Immersion diuresis

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Immersion diuresis is a type of diuresis caused by immersion of the body in water (or equivalent liquid). It is mainly caused by lower temperature and by pressure.

The temperature component is caused by water drawing heat away from the body and causing vasoconstriction of the cutaneous blood vessels within the body to conserve heat.[1][2][3] The body detects an increase in the blood pressure and inhibits the release of vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH)), causing an increase in the production of urine.

The pressure component is caused by the hydrostatic pressure of the water directly increasing blood pressure. Its significance is indicated by the fact that the temperature of the water doesn't substantially affect the rate of diuresis.[4] Partial immersion of only the limbs does not cause increased urination. Thus, the hand in warm water trick (immersing the hand of a sleeping person in water in order to make him/her urinate) has no support from the mechanism of immersion diuresis. On the other hand, sitting up to the neck in a pool for a few hours, clearly increases the excretion of water, salts, and urea.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Graveline DE, Jackson MM (May 1962). "Diuresis associated with prolonged water immersion". J Appl Physiol 17: 519–24. PMID 13901268. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  2. ^ Epstein M (June 1984). "Water immersion and the kidney: implications for volume regulation". Undersea Biomed Res 11 (2): 113–21. PMID 6567431. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  3. ^ Knight DR, Horvath SM (May 1990). "Immersion diuresis occurs independently of water temperatures in the range 25 degrees-35 degrees C". Undersea Biomed Res 17 (3): 255–6. PMID 2356595. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  4. ^ a b The Review - The Bath citing Drs.J. P. O'Hare, Audrey Heywood

Further reading[edit]