall; these larger variants were not produced in significant quantity due to the financial difficulties being experienced by the Russian Air Force, which was the primary operator of the type.[citation needed]

Further development[edit]

From 2004 onwards, a number of aircraft in commercial service were modernized to the Il-76TD-90VD version; this involved the adoption of the newly developed PS-90 engine to comply with European noise limitations.[1] In 2005, the People's Republic of China placed an order for 34 new Il-76MDs and four Il-78 tankers.[citation needed] In June 2013, Russian military export agency Rosoboronexport announced an order by China for 12 Il-76MD aircraft.[6]

Landing gear of an Ilyushin Il-76
Landing of the Il-76 transport aircraft at the Brest airport

The Il-76 has also been modified into an airborne refuelling tanker, designated the Il-78, around 50 aircraft having been produced.[4] A variant of the Il-76 also serves as a firefighting waterbomber. Its airframe was used as a base for the Beriev A-50 'Mainstay' AEW&C (airborne early warning and control) aircraft; around 25 aircraft were made.[4] Another application for the type was found in Antarctic support flights and for conducting simulated weightlessness training for cosmonauts (akin to the "Vomit Comet" used by NASA).[7] Beriev and NPO Almaz also developed an airborne laser flying laboratory designated A-60, of which two were built, much of this project's details remaining classified.[8]


It was announced in 2010 that the production of a modernized Il-76, the Il-76MD-90A (also known as project Il-476 during the design stage), would begin; a proposed new production line would be located in Aviastar's facility in Ulyanovsk, Russia, and be operated in cooperation with the Tashkent works.[4] At that point, the construction of two Il-76MD-90A prototypes had begun at the Ulyanovsk facility.[9] The first Il-76MD-90A was rolled out at Aviastar's Ulyanovsk plant on 16 June 2014.[10] On 29 April 2015, it was reported that the Russian Aerospace Forces received the first Il-76MD-90A built at the Ulyanovsk plant "Aviastar-SP" from the 2012 contract for 39 aircraft.[11] The Russian Ministry of Defence (MoD) received its first serial production Ilyushin Il-76MD-90A airlifter on 2 April 2019.[12] As of late-2023, 27 aircraft are ordered to be delivered in the period up to 2028 and 20 had been built, 6 in 2023.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][excessive citations]

Operational history[edit]

The first aircraft was delivered to the Soviet Air Force in June 1974[1] and subsequently became the main Soviet strategic transport aircraft. From 1976, it was operated by Aeroflot.

Video of Il-76MD landing on an unpaved runway

Between 1979 and 1991, the Soviet Air Force Il-76s made 14,700 flights into Afghanistan, transporting 786,200 servicemen and 315,800 tons of freight. The Il-76 carried 89% of Soviet troops and 74% of the freight that was airlifted. As Afghan rebels were unable to shoot down high-flying Il-76s, their tactics were to try and damage it on takeoff or landing. Il-76s were often hit by shoulder-launched Stinger and Strela heat-seeking missiles and large-calibre machine gun fire, but because the strong airframes were able to take substantial damage and remain operational, the aircraft had a remarkably low attrition rate during this period of conflict. Building on that experience, the bulk of the Canadian Forces equipment into Afghanistan was flown in using civilian Il-76s.[27] In 2006, the Russian Air Force had about 200 Il-76s. Civilian users in Russia have 108.[4]

On 3 August 1995, an Airstan Ilyushin Il-76 piloted by a Russian crew was forced down by a Taliban-controlled Afghanistan Air Force fighter in what became known as the Airstan incident. The crew were imprisoned for nearly a year, but later escaped out of their confinement and managed to sneak into their aircraft still at the airport and fly out of Afghanistan.[28]

USAF and IAF airmen work inside the cockpit of an Indian Il-76.

In 2004, a Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) Il-76 carried out a flight mission in Afghanistan, and later in 2011, PLAAF Il-76s were sent to Libya to evacuate Chinese citizens. The two missions were the reported first steps of PLAAF developing long-range transportation capability.[29]

On 23 March 2007, a Transaviaexport Il-76 was shot down by an anti-aircraft missile while taking off from Mogadishu, Somalia. Everybody on board, seven crew and four passengers, were killed.[30]

Syrian Air Force Il-76s, operating as civil Syrianair aircraft, have been reportedly used to ship weapons, money, and other cargo from Russia and Iran to Syria, according to a defected Syrian military pilot. Since the start of the war, in April 2011 (and up to July 2012), around 20 military flights have been conducted to and from Tehran, via Iraqi airspace. Further information exposes that since around 2012, Syrian Il-76s have regularly flown to Moscow's Vnukovo Airport to fetch shipments of Syrian banknotes that have been useful to Bashar al-Assad's government to survive international sanctions.[31][32][33]

On 14 June 2014, a Ukrainian Air Force Il-76 was shot down by ground fire from pro-Russian separatists while on approach to landing at Luhansk, resulting in the deaths of 40 soldiers and nine crew members on board.[34][35][36]

On 30 January 2017, an IL-76 firebomber of the Russian EMERCOM agency was deployed to Chile to assist firefighters. The assignment took 39 days.[37]

All Il-76 transport aircraft in service with the RF Aerospace Forces were to receive anti-missile systems, and aircraft reconfiguration started in spring 2019.[38]

On 25 February 2022, during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, the Ukrainian State Special Communications Agency and US officials claimed that Russian Il-76s were shot down over Bila Tserkva.[39] As of September 2022, no wreckage of the planes has been found.[40]

On 4 April 2022, photographs of two destroyed Il-76s from the Ukrainian 25th Transport Aviation Brigade were displayed; these cargo planes were destroyed on the ground by Russian forces at Melitopol Airport.[41]

On 30 August 2023, four Il-76s were reportedly destroyed by Ukrainian kamikaze drone strikes at Pskov Airport.[42][43]

On 24 January 2024, an Il-76 crashed near Yablonovo in Russia's Belgorod Oblast near the Russian-Ukrainian border. In the immediate aftermath, multiple unsubstantiated, conflicting accounts regarding the circumstances of the crash were presented by Ukraine-aligned sources and Russian state media outlets and officials.[44][45]

On 12 March 2024, an Il-76 crashed near the Ivanovo Severny airbase, after a fire occurred in one engine, and the aircraft was unable to reach the airfield. All eight crew and seven passengers were killed in the crash.[46]


Prototypes and developmental variants[edit]

Il-76TD-90, Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines have larger diameter.
Il-76TD-90 / Il-76MD-90
Engine upgrades to Perm PS-90s.
Il-76 firebomber
Firefighting aircraft to drop exploding capsules filled with fire retardant.
SAR version of Il-76MF
Early development of convertible passenger/cargo aircraft, (project only, designation re-used later)
proposed Beriev A-50 with Perm PS-90 engines.
Beriev A-60
Airborne laser weapon testbed. (Il-76 version 1A)

Special purpose / research variants[edit]

Il-76LL with PD-14 engine prototype under testing, 2015
Il-76TD glass nose which is flight navigator's station
Il-76LL SKIP testbed, 1999
with reinforced wing (at least 3 aircraft) to be used as test-bed aeroplane for engine prototypes flight testing in Gromov Flight Research Institute.
prototype Il-76PP.
Telemetry and communications relay aircraft, for use during trial programmes (prototype).
Telemetry and communications relay aircraft, for use during trial programmes (prototype).
Izdeliye-976 ("SKIP", Il-976, or Il-76SK)[47] – (СКИП – Самолетный Контрольно-Измерительный Пункт, Airborne Check-Measure-and-Control Center)
Il-76/A-50 based Range Control and Missile tracking platform. Initially built to support Raduga Kh-55 cruise missile tests.
Special mission aircraft for unknown duties.
ELINT electronic intelligence aircraft, or Il-76-11
Il-76-Tu160 tailplane transporter
One-off temporary conversion to support Tu-160 emergency modification programme.
Zero-g cosmonaut trainer (dlya podgotovki kosmonavtov), used by Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center.
Engine testbed, (ooniversahl'naya letayuschchaya laboratoriya).
ECM aircraft, major problems with ECM equipment on the Izdeliye-176 only.
Maritime Search and Rescue aircraft, (alternative designation – Il-76PS – poiskovo-spasahtel'nyy), not produced.

Military variants[edit]

Il-76MD-90A of the Russian Aerospace Forces
Il-76MD GSh-23 tail guns
Il-76MD cargo cabin
('D' for "Desantnyi", Десантный – "Paratrooper transport") has a gun turret in the tail for defensive purposes.
Military transport version, (modifitseerovannyy – modified).
Improved military transport version, (modifitseerovannyy Dahl'ny – modified, long-range).
Il-76MD Skal'pel-MT
Mobile Hospital
Il-76M / Il-76MD
Built without military equipment but designated as Ms and MDs (Gordon – 'Falsies')
An Il-76MD with quieter and more economical Aviadvigatel PS-90 high-bypass turbofan engines.
Stretched military version with a 6.6 m longer fuselage, PS-90A-76 engines, maximum takeoff weight of 210 tonnes and a lift capability of 60 tonnes. First flew in 1995. Two built and delivered to the Royal Jordanian Air Force,[1] later sold to the Egyptian Air Force.
Modernized Il-76MD for the Russian Aerospace Forces.[48][49][50]
An upgraded version with a new glass cockpit, upgraded avionics, new one-piece carbon-fibre wing, and Aviadvigatel PS-90A-76 engines. It was also known as Il-476 while in development.[10][51]
Built as military aircraft but given civilian designations. (Gordon – 'Falsie')
Ilyushin Il-78/Il-78M/Il-78MD-90A
Aerial refuelling tanker.
Il-78 MKI
A customized version of the Il-78 developed for the Indian Air Force.
Airborne Command Post/communications relay aircraft, (alternative designation – Il-76VKP – 'version65S').
Beriev A-50/Beriev A-50M/Beriev A-50I/Beriev A-50E
Airborne Early Warning & Control aircraft. Beriev given control over the program.
Beriev A-100
An AEW&C version of the Il-76MD-90A. Currently in development, with at least two prototypes built.

Civil variants[edit]

A commercial variant of the Ilyushin Il-76, loading cargo at Ali Air Base, Iraq
An Il-76TD belonging to the IRGC, used as a firefighting aircraft
Initial commercial freighter. (two prototypes and 12 production) equipped with Soloviev D-30 Turbofan engines.[52]
Il-76MD to Il-76TD conversions
Complete removal of military equipment, identified by crude cover over OBIGGS inlet in Starboard Sponson.
Il-76P / Il-76TP / Il-76TDP / Il-76MDP
Firefighting aircraft. The Il-76 waterbomber is a VAP-2 1.5-hour install/removal tanking kit conversion. The Il-76 can carry up to 13,000 U.S. gallons (49,000 liters) of water; 3.5 times the capacity of the C-130 Hercules. Since this kit can be installed on any Il-76, the designation Il-76TP, Il-76TDP are also used when those versions of the Il-76 are converted into waterbombers. The Il-76P was first unveiled in 1990.
('T' for Transport, Транспортный) unarmed civil cargo transport version. NATO code-name "Candid-A". It first flew on November 4, 1978.
The civil equivalent of the Il-76MD, first flew in 1982, equipped with Soloviev D-30 Turbofan engines.[52]
An Il-76TD with Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines and a partial glass cockpit.
An Il-76TD with Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines and a partial glass cockpit. It was developed specially for Volga-Dnepr cargo company, which operates five aircraft as of 2021.[53]
Civilian mobile Hospital, similar to Il-76MD Skal'pel-MT.
Civil transport stretched version with Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines. It is the civil version of the Il-76MF (none produced).

Foreign variants[edit]

The A-50E/I Mainstay of the Indian Air Force
Beriev A-50E/I
For the Indian Air Force. Hosts Israeli Phalcon radar for AEW&C and Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines.[54]
Il-76MD tanker
Iraqi Air Force tanker conversions.
Domestic Chinese airborne early warning and control conversion of Il-76, developed after A-50I was cancelled and currently in service with the armed forces of China.
CFTE engine testbed
The China Flight Test Establishment (CFTE) currently operates a flying testbed converted from a Russian-made Il-76MD jet transport aircraft to serve as a flying testbed for future engine development programmes. The first engine to be tested on the aircraft is the WS-10A "Taihang" turbofan, currently being developed as the powerplant for China's indigenous J-10 and J-11 fighter aircraft. Il-76MD #76456, acquired by the AVIC 1 from Russia in the 1990s, is currently based at CFTE's flight test facility at Yanliang, Shaanxi Province.
Iraqi development with a radar mounted in the cargo hold enabling it to serve as AEW&C, used in the Iran–Iraq War.
Iraqi development (with French assistance) with fibreglass-reinforced plastic radome over the antenna of the Thomson-CSF Tiger G surveillance radar with a maximum detection range of 350 km (190 nmi; 220 mi). One was destroyed on the ground during the 1991 Persian Gulf War; two others were flown to Iran where they remained.[55] At least one went into service with the IRIAF. One aircraft crashed following a midair collision with a HESA Saeqeh fighter, during the annual Iranian military parade in Teheran.[56] It can be distinguished from the Beriev A-50 by having the Il-76 navigator windows in the nose, which the A-50 does not.


Present and former Il-76 operators
  Military operators
  Civilian operators
  Military and civilian operators

Military and civil operators in 38 countries have operated >850 Il-76 in large numbers. While Russia is the largest military operator of the Il-76, followed by Ukraine and India, Belarus' TransAVIAexport Airlines is the largest civilian operator.

Military operators[edit]

People's Liberation Army Air Force Il-76 landing at Perth Airport, Australia. This aircraft took part in the Search for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370.
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Equatorial Guinea
Indian Air Force Il-76 landing at Kushok Bakula Rimpochee Airport located in Leh.
A Russian Air Force Il-76MD at Chkalovsky Air Base.
Uzbekistan Air and Air Defence Forces Il-76 landing at Beijing Capital International Airport.

Former military operators[edit]

Il-76 of the Soviet Air Forces.
 Soviet Union
  • Soviet Air Forces – Largest former operator of the type, with hundreds of aircraft of multiple variants in service. Passed on to successor states.[61]

Civil operators[edit]

A Pouya Air Il-76 landing at Mehrabad Airport in Dec 2023.
A TransAVIAexport Ilyushin Il-76TD at Frankfurt Airport.
A pair of Air Koryo Ilyushin Il-76 aircraft at Pyongyang International Airport.
 North Korea
 United Nations
 United States
  • Air Support Systems, LLC operates the Il-76/78 in firefighting duties in the US.[citation needed]
 United Arab Emirates
  • Gulf Aviation Technology and Services operates a number of Il-76 aircraft on charter or lease.
  • Phoenix Aviation used to operate 2 Il-76TDs.[citation needed]

Former civil operators[edit]

  • Global Aviation Services[70]
 Burkina Faso
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Republic of the Congo
 Equatorial Guinea
  • Sun Way has operated the Il-76TD.[72]
GST Aero IL-76 at Patriot Hills Base Camp, Antarctica
  • Imtrec aviation of Cambodia used to operate Laos registered Il-76TD.
  • Inversija operated three, including two Il-76Ts and one Il-76TD.
  • Transafrica Airlines
  • Aerocom operated an Il-76MD as well as an Il-76T until as late as January 2005.
  • Airline Transport operated a number of Il-76 aircraft, losing three in accidents in 2004 and 2005.
  • Jet Line International used to operate the Il-76.[76]
  • Tiramavia
  • Aeroflot operated large numbers of aircraft, especially during Soviet years, often on behalf of the Soviet military. However, none remain in service with the airline.
  • Air STAN operated an Il-76TD.
  • ALAK operated Il-76 aircraft before its closure in 1999.
  • Aviaenergo operated the aircraft, but none remain in service.
  • Continental Airways has operated the Il-76 in the past, but does not do so currently.
  • Dacono Air has operated the Il-76.
  • Domodedovo Airlines has operated the Il-76, but none is currently in service.
  • East Line used to operate the Il-76.
  • Ilavia Airline used to operate six, including two Il-76MDs and four Il-76TDs.
  • KrasAir operated the Il-76, but none is currently in service.
  • Krylo Airlines operated two Il-76TDs into 2005.
  • Moscow Airways operated an Il-76TD in the early 1990s.
  • Novosibirsk Air Enterprise operated the Il-76, but none is currently in service.
  • Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise operated the Il-76, but none is currently in service.
  • Red Wings Airlines used to operate two Il-76TDs.
  • Spair Airlines
  • Tesis Aviation Enterprise used to operate nine Il-76TDs.
  • Tyumen Airlines
  • Uralinteravia
 Sierra Leone
  • Aerolift Sierra Leone used to operate Il-76 aircraft for special charter and cargo lift operations.[78]
 Soviet Union
  • Aeroflot was the main civil user of the aircraft during the period of the Soviet Union, although many of its aircraft were operated on behalf of the military.
  • Jet Air Cargo was one of the first civil operators of the Il-76 in Russia other than Aeroflot.
Loading BMD-1 in Ukrainian Air Force IL-76
  • Air Service Ukraine operated the Il-76MD.
  • Air Ukraine and Air Ukraine Cargo operated the aircraft, although none were in service at the time of bankruptcy.
  • Azov Avia Airlines operated two Il-76MDs.
  • BSL Airline operated as many as six Il-78s.
  • Busol Airlines operated the Il-76 before its closure in 1998.
  • Khors Aircompany operated two Il-76MDs.
  • Ukrainian Cargo Airways operated 21, including 19 Il-76MDs.
  • South Airlines


An Il-76MD that was damaged during the Sknyliv air show disaster on 27 July 2002, during which the Sukhoi Su-27 involved struck a glancing blow against the aircraft's nose before crashing into spectators

As of January 2024, a total of 95 Il-76 series aircraft have been written off in crashes and other accidents. Previous 94 aircraft details can be found here. [82]

  • On 23 November 1979, a Soviet Air Forces Il-76, registration CCCP-86714, banked left during an approach to Vitebsk Airport. Control of the aircraft was lost and the aircraft crashed, killing the crew of seven; this was the first loss of an Il-76.[83]
  • On 11 December 1988, an Aeroflot Il-76 crashed on approach to Leninakan, Armenia killing 77 of the 78 on board. The aircraft was on an air relief operation following the 1988 Armenian earthquake.[84]
  • On 18 October 1989, a Soviet Air Force Il-76 (CCCP-76569) crashed in the Caspian Sea off Sumqayit, Azerbaijan following wing separation caused by an engine fire, killing all 57 in Azerbaijan's deadliest air accident. The cause of the engine fire was traced back to a design flaw.
  • On 1 February 1990, a Soviet Air Forces Il-76 registration СССР-86021 crashed 14 minutes after takeoff from Panevėžys Air Base, killing all 8 members of the crew.[85]
  • On 24 May 1991, a Metro Cargo Il-76TD (LZ-INK, named Lugano), crashed near Kermanshah Airport while attempting a forced landing following fuel exhaustion, killing four of ten crew.[86]
  • On 8 July 1993, a Russian Air Force Il-76M (RA-86039) crashed near Pskov Airport due to loss of control following an unexplained in-flight fire, killing the 11 crew.[87]
  • On 19 August 1996, Spair Airlines Flight 3601, an Il-76T, crashed while trying to land at Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport following total electrical failure due to pilot error, killing all 14 occupants on board.[88] The crew had forgotten to turn on the AC/DC converter following engine startup.
  • On 12 November 1996, Kazakhstan Airlines Flight 1907, an Il-76, collided in mid-air with Saudia Flight 763 (a Boeing 747) over Charkhi Dadri, India, killing all 349 aboard both aircraft in the deadliest mid-air collision. The Kazakh crew failed to maintain altitude owing to confusion with ATC.
  • On 27 November 1996, a Russian Air Force Ilyushin Il-76MD, registration RA-78804, flew into the side of a mountain, minutes after it departed Abakan Airport, and crashed 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) from the airport. All 21 occupants on board died in the accident.[89][90]
  • On 13 July 1998, ATI Aircompany Flight 2570, an Il-76MD (UR-76424), crashed in the sea shortly after takeoff from Ras Al Khaimah International Airport, killing the eight crew. The aircraft was overloaded and the pilot failed to respond to GPWS warnings.[91]
  • On 17 July 1998, Air Sofia Flight 701, an Il-78 (UR-UCI) struck a hill on approach to Asmara International Airport, killing all ten on board. The aircraft was leased from Ukrainian Cargo Airways.[92]
  • On 2 December 2001, Armed Forces of the Russian Federation Flight 9064 crashed at Novaya Inya, Russia, following an onboard fire, killing 18 on board.[93]
  • On 19 February 2003, an Ilyushin Il-76 crashed near Kerman, Iran under unspecified reasons (possibly weather-related). The crash killed 275 people, including hundreds of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard. The accident remains the deadliest involving the Il-76.[94]
  • On 8 May 2003, the rear loading ramp of an Il-76 leased by the Congolese government unexpectedly opened at 10,000 feet after taking off from the capital Kinshasa. Initial reports stated that over 120 policemen and their families had been sucked out in 45 minutes,[95] but 14 people actually died.[96]
  • On 30 June 2008, an Ababeel Aviation Il-76 crashed while taking off from Khartoum on a relief flight, killing the 4 crew members, the only people on board the plane.[97]
  • On 2 July 2008, Click Airways Flight 1002, operated using an Ilyushin Il-76TD from Bagram Air Base to Al-Fujairah-Fujairah International Airport, suffered an Uncontained Engine Failure of its no. 3 engine at FL280. The failed engine parts struck the no. 4 engine resulting in its failure, as well as the fuselage and fuel tanks. The flight crew managed to successfully make an emergency landing at Zahedan, Iran. None of the three crew sustained injuries.[98]
  • On 15 January 2009, two Russian Ministry of Interior Il-76MDs were involved in a ground collision at Makhachkala Airport. One of the aircraft, registration RA-76825, was ready to depart and was positioned at the runway end when the other one, RA-76827, came in to land. The wing of the landing aircraft struck the flight deck of RA-76825 and a fire erupted. There were three fatalities in the departing aircraft, out of seven occupants on board. None of the 31 occupants aboard RA-76827 were hurt. RA-76825 was written off as a consequence of the accident.[99][100]
  • On 9 March 2009, an Aerolift Il-76 (S9-SAB) crashed into Lake Victoria just after takeoff from Entebbe Airport, Uganda, killing all 11 people on board. Two of the engines had caught fire on takeoff. The aircraft was chartered by Dynacorp on behalf of AMISOM. The accident was investigated by Uganda's Ministry of Transport, which concluded that all four engines were time-expired and that Aerolift's claim that maintenance had been performed to extend their service lives and the certification of this work could not be substantiated.[101]
  • On 22 September 2009, Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force Il-76MD Adnan 2 "5-8208" Simorgh crashed near Varamin killing all seven people on board.[102] The crash was possibly the result of a mid-air collision with a Northrop F-5E Tiger II.[103]
  • On 1 November 2009, an Il-76 belonging to the Russian Ministry of the Interior crashed near the city of Mirny within 2 kilometers after taking off. Eleven people on board were confirmed as killed.[104] [105]
  • On 28 November 2010, Sun Way Flight 4412, Il-76 4L-GNI, crashed in a populated area of Karachi, Pakistan, shortly after taking off from Jinnah International Airport. All eight people on board were killed, along with two people on the ground. The aircraft was reported to have been trying to return to Jinnah after suffering an uncontained engine failure and fire.[106]
  • On 6 July 2011, Silk Way Airlines Flight 995, an Il-76, tail number 4K-AZ55, crashed into a mountain in Afghanistan, while on final to Bagram Air Force Base. Eight people on board were initially confirmed as killed, with one unaccounted.[107][108]
  • On 30 November 2012, an Aéro-Service[69] Il-76T (also reported as being operated by Trans Air Congo in the days after the accident[109]) crashed 850 meters short of runway 5L of the Congo's Maya-Maya Airport in Brazzaville while landing during a violent storm, killing 32, including the 5 aircrew, another person on board and 26 people on the ground.[110]
  • On 1 July 2016, a Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM) Il-76TD (RA-76840) struck a hillside near Rybnyi Uyan while fighting wildfires near Irkutsk, killing all ten on board.[111]
  • On 11 April 2018, Algerian Air Force Ilyushin Il-76 7T-WIV crashed shortly after take-off from Boufarik Airport, Boufarik, Algeria. All 257 people on board were killed, making the accident the deadliest air crash on Algerian soil.[112]
  • On 24 June 2022, Russian Aerospace Forces Il-76MD RF-78778 crashed and caught fire whilst landing near the city of Ryazan following an engine fire, killing five of nine on board.[113][114]
  • On 23 September 2023, an Il-76 operated by the Malian Armed Forces crashed upon landing at Gao Airport, Mali. According to the French newspaper Le Monde, Malian officials confirmed the aircraft's being owned by the Army and having Wagner Group members on board.[115] The aircraft overshot more than half of the available runway before touching down. For reasons unkown the crew failed to execute a Go-Around in due time which led to the aircraft rolling down the embankment at the end of the runway. The aircraft exploded killing all personnel on board.[116]
  • On the night of 19-20 October 2023, a Il-76MD military transport plane caught fire during take-off from a military airfield in Dushanbe, the capital of Tajikistan. A wheel exploded on the plane during acceleration, causing a fire to break out. The plane rolled out of the runway and burned down completely. It is known that there were eight people on board. The crew was not injured.[117]
  • On 24 January 2024, a Russian Air Force Ilyushin Il-76 crashed in the Korochansky District in the Belgorod Oblast of Russia. The Russian Ministry of Defense stated it was carrying 65 Ukrainian Armed Forces POW, with 6 crew members and 3 security forces at the time.[118] This was refuted by Ukrainian sources citing flight direction, photos of the crash site and other classified information leaked from Russia.[119][120]
  • On 12 March 2024, an Il-76 crashed in Ivanovo oblast. According to RIA Novosti, the engine caught on fire after the take-off from the Ivanovo air base, and the aircraft crashed when attempting an emergency landing back at the air base. There were eight crew members and seven passengers.[121]

Aircraft on display[edit]

  • CCCP-76511 (c/n 083414444) preserved in the Ukraine State Aviation Museum, Kyiv. The aircraft was originally painted as UR-UCI of Ukrainian Cargo Airways to commemorate the real aircraft that crashed in 1998, but was returned to its original Aeroflot livery as CCCP-76511 in 2016.[122]

Specifications (Il-76TD)[edit]

Data from Ilyushin,[123] Aviadvigatel,[124] Volga-Dnepr Airlines.[125]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 5
  • Capacity: Il-76M 42,000 kg (92,594 lb); Il-76MD 48,000 kg (105,822 lb); Il-76MD-90A 60,000 kg (132,277 lb)
  • Length: 46.59 m (152 ft 10 in)
  • Wingspan: 50.5 m (165 ft 8 in)
  • Height: 14.76 m (48 ft 5 in)
  • Wing area: 300 m2 (3,200 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 92,500 kg (203,928 lb) Il-76TD-90
  • Max takeoff weight: 190,000 kg (418,878 lb) Il-76MD/TD
  • Powerplant: 4 × Soloviev D-30KP turbofans, 117.7 kN (26,500 lbf) thrust each [126]


  • Maximum speed: 900 km/h (560 mph, 490 kn)
  • Maximum speed: Mach 0.82
  • Range: 4,400 km (2,700 mi, 2,400 nmi) Il-76MD/TD with 52,000 kg (114,640 lb) payload.
  • Ferry range: 9,300 km (5,800 mi, 5,000 nmi) Il-76MD-90A with no payload.
  • Service ceiling: 13,000 m (43,000 ft)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.252
  • Minimum landing run: 450 m (1,476 ft) with thrust reversers


  • Guns: 2× 23 mm cannon in radar-directed manned turret at base of tail
  • Bombs: Some military models have 2 hardpoints under each outer wing capable of supporting 500 kg bombs.

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

In popular culture[edit]



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External links[edit]