|Role||Widebody jet airliner|
|Built by||Voronezh Aircraft Production Association|
|First flight||28 September 1988|
|Introduction||29 December 1992 with Aeroflot|
US$ 40–50 million
|Developed from||Ilyushin Il-86|
The Ilyushin Il-96 (Russian: Илью́шин Ил-96) is a Russian four-engined long-haul wide-body airliner designed by Ilyushin in the former Soviet Union and manufactured by the Voronezh Aircraft Production Association in Voronezh, Russia. It is powered by four Aviadvigatel PS-90 two-shaft turbofan engines.
Design and development
The Ilyushin Il-96 is a shortened, long-range, and advanced technology development of the Soviet Union's first widebody airliner, the Ilyushin Il-86. It features supercritical wings fitted with winglets, a glass cockpit, and a fly-by-wire control system. It was first flown in 1988 and certified in 1992. The basic Il-96-300 is equipped with modern Russian avionics integrating six multi-function colour LCD displays, inertial and satellite navigation systems, and a Traffic Collision Avoidance System (including mode "S"). It allows the airplane to be operated with two crew members. The avionics correspond to modern requirements on international routes in Europe and North America (RNP-1) and allow navigation and landing under ICAO CAT III/A conditions. The Il-96 is offered in three main variants: the Il-96-300, Il-96M/T and Il-96-400.
The Il-96-300 has a standard passenger capacity of 262 seats in a two-class configuration with 18 seats with a seat pitch of 54 inches (140 cm) and 244 seats with a pitch of 32 inches (81 cm), of which typical seating is 3-3-3 (layout), but low density seating is 2-4-2 (layout possible). Galleys are positioned on the upper deck, and the lower deck can accommodate 18 LD-3 containers and crew rest areas. Although its list price is more than 30% lower than equivalent Western types, Russian airlines are not particularly eager to buy it.
In June 2005, the Volga-Dnepr Group signed a 15-year financial agreement with Ilyushin Finance Corporation (IFC) to take delivery of two new-build Il-96-400T aircraft, to be operated by Volga-Dnepr's subsidiary AirBridge Cargo. The first was due to have been delivered in late 2006.
On 11 August 2009 Russian Minister of Industry and Trade Viktor Khristenko announced that manufacturing of the Il-96-300 would cease. In particular, the Il-96-300 had been deemed inferior to counterparts from Boeing and Airbus, and the manufacturer could not arrange commercially viable mass production, making only one aircraft per year. The Il-96-400T cargo version was to remain in production.
On 9 October 2015, it was announced that an updated version of the Il-96 may be produced. This decision was taken due to the current diplomatic situation between Russia and the West, and the dependency of the Russian Aerospace Industry on Airbus and Boeing.
There are two variants of the Il-96. The Il-96-300 was launched in 1985 with introduction into service in 1993. The Il-96M was launched in 1993 with introduction into service in 2000.
The Il-96-300 is the initial variant and is fitted with Aviadvigatel (Soloviev) PS90A turbofans with a thrust rating of 16,000 kgf (157 kN, 35,300 lbf). Development started in mid-80s while the first prototype flew on 28 September 1988. The first Il-96 entered service with Aeroflot in 1993.
Range with 262 passengers and fuel reserves (for holding 75 minutes at an altitude of 450 m) in a two-class configuration is about 11,000 km (5,940 nmi), allowing flights from Moscow to US west coast cities, a far improvement over the Ilyushin Il-86. A highly customized version of the Il-96-300, called Il-96-300PU is used as the primary aircraft in the Russian presidential aircraft fleet. Four were used by Russian president Vladimir Putin, and by Dmitry Medvedev as VIP planes. The VIP aircraft is operated by Russia State Transport Company.
The Il-96M is a stretched variant of the Il-96-300. It features a 10 m (30 ft) fuselage stretch, is 15 tonnes (33,000 lb) heavier, is fitted with Western-style avionics, and is powered by four Pratt & Whitney PW2337 engines with a thrust rating of 165 kN (37,000 lbf). Range with 312 passengers in a three-class configuration or 92 tonne (203,000 lb) payload is about 10,400 km (5,600 nmi). This turned it into a true—but vastly more capable—Il-86 successor. The Il-96M/T is broadly comparable with the Airbus A330-300 and McDonnell Douglas MD-11CF, but is much cheaper. Development on the M/T variant stalled when the US Export-Import Bank suspended talks on financing the engines and avionics, following pressure from Boeing. The dispute was later settled following an Aeroflot order for ten Boeing 737-400s—placed in April 1997 in a deal worth US$440 million— that were granted a tax exemption by the Russian government; nevertheless, the financing was blocked again when four Boeing 767-300ERs also ordered by Aeroflot were not included in the accorded exemption. The deal was never realised.
The Il-96-400 is similar to the Il-96M, but features Russian avionics and engines. It is powered by four Aviadvigatel PS90-A1 turbofans and can carry up to 436 passengers. Typical two-class configuration will have 386 passengers. Range with 315 passengers in a three-class configuration is about 10,000 km. A special version, dubbed Il-96-400VT, was reported on Friday 19 March 2010 by the Wall Street Journal to bid on the US $40 billion Air Force Tanker Program contract. In February 2013, Cubana signed a deal for the order of three 350-seater Ilyushin Il-96-400s.
In February 2017, it was announced that Russia’s United Aircraft Corporation had signed a contract with its subsidiary Ilyushin Aviation Complex for the development of a new version of Ilyushin Il-96-400 wide-body passenger airliner. The first flight of the new aircraft is scheduled for 2019. Il-96-400M is the passenger version of the Il-96-400T cargo aircraft. Its fuselage is 9.65 m longer than the existing Il-96-300 passenger variant. The planned seating capacity is 390 passengers.
In January 2015, a new tanker variant of the Il-96, designated the Il-96-400TZ, was introduced, with an initial order for two aircraft placed by the Russian Ministry of Defense. The new tanker will be able to transfer more than 65 tons (IL-78M 40 tons) of fuel at a distance of up to 3500 km (Il-78M 2000 km). Universal aviation refueling systems ORM-1, proven on existing combat aircraft tankers Il-78/78М, will be installed on the aircraft.
As of December 2016, current operators of the Ilyushin Il-96 are:
|Operator||Aircraft Type||In Service||On Order||Stored|
|Cubana de Aviación||Il-96-300||4||3||1|
|Rossiya (government fleet)||Il-96-300||10||—||—|
|Russian Ministry of Defence||Il-96-400TZ||—||2||—|
Accidents and incidents
- On 3 June 2014, RA-96010 of Aeroflot, which had been retired from service, was damaged beyond economical repair in a fire whilst parked in storage at Sheremetyevo International Airport, Moscow.
|Length||55.3 m (181 ft 7 in)||64.7 m (212 ft 3 in)||63.939 m (209 ft 9.28 in)|
|Span||60.11 m (197 ft 3 in)|
|Wing area||350 m² (3767.9 ft²)|
|Flaps/Slats||I – 2°/3° (275 KIAS), II 3°/25° (264 KIAS), III – 10°/25° (243 KIAS),
IV – 25°/25° (210 KIAS) for Takeoff, V – 40°/25° (189 KIAS) for Landing
|Cabin width||5.70 m (18.70 ft)|
|Fuselage Diameter||6.08 m (19.94 ft)|
|Height||15.7 m (57 ft 7 in)|
|Operating Empty Weight||120,400 kg (265,198 lb)||132,400 kg (291,630 lb)||116,400 kg (256,387 lb)||122,300 kg (269,383 lb)|
|Max. Zero Fuel Weight||180,000 kg (403,000 lb)||208,400 kg (459,030 lb)|
|Max. Landing Weight||183,000 kg (403,083 lb)||220,000 kg (484,581 lb)||220,000 kg (484,581 lb)||220,000 kg (484,581 lb)|
|Max. Take-off Weight||250,000 kg (551,000 lb)||270,000 kg (595,000 lb)||270,000 kg (594,713 lb)||265,000 kg (583,700 lb)|
|Max. Payload||40,000 kg (88,105 lb)||58,000 kg (127,753 lb)||92,000 kg (202,643 lb)||58,000 kg (127,753 lb)|
|Takeoff Run at MTOW||2,340 m (7,677 ft)||3,000 m (9,843 ft)||2,700 m (8,858 ft)||2,700 m (8,858 ft)|
|Landing Run||860 m (2,821 ft)||1,800 m (5,906 ft)||1,650 m (5,511 ft)||1,650 m (5,511 ft)|
|Cruising speed||0.78 to 0.84 Mach or 850 to 870 km/h TAS (459 to 469 KTAS)|
|Maximum speed (Vmo)||0.84 Mach or 900 km/h IAS (485 KIAS)|
|Service ceiling||13,100 m (43,000 Ft)|
|Cruise Altitude||9,000 to 12,000 m (29,527 to 39,370 Ft)|
|Range with max. payload||11,500 km (6,209 nmi)||12,800 km (6,907 nmi)||5,000 km (2,699 nmi)||10,000 km (5,400 nmi)|
|Range with max. fuel||13,500 km (7,289 nmi)||15,000 km (8,100 nmi)||12,000 km (6,479 nmi)||12,000 km (6,479 nmi)|
|Max. Fuel capacity||152,620 l (40,322 US gal)|
|Engines (x4)||Aviadvigatel PS-90A||Pratt & Whitney
(only test flights)
|Pratt & Whitney PW2337
|Thrust (x4)||PS-90A: 156.9 kN
|PW2337: 166.8 kN
|PS-90A1: 170.7 kN
|Engine Dry Weight (x4)||2,950 kg
|PW2337: 3,314 kg
|Cockpit crew||Three||Two||Two (op. Three)|
|3-class Seating capacity||237||307||315|
|2-class Seating capacity||263||340||386|
|1-class Seating capacity||300||420||436|
|Cargo Capacity||F.H.1: 9,000 kg (Front)
F.H.2: 15,000 kg (Back)
F.H.3: 1,000 kg (Back)
6 LD3 (front)
10 LD3 (Rear)
|580 m³ main deck
114 m³ front lower deck
82 m³ rear lower deck
18 LD3 (Front)
14 LD3 (Rear)
|114 m³ front lower deck
82 m³ rear lower deck
18 LD3 (Front)
14 LD3 (Rear)
Data from Ilyushin Aviation Complex, FAA Certification Document A54NM and Il-96-300 Pilot Manual
- Integrated communication and navigation control panel and flight management system
- Upgraded EFIS with LCD indicators
- Inertial navigation system
- Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System
- Weather radar
- Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System with satellite communication.
- Flight Data Recorder and Cockpit Voice Recorder
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- "В России воссоздадут конкурента Boeing и Airbus". Новости Mail.Ru.
- "✈ russianplanes.net ✈ наша авиация".
- Стрюк, Игорь. "22.07.2016: Новый Ил-96 передан специальному летному отряду "Россия"". Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- "Volga-Dnepr Group signs up for two new Il-96-400T aircraft". VOLGA-DNEPR GROUP. 27 March 2005. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- Gómez Lluciá, Julio (January 3, 2006). "Realiza su primer vuelo oficial IL 96-300 de" (in Spanish). Granma. Archived from the original on March 4, 2008.
- Kolobkov, Sergei (August 11, 2009). "The short-lived Il-96-300" (in Russian). RBC Daily. Archived from the original on August 14, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "Ilyushin Il-96 Production List". Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- "Il-96-400". Ilyushin. Archived from the original on September 19, 2008.
- John Pike. "Il-96-400VT Aerial Tanker". Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "Cubana buys Antonov An-158 and Il-96-400s". Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "MAKS: Russia extends Il-96 production by several years". Flightglobal. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- "bmpd". livejournal.com.
- "Минобороны России закупит новые самолеты-топливозаправщики". function.mil.ru. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- "Tu-204/214 registry | Tu-204/214 production list". russianplanes.net. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- Hradecky, Simon. "Accident: Aeroflot IL96 at Moscow on Jun 3rd 2014, caught fire while parked". The Aviation Herald. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Flight – Airline Industry news, aviation jobs & airline recruitment". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2009-12-20.[dead link]
- The Vmo values for military operation are higher
- All the PS-90A turbofan can be upgraded to the new PS-90A2 version, with the latest generation FADEC of western design and many other improvements. The maintenance costs are reduced by 40%. The fuel consumption (SFC) of this version is equivalent to current Western turbofans. PS-90A2 variant meets the ETOPS-180 rules, ICAO-4 and AP-33 (equivalent to FAR-33/JAR-33). The Maximum thrust is 16,000 kg or 18,000 kg. 
- Ilyushin has not ruled out the possibility to install other engines (PW, RR, or CFM), depending on the number of requests from customers.
- "Il-96-300". ILYUSHIN a UAC company. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
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