Imidazoline receptors are the primary receptors on which clonidine and other imidazolines act. [1 ]
Classes [ edit ]
There are three classes of imidazoline receptors:
1 receptor – mediates the sympatho-inhibitory actions of imidazolines to lower blood pressure, ( NISCH or IRAS, imidazoline receptor antisera selected) I
2 receptor – an allosteric binding site of monoamine oxidase and is involved in pain modulation and neuroprotection I
3 receptor – regulates insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells
1-imidazoline receptors trigger the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine into DAG. Elevated DAG levels in turn trigger the synthesis of second messengers arachidonic acid and downstream eicosanoids. In addition, the [2 ] sodium-hydrogen antiporter is inhibited, and enzymes of catecholamine synthesis are induced. The I 1-imidazoline receptor may belong to the neurocytokine receptor family, since its signaling pathways are similar to those of interleukins. [2 ]
Selective Ligands [ edit ]
Agonists [ edit ]
Antagonists [ edit ]
Efaroxan (non-selective, binds to I 1 receptor and α 2 adrenoceptor)
Idazoxan (non-selective, binds to I 2 receptor and α 2 adrenoceptor)
BU99006 (alkylating agent, inactivates I 2 receptors)
2 receptor antagonists reversibly block NMDA receptor-mediated Ca 2+ influx and thus may inhibit [6 ] excitotoxicity.
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ a b Head GA, Mayorov DN (January 2006). "Imidazoline receptors, novel agents and therapeutic potential". Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 4 (1): 17–32. doi: 10.2174/187152506775268758. PMID 16529547.
^ a b Ernsberger P (June 1999). "The I1-imidazoline receptor and its cellular signaling pathways". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 881 (1): 35–53. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb09339.x. PMID 10415895.
^ Reis DJ, Piletz JE (November 1997). "The imidazoline receptor in control of blood pressure by clonidine and allied drugs" (PDF). Am. J. Physiol. 273 (5 Pt 2): R1569–71. PMID 9374795.
^ Han, Z et al. (2013). "Fast, non-competitive and reversible inhibition of NMDA-activated currents by 2-BFI confers neuroprotection.". PLoS One (2014) 8 (5): e64894. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064894. PMC 3669129. PMID 23741413.
^ Bousquet P (2002). "I1 imidazoline receptors: From the pharmacological basis to the therapeutic application" (PDF). Journal für Hypertonie 6 (4): 6–9.
^ Jiang SX, Zheng RY, Zeng JQ, Li XL, Han Z, Hou ST (March 2010). "Reversible inhibition of intracellular calcium influx through NMDA receptors by imidazoline I(2) receptor antagonists". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 629 (1–3): 12–9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.11.063. PMID 19958763.
External links [ edit ]