This is a good article. Click here for more information.

Imelda Marcos

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This name uses Philippine naming customs for married women. The birth middle name or maternal family name is Trinidad, the birth surname or paternal family name is Romuáldez, and the marital name is Marcos.
Imelda Marcos
photograph of Imelda Marcos
Marcos in 1984 during a reenactment of General MacArthur's 1944 landing at Red Beach
10th First Lady of the Philippines
In office
30 December 1965 – 25 February 1986
President Ferdinand Marcos
Preceded by Eva Macapagal
Succeeded by Vacant (Ballsy Aquino-Cruz, de facto)
Governor of Metro Manila
In office
27 February 1975 – 25 February 1986
President Ferdinand Marcos
Preceded by Office created
Succeeded by Jejomar Binay
Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Leyte's First District
In office
30 June 1995 – 30 June 1998
President Fidel Ramos
Preceded by Cirilo Roy Montejo
Succeeded by Alfred Romuáldez
Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Ilocos Norte's Second District
Assumed office
30 June 2010
President Benigno Aquino III
Preceded by Ferdinand Marcos Jr.
Personal details
Born
  • Imelda Remedios Visitación
  • Romuáldez y Trinidad

(1929-07-02) 2 July 1929 (age 87)
Manila, Philippine Islands
Nationality Filipino
Political party Nacionalista (1965–1978; 2009–present)
Other political
affiliations
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (1978–2013)
Spouse(s) Ferdinand Marcos (m. 1954; d. 1989)
Children
Residence Makati
Musical career
Genres Kundiman
Instruments Vocals
Years active 1950–present

Imelda Romuáldez Marcos (born 2 July 1929) is the widow of the Philippine dictator Ferdinand Marcos, the 10th president.[1] She served as First Lady from 1965 to 1986 during the dictatorship of her husband. She remains one of the richest politicians in the Philippines through her collection of clothing, artwork, and jewelry, along with money in offshore bank accounts under the pseudonym "Jane Ryan". As a result, she has been called a kleptocrat by her critics who accuse her of plunder.[2]

Marcos was born in Manila but moved to Tacloban prior to World War II after the death of her mother. She returned to Manila in 1950 to pursue a career as a singer and as a beauty queen. In 1954, she married Ferdinand Marcos, who became president of the Philippines in 1965, and in 1972 declared martial law. As first lady, she built developments in and around the metropolis of Manila while spending much of her time abroad on state visits and shopping sprees.

The assassination of opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr. in 1983 caused mass protests that eventually led to the People Power Revolution. The Marcos family were forced into exile, and Aquino's widow Corazon was installed as president. After the death of her husband Ferdinand, she returned to the Philippines and was later elected four times to the House of Representatives as a congresswoman for Leyte in 1995 and for Ilocos Norte in 2010, 2013 and 2016.

Marcos is infamous for her extravagance. This included owning more than a thousand pairs of shoes, some of which are now housed in a museum in Marikina. She worked as a fashion designer and model. She has sometimes been referred to as the "Steel Butterfly", by her supporters.[3]

Early life[edit]

Imelda Remedios Visitación Romuáldez y Trinidad was born on July 2, 1929,[4] in Manila, Philippines to Remedios Trinidad (died 1938) and Vicente Romuáldez.[5] Her uncle was Philippine Supreme Court Associate Justice Norberto Romuáldez.[6] The Romuáldez paternal ancestors were from a land-owning family in Tolosa, Leyte with mixed Visayan and Spanish ancestry.[7] She has five other siblings, including Benjamin Romualdez (1930–2012).[8] After their mother died in 1938, the family moved to Tacloban.[9] She claimed to have met Douglas MacArthur when he landed in Palo, Leyte at the end of World War II.[10] She speaks Tagalog and English, the languages of Manila, as well as Waray, the language of Leyte.[3] She is Roman Catholic.[11][12]

She returned to Manila in 1950 at the request of her cousin Daniel Z. Romualdez, where she worked in a music store on Escolta street as a singer to attract customers.[13] She entered the Miss Manila beauty pageant in which she came second but was named the Muse of Manila after contesting the result.[14][15] She briefly dated Benigno Aquino, Jr. in the early 1950s before she met her future husband.[13] On May 1, 1954, she married Ferdinand Marcos, a Nacionalista Party congressman from Ilocos Norte.[16][17] The marriage resulted in four children: Imee (born on November 12, 1955), Ferdinand Jr. (born on September 13, 1957), and Irene (born on September 16, 1960),[18] and an adopted girl named Aimee.[19][20]

First Lady[edit]

Marcos served as First Lady after her husband Ferdinand was elected on November 9, 1965 as the 10th President of the Philippines.[21][22] Her role in the presidency was controversial partly because she was involved in altercations with celebrities.[23] One such was with The Beatles when the band allegedly snubbed her invitation for a state dinner at the presidential palace.[24] Another such was with Dovie Beams because of the actress' alleged relations with Ferdinand.[25][26] On September 23, 1972, Ferdinand declared martial law and rewrote the constitution of the country.[27][28]

As First Lady, she became "the other half of the conjugal dictatorship."[1][29] She stirred controversy after an assassination attempt against her occurred on December 7, 1972, when an assailant tried to stab her with a bolo knife but was shot by the police.[30]The motive appeared to have been her role in her husband's presidency but human rights dissidents believed it was staged by the government.[31][32]

Marcos orchestrated public events using national funds to bolster her and her husband's image.[33][34] She secured the Miss Universe 1974 pageant in Manila,[35] which required the construction of the Folk Arts Theater in less than three months.[36][37] She organized the Kasaysayan ng Lahi,[38] a festival showcasing Philippine history.[38] She also initiated social programs, such as the Green Revolution,[39] which was intended to address hunger by encouraging the people to plant produce in household gardens,[39] and created a national family-planning program.[40] During the early 1970s, she took control of the distribution of bread called nutribun, which actually came from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).[41][42]

In 1978, she was appointed a member of the Interim Batasang Pambansa (National Congress) representing Region IV-A.[43] She was also appointed as Ambassador Plenipotentiary and Extraordinary,[44] allowing her to tour the United States, the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia,and Cuba.[45][44][46] Throughout her travels, she became friends with Richard Nixon,[47] Muammar Gaddafi, Saddam Hussein, Fidel Castro, and Joseph Tito.[44][46] She traveled to Iraq to secure oil and to Libya for a peace treaty with the Moro National Liberation Front.[44][48]

Imelda Marcos held the position of Minister of Human Settlements, allowing her to construct the Cultural Center of the Philippines, the Philippine Heart Center, the Lung Center of the Philippines, the Philippine International Convention Center, the Coconut Palace, the Manila Film Center,[49] and the Calauit Safari Park.[50] She purchased property in Manhattan in the 1980s, including the US$51 million Crown Building,[51][52] the Woolworth Building in 40 Wall Street, and the US$60 million Herald Centre.[53] She declined to buy the Empire State Building because she felt it was "too ostentatious."[54][55]

Power struggle[edit]

Imelda Marcos was instrumental in the 1980 exile of opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr., who had suffered a heart attack during his imprisonment.[56] Martial law in the Philippines was later lifted in 1981 but Ferdinand Marcos continued to be president.[57] While her husband began to suffer from lupus erythematosus, she effectively ruled in his place.[58] Aquino returned in 1983 but was assassinated at the Manila International Airport upon his arrival.[59] With accusations against her beginning to rise, Ferdinand created the Agrava Commission, a fact-finding committee, to investigate her, ultimately finding her not guilty.[60][61][62]

On February 7, 1986, snap elections were held between Ferdinand Marcos and Corazon Aquino, the widow of Benigno Aquino Jr.[57] Despite her husband claiming to have won the elections, allegations of vote rigging led to mass protests that would be later known as the People Power Revolution.[57] On February 25, the Marcos family fled to Hawaii. After she left Malacañang Palace, she was found to have left behind 15 mink coats, 508 gowns, 1,000 handbags, and pairs of shoes.[63] The exact number of her shoes varies with estimates of up to 7,500 pairs.[64] However, Time reported that the final tally was only 1,060.[63] The location where her shoes and jewelry were destroyed and the contents stolen.[65][57]

In October 1988, Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos,[66] together with eight associates (including Adnan Khashoggi, a Saudi Arabian businessman and weapons smuggler believed to have been involved with her husband's regime), were indicted by a federal grand jury in Manhattan on charges of racketeering,[67] conspiracy, fraud and obstruction of justice.[68][69] Tobacco heiress Doris Duke posted $5 million bail for the former First Lady.[70][71] The Marcos couple's defense team was led by criminal defense attorney Gerry Spence.[72][73] Actor George Hamilton, an unindicted co-conspirator, testified at trial under a grant of immunity, acknowledging that he had received a $5.5-million loan from an associate of hers.[74] In July 1990, following a three-month trial, she was acquitted of all charges.[73] By that time, Ferdinand had died in exile in Hawaii on September 28, 1989.[60][75][76]

Later years[edit]

Marcos was allowed to return to the Philippines by Corazon Aquino on November 4, 1991.[77][78] The following year, she ran for president in the presidential elections on May 11, 1992, finishing 5th out of 7 candidates.[79] On May 8, 1995, she was elected as a congresswoman of Leyte, representing the first district, despite facing a disqualification lawsuit in which the Supreme Court ruled in her favor.[80] She sought the presidency again on May 11, 1998, but later withdrew to support the eventual winner Joseph Estrada and she finished 9th among 11 candidates.[81][82] In November 2006, she started her own business, a fashion label that included designing jewelry.[83][84] In March 2008, she was acquitted of charges of having illegally taken money from the country by the Manila Regional Trial Court due to reasonable doubt.[85][86]

Marcos ran for the second district of Ilocos Norte in the elections on May 10, 2010 to replace her son,[87] Ferdinand Jr., who ran for Senate under the Nacionalista Party.[88][89] During her term, she held the position of Millennium Development Goals chairwoman in the Lower House.[90][91] In 2011, the Sandiganbayan's Fifth Division ordered her to return US$280,000 in government funds taken by her and her husband from the National Food Authority.[92] She won re-election on May 14, 2013 in a bid to renew her term.[93][94] On May 9, 2016, she was re-elected again for her third and final term.[95][96]

Wealth[edit]

photograph of Imelda Marcos
Marcos viewing the aftermath of the 2006 Southern Leyte mudslide

Marcos allegedly owned assets worth US$10 billion.[97] On one occasion, she spent $2,000 on chewing gum at the San Francisco International Airport and, on another, she forced a plane to do a U-turn mid-air just because she forgot to buy cheese in Rome.[55] Her collection of shoes,[98][99][100] now lies partly in the National Museum of the Philippines and partly in a shoe museum in Marikina.[101][102][103] Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) damaged her ancestral home in Tacloban, which also serves as a museum,[104] although she still retains homes in Ilocos Norte and Makati, where she resides.[2]

She allegedly owns Swiss bank accounts under the pseudonym "Jane Ryan".[105][106] Her claimed fortune came from Yamashita's gold, a semi-mythical treasure trove that is widely believed in the Philippines to be part of the Japanese loot in World War II.[107][108] Her property used to include jewels and a 175-piece art collection,[109] which included works by Michelangelo, Botticelli, Canaletto, Raphael,[110] as well as Monet's L'Église et La Seine à Vétheuil (1881), Alfred Sisley's Langland Bay (1887), and Albert Marquet's Le Cyprès de Djenan Sidi Said (1946).[111][112]

Switzerland's federal tribunal ruled in December 1990 that cash in Swiss banks would only be returned to the Philippine government if a Philippine court convicted her.[113][114][115] In March 2008, a judge in Manila in the Philippines acquitted her of 32 counts of illegal transfers of funds to Swiss bank accounts between 1968 and 1976, determining that the government had failed to prove its case.[116] In 2012, she declared her net worth to be US$22 million and she was listed as the second-richest Filipino politician behind boxer and politician Manny Pacquiao.[117][118][119]

In October 17, 2013, the attempted sale of two Claude Monet paintings,[120] L'Eglise de Vetheuil and Le Bassin Aux Nymphéas, became the subject of a legal case in New York against Vilma Bautista, a one-time aide to Imelda Marcos.[121][122] Bautista was sentenced in 2014 to 2–6 years in prison for attempting to sell "valuable masterpieces that belonged to her country".[123][124][125] On January 13, 2014, three collections of Imelda Marcos's jewelry:[126] the Malacanang collection, the Roumeliotes collection, and the Hawaii collection; along with paintings of Claude Monet were seized by the Philippine government.[127][128] In 2015, a rare pink diamond worth $5 million was discovered in her jewelry collection.[129][130] On February 16, 2016, the government of the Philippines announced that the three collections, valued at about $21 million, were to be auctioned off before the end of Benigno Aquino III's term on June 30, 2016.[131][132]

Legacy[edit]

Marcos influenced fashion in the Philippines,[60][133][134] although her role as a patroness of the arts and fashion is still controversial.[135][136][137] The second track of Mark Knopfler's 1996 album Golden Heart, is a sardonic song about her.[138] She was the subject of the 2003 documentary film, Imelda.[139][140][141] In 2010, British producer Fatboy Slim and musician David Byrne released a concept album about her life called Here Lies Love,[142] which later became a rock musical.[143] In Manila, local performance artist Carlos Celdran performs his Living La Vida Imelda walking tour,[133][144] which was also performed in Dubai during 2012.[145][146]

Foreign honors

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mijares 1976, p. 1–10.
  2. ^ a b Tully, Shawn (January 9, 2014). "My afternoon with Imelda Marcos". Fortune. Retrieved June 7, 2016. 
  3. ^ a b Ellison 1988, p. 1–10.
  4. ^ Garcia 1969.
  5. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 13.
  6. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 86.
  7. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 24.
  8. ^ "Kokoy Romualdez, powerful younger brother of Imelda Marcos, dies at 81". GMA News. February 2012.
  9. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 19–26.
  10. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 5.
  11. ^ "Former Philippine First Lady Imelda Marcos Attends Pope Francis' Mass". NBC News. January 17, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015. 
  12. ^ Quah 2011, p. 111–112.
  13. ^ a b Ellison 1988, p. 29.
  14. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 32.
  15. ^ 'I'm a magpie for beauty'. Chicago Tribune. November 6, 2006.
  16. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 36.
  17. ^ Staycation guide: Overnight stay in Quiapo. ABS-CBN News. January 6, 2014.
  18. ^ Powers 2012, p. 354.
  19. ^ "A dynasty on steroids". The Sydney Morning Herald. November 24, 2012.
  20. ^ Senauth 2012, p. 98.
  21. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 7–10.
  22. ^ The best books on the Philippines: start your reading here. The Guardian. January 15, 2014
  23. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 78–79.
  24. ^ "Beatles to avoid Philippines". Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. Associated Press. July 8, 1966. Retrieved May 22, 2012. 
  25. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 107–110.
  26. ^ Philandering dictator added Hollywood star to conquests. The Sun-Herald, July 4, 2004.
  27. ^ Tarling 2000, p. 191.
  28. ^ "Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law". Country Studies: Philippines, United States Department of State.
  29. ^ Pineda, DLS (February 22, 2014). "So you think you love Marcos?". The Philippine Star. Retrieved October 4, 2015. 
  30. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 134.
  31. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 140.
  32. ^ "Waiting for the other shoe(s) to drop", Philippine Daily Inquirer. March 29, 2016.
  33. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 89–93.
  34. ^ "Ferdinand Marcos, Former Philippines Dictator, Forced Generals To Perform Drag Show, According To WikiLeaks". The Huffington Post. April 9, 2013.
  35. ^ Powers 2012, p. 302.
  36. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 139.
  37. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 280.
  38. ^ a b Senauth 2012, p. 137.
  39. ^ a b Ellison 1988, p. 119.
  40. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 180.
  41. ^ Masagana 99, Nutribun, and Imelda's 'edifice complex' of hospitals. GMA News. September 20, 2012.
  42. ^ Nutrition and Related Services Provided to the Republic of the Philippines. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. September 1979.
  43. ^ Get to know former First Lady Imelda Marcos on Powerhouse. Power House. GMA Network. July 8, 2013.
  44. ^ a b c d Senauth 2012, p. 136.
  45. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 16.
  46. ^ a b Powers 2012, p. 106.
  47. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 93–97.
  48. ^ Powers 2012, p. 153.
  49. ^ "An insider's guide to Manila: where brutalism meets bamboo", The Guardian. March 14, 2016.
  50. ^ At Philippine Safari Park, Serengeti on South China Sea. Bloomberg Businessweek. December 3, 2013.
  51. ^ "Witness ties Imelda Marcos to Buildings." The Spokesman-Review. January 30, 1986.
  52. ^ "Real Estate Agent Gives Evidence of Marcos Buys."The Bulletin. April 10, 1986.
  53. ^ "Manila After Marcos: Managing a Frail economy; Marco's Mansion Suggests Luxury". The New York Times. February 28, 1986.
  54. ^ "Bling Ring". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  55. ^ a b "5 Shopping Sprees So Wild, They Made History". New York Magazine. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  56. ^ Imelda Marcos TalkAsia Transcript. CNN. January 24, 2007.
  57. ^ a b c d Pedrosa 2013.
  58. ^ Ellison 1988, p. 58.
  59. ^ "Filipino Women Protest Mrs. Marcos' Extravagance." Telegraph Herald. October 28, 1983.
  60. ^ a b c The Steel Butterfly Still Soars. The New York Times. October 6, 2012.
  61. ^ "Sandiganbayan ruling on Ninoy assassination" (PDF). Philippine Consortium for Investigative Journalism. Retrieved August 30, 2013. 
  62. ^ "Creating a Fact-Finding Board with Plenary Powers to Investigate the Tragedy Which Occurred on August 21, 1983". Presidential Decree No. 1886. Malacanang Palace. Retrieved August 30, 2013. 
  63. ^ a b "Imeldarabilia: A Final Count". Time. February 23, 1987. Retrieved December 30, 2006. 
  64. ^ "The day in numbers: $100". CNN. November 7, 2006. 
  65. ^ Morrow, Lance (March 31, 1986). "Essay: The Shoes of Imelda Marcos". New York Times. 
  66. ^ "Marcos' Wife Also Pleads 5th in Probe", Los Angeles Times. October 2. 1986.
  67. ^ "Imelda Marcos Racketeering Case Goes to Trial". The Christian Science Monitor. March 19, 1990.
  68. ^ Judge Delays Hearing for Marcos, Not Wife. The New York Times. October 28, 1988.
  69. ^ Lubasch, Arnold (October 22, 1988). "Marcos and wife, 8 others : Charged by US with fraud". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2013. 
  70. ^ Doris Duke Putting Up $5 Million Bail for Her Friend Imelda Marcos, Associated Press (November 2, 1988).
  71. ^ Celestine Bohlen, Doris Duke Offers Mrs. Marcos's Bail, New York Times (November 3, 1988).
  72. ^ Craig Wolff, The Marcos Verdict; Marcos Is Cleared of All Charges In Racketeering and Fraud Case. The New York Times. July 3, 1990.
  73. ^ a b "From the archive, 3 July 1990: Tears and cheers as Imelda cleared". The Guardian. July 2, 2015. Retrieved September 11, 2015. 
  74. ^ William C. Rempel & Kristina M. Luz, Imelda Marcos Saved Mother, Hamilton Says, Los Angeles Times (May 16, 1990).
  75. ^ Manila Journal;Queen of the Quirky, Imelda Marcos Holds Court. The New York Times. March 4, 1996.
  76. ^ Imelda Marcos among Newsweek's greediest people. ABS-CBN News. April 5, 2009.
  77. ^ Imelda Marcos Fast Facts. CNN. October 10, 2015.
  78. ^ Imelda Marcos Has an $829 Billion Idea. Bloomberg Businessweek. October 24, 2013.
  79. ^ "Anti-Corruption Campaigner and General Lead in Early Philippine Returns". The New York Times. May 13, 1992. Retrieved September 11, 2015. 
  80. ^ Imelda Romualdez Marcos v. Crilo Roy Montejo. Republic of the Philippines: Supreme Court. September 18, 1995.
  81. ^ "Faces of the week." BBC News. November 10, 2006.
  82. ^ Imelda's crown jewels to go under the hammer BBC News, May 13, 2003
  83. ^ Imelda Marcos comes into fashion. BBC. November 7, 2006.
  84. ^ Rowan, Roy (March 29, 1979). "Orchid or Iron Butterfly, Imelda Marcos Is a Prime Mover in Manila". People. Retrieved July 23, 2006. 
  85. ^ Sandigan OKs Imelda bid for daily hearings on graft cases. GMA News. September 21, 2007.
  86. ^ Imelda Marcos innocent of dollar salting. United Press International. May 10, 2008.
  87. ^ "Imelda Marcos bids for seat as Philippine race begins." BBC News. March 26, 2010.
  88. ^ An audience with the one and only Imelda Marcos. BBC. May 27, 2010.
  89. ^ "INTREVIEW [sic] – Philippines' Marcos fights to get wealth back". Reuters. May 13, 2010. 
  90. ^ Imelda Marcos stays as MDG committee chair. ABS-CBN News. September 15, 2010.
  91. ^ Unthinkable: Guess who came to Enrile book launch. Philippine Daily Inquirer. September 29, 2012.
  92. ^ Unthinkable: State lawyers want to know where Marcos funds went Philippine Daily Inquirer. August 29, 2012.
  93. ^ Imelda seeks second term, files COC. ABS-CBN News. October 3, 2012.
  94. ^ Hranjski, Hrvoje; Gomez, Jim (May 14, 2013). "Ex-Philippine president wins mayoral race in Manila, Imelda Marcos gets 2nd congressional term". Fox News (Fox News Network, L.L.C.). Retrieved February 16, 2016. 
  95. ^ "Bongbong Marcos, Imelda and family pray for 'poll integrity'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 15, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2016. 
  96. ^ "Imelda, Imee poised for re-election in Ilocos Norte". ABS-CBN News. May 9, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2016. 
  97. ^ "The $10bn question: what happened to the Marcos millions?". The Guardian. May 7, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2016. 
  98. ^ "Imeldific: Aquino gives guided tour of Palace". Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 29, 2016. Retrieved June 7, 2016. 
  99. ^ Homage to Imelda's shoes. BBC News. February 16, 2001.
  100. ^ "Global Corruption Report" (PDF). Transparency International. Retrieved August 6, 2009. 
  101. ^ "Imelda Marcos's shoe collection gathers mould after years of neglect". The Guardian. September 23, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2016. 
  102. ^ "Imelda Marcos shoe collection survives Typhoon Ketsana". The Guardian. October 8, 2009. Retrieved June 9, 2016. 
  103. ^ Manila: 10 Things to Do 7. Marikina Shoe Museum Time magazine. January 21, 2010.
  104. ^ Yolanda destroys Imelda's ancestral house in Leyte. GMA News. November 19, 2013.
  105. ^ "Some Are Smarter Than Others & The Collection of Jane Ryan and William Saunders: Pio Abad's exploration of the Marcos horde", The Philippine Star. September 18, 2014.
  106. ^ Witness Say Imelda Marcos Used Pseudonym to Open Account, The Daily News, April 19, 1990
  107. ^ Marcos widow claims wealth due to 'Yamashita treasure'. The Bulletin. February 3, 1993.
  108. ^ "On Petition For A Writ Of Certiorari To The United States Court Of Appeals For The Ninth Circuit: Petition For A Writ Of Certiorari." Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  109. ^ Marcoses' Silver Sets Record At Auction. The New York Times. January 11, 1991.
  110. ^ Marcoses' Raphael Sold To Italy for $1.65 Million. The New York Times. January 12, 1991.
  111. ^ Buettner, Russ (November 20, 2012). "Imelda Marcos's Ex-Aide Charged in '80s Art Theft". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2013. 
  112. ^ Shoes, jewels, and Monets: recovering the ill-gotten wealth of Imelda Marcos. Foreign Policy. January 16, 2014.
  113. ^ "Marcos convicted of graft in Manila". The New York Times. September 24, 1993. Retrieved August 30, 2013. 
  114. ^ Gender Policies And Responses Towards Greater Women Empowerment In The Philippines. University of the Philippines.
  115. ^ The Political Economy of Corruption. University of Hawaii. July 1997.
  116. ^ Imelda Marcos Acquitted, Again. The New York Times. March 11, 2008.
  117. ^ Imelda Marcos claims net worth of US$22 million. Taipei Times. May 6, 2012.
  118. ^ Imelda camp mum on Newsweek's 'greediest' tag. GMA News. April 6, 2009.
  119. ^ What happened to the Marcos fortune?. BBC News. January 24, 2013.
  120. ^ "Imelda Marcos's Ex-Aide Charged in '80s Art Theft." The New York Times. November 20, 2012.
  121. ^ Ex-Imelda Marcos aide on trial in NYC for selling Monet work. Philippine Daily Inquirer. October 17, 2013. Retrieved on October 17, 2013.
  122. ^ PCGG: Gov't, not Marcos victims, owns Monet painting Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 21, 2013. Retrieved on October 17, 2013.
  123. ^ Aide to former Philippine First Lady sentenced to prison for trying to sell country's art. New York Daily News. January 14, 2014.
  124. ^ Ex-Imelda Marcos secretary to be sentenced by NY court. GMA News. January 6, 2014.
  125. ^ Marcos jewels could be sold after court rules they were 'ill-gotten'. The Japan Times. January 14, 2014.
  126. ^ Imelda loses jewels in the Marcos crown. The Age. September 17, 2005.
  127. ^ Show me the Monet: Philippines seeks return of Marcos paintings. Reuters. January 14, 2014
  128. ^ Philippines Seeks Return of Marcos Paintings. Voice of America. January 14, 2014.
  129. ^ "Philippines revalues jewellery seized from Imelda Marcos in 1986". The Guardian. November 24, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2015. 
  130. ^ Plucinska (November 25, 2015). "Rare 25-Carat Pink Diamond Discovered in Jewelry Once Owned by Imelda Marcos". Time magazine. Retrieved December 17, 2015. 
  131. ^ Perry, Juliet (February 16, 2016). "Philippines to sell Imelda Marcos's 'ill-gotten' jewels, worth millions". CNN (Turner Broadcasting System). Retrieved February 16, 2016. 
  132. ^ "Philippines to sell jewellery confiscated from Imelda Marcos". The Telegraph. February 16, 2016. Retrieved March 27, 2016. 
  133. ^ a b Fitzpatrick, Liam (March 7, 2005). "Walk the Talk". Time magazine (Time Inc.). Retrieved September 16, 2010. 
  134. ^ "The Marcos years: 'Golden age' of PH fashion". Philippine Daily Inquirer. September 27, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2016. 
  135. ^ The day I met Imelda Marcos. BBC News. October 31, 2000.
  136. ^ "The Life of Imelda Marcos, in PowerPoint and Plastic." The New York Times. March 21, 2006.
  137. ^ "Imelda Marcos and the 'terno' of her affections". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 19, 2015. 
  138. ^ Golden Heart. Warner Music Group. March 26, 1996.
  139. ^ Review: 'Imelda'. Variety. March 17, 2004.
  140. ^ For a Regal Pariah, Despite It All, the Shoe Is Never on the Other Foot. The New York Times. June 9, 2004.
  141. ^ Director fights for Imelda movie. BBC News. July 7, 2004.
  142. ^ The Imelda Marcos Story — As Told by David Byrne Time magazine. April 10, 2010.
  143. ^ Brantley, Ben. "A Rise to Power, Disco Round Included", The New York Times, April 23, 2013, accessed June 9, 2016
  144. ^ Whaley, Floyd (October 12, 2012). "In Manila, 'Livin' La Vida Imelda!'". New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2012. 
  145. ^ "Celdran held, questioned over Imelda Marcos art in Dubai". Philippine Daily Inquirer. April 7, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2016. 
  146. ^ "Censored in Dubai, Carlos Celdran cancels Imelda show". GMA News. March 23, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2016. 
  147. ^ "President's Week in Review: March 1 – March 9, 1976". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. 
  148. ^ "President's Week in Review: April 7 – April 13, 1975". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. 
  149. ^ "The Order of pro Merito Melitensi". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved June 12, 2016. 
  150. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado. Government of Spain.

Bibliography[edit]

Honorary titles
Preceded by
Evangelina Macapagal
First Lady of the Philippines
1965–1986
Vacant
Title next held by
Amelita Ramos
Preceded by
None
as office created
Governor of Manila
1975–1986
Succeeded by
Jejomar Binay
as Chairman of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA)
House of Representatives of the Philippines
Preceded by
Cirilo Roy C. Montejo
Member of the House of Representatives from Leyte's 1st district
1995–1998
Succeeded by
Alfred S. Romualdez
Preceded by
Ferdinand Marcos, Jr.
Member of the House of Representatives from Ilocos Norte's 2nd district
2010–present
Incumbent