Immigration and crime

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Immigration and crime refers to perceived or actual relationships between crime and immigration.


The Handbook of Crime Correlates (2009), a review of studies of correlates with crime, states that most studies on immigrants have found higher rates of crime. However, this varies greatly depending on the country of origin, with immigrants from some regions having lower crime rates than the indigenous population. In the US, studies have found lower crime rates among immigrants than among non-immigrants.[1] Other studies suggest that immigration generally does not lead to an increase in crime, and may in some instances, suppress such trends.[2] Other statistics, such as those from Europe, show higher crime rates among immigrant populations.[3][4][5][6][7]



Further information: Demographics of Japan and Crime in Japan

Because the relative proportion (but not the "total" number) of crimes by non-Japanese is substantially higher than those by Japanese, the public perception is that the influx of immigrants has led to the crime increase.[8] A large portion of crimes by immigrants are by Chinese in Japan, and some highly publicized crimes by organized groups of Chinese (often with help of Japanese organized crime) have led to a negative public perception.[9] While foreigners from Africa are outnumbered by Japanese natives by 4551%, per capita Africans are responsible for 3.5 times as much crime as Japanese natives.[10]


The issue of immigrant crime plays an important role in the political debate in these countries.[11]


Further information: Immigration to Belgium and Crime in Belgium

In Belgium, the political climate never allowed studies about criminality with immigrants by claims of racism and the Cordon Sanitaire. Belgians and police will (informally) contest of a perception of high crime rates in the immigrant population originating from Morocco and Turkey. Recent events have shown this policy facilitated cells of extreme Islamic ideology to flourish. Leading to attacks of Paris.[citation needed]


Further information: Immigration to Denmark and Crime in Denmark

A study of crime statistics published in 2014 found that among males between the age of 20 and 24 descendants of non-Western immigrants had a crime rate 2.6 times greater than those of Danish origin. In terms of types of crime among those who are convicted of a crime, descendants of non-Western immigrants are more than twice as likely to have been convicted of a violent crime than an individual of Danish origin. Also, even after for controlling for age and socioeconomic status individuals whose ethnic background is from Morocco, Somalia, Lebanon, Pakistan and Iraq are still overrepresented as convicted criminals by a factor of 1.5 to 2.5.[12]


Further information: Immigration to Finland and Crime in Finland

According to official statistics, 27.0% of rapes have been committed by foreigners in Finland.[13] Foreigners comprise 2.2% of the population.[13]

In contrast, in 2000, the rape support helpline Tukinainen reported that 6% of all callers and 11% of 10–20-year-old callers say that the rapist was a foreigner.[14] Additionally, Finnish rapists are more likely to be known personally by the victim, increasing the threshold to report. Furthermore, there are great asymmetries between nationalities of rapists, as per this report there were no rapists hailing from Vietnam or China.[15]


Further information: Immigration to France and Crime in France

A 2006 study found that the share of immigrants has a positive and significant impact on the crime rate, confirming that a larger share of immigrants is associated with a higher crime rate. Unemployed persons born in France are still far less likely to commit crimes than unemployed recent immigrants.[16]


Further information: Immigration to Germany and Crime in Germany

Immigrants in Germany are overrepresented in crime statistics. In Berlin, young male immigrants are three times more likely to commit violent crimes than their German peers.[17] The crime rate of immigrants is at first glimpse about 5 times higher than that for Germans (4.9 : 1). A differentiated analysis of the Bavarian police (Landeskriminalamt) shows that the relation of 4.9 : 1 drops to 2.7 : 1 if only the registered population of foreigners is taken into account. It further drops to 2.4 : 1 if offences that cannot be committed by Germans are taken off. If only 14–21 years old male juveniles and young adults are considered, the ratio is 1.9 : 1.[5]


Further information: Immigration to Greece and Crime in Greece

Official statistics show that immigrants are responsible for about half of the criminal activity in Greece.[18] The Greek police have admitted that armed gangs entering the country from neighbouring Albania or Bulgaria could have been attracted by reports that many people have been withdrawing cash from banks and stashing it in their homes.[18] There are possibly more than 1 million illegal immigrants inside Greece as of 2012.[18][19]

Illegal immigration to Greece has increased rapidly over the past several years. Tough immigration policies in Spain and Italy and agreements with their neighboring African countries to combat illegal immigration have changed the direction of African immigration flows toward Greece. At the same time, flows from Asia and the Middle East — mainly Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Bangladesh — to Greece appear to have increased as well.[19]

The evidence now indicates that nearly all illegal immigration to the European Union flows through the country's porous borders. In 2010, 90 percent of all apprehensions for unauthorized entry into the European Union took place in Greece, compared to 75 percent in 2009 and 50 percent in 2008.[19]

In 2010, 132,524 persons were arrested for "illegal entry or stay" in Greece, a sharp increase from 95,239 in 2006. Nearly half of those arrested (52,469) were immediately deported, the majority of them being Albanians.[19]


Further information: Immigration to the Netherlands

Nonwhite Dutch youths are arrested by police and are convicted of a serious crime more often than their White Dutch compatriots. More than half of Moroccan-Dutch youths aged 18 to 24 years in Rotterdam have been investigated by police. Young Antillean and Surinamese Rotterdammers commit many more crimes than the average. Of them, 40 percent have been suspected. Of foreign-born young people aged from 18 to 24, 18% percent already came in contact with criminal law.[20][better source needed] [21]

According to a 2009 study commissioned by Justice Minister Ernst Hirsch Ballin,[22] of 447 criminal files, 63% teenagers convicted of serious crime are children of parents born outside the Netherlands. In the research, 447 case files of youngsters aged from 12 to 17 were studied. All involved cases in which the perpetrator was convicted of a crime for which the maximum jail sentence is 8 years or more. These were murder, manslaughter, robbery with violence, extortion, arson, public acts of violence and sexual crimes. The study did not examine whether the courts or police engage in discriminatory practices with respect to youths not of "white Dutch" origin.

The ethnic composition of the files in the study was: "White Dutch" - 37%; Moroccans - 14%; Unknown origin - 14%; "other non-Westerners" - 9%; Turkish - 8%; Surinamese - 7%; Antillean - 7%; and "other Westerners" - 4%.[22]

Police data for 2002 that were linked to population data showed that 37.5 percent of all recorded suspects of a crime living in the Netherlands are of foreign origin (including those of the second generation). The proportion of these persons in the suspect population is therefore almost twice as high as the share of immigrants among the Dutch population. The highest suspect rates per capita are found among first (4.9) and second generation (7.1) male migrants from a non‐western background. Rates for so‐called ‘western migrants’ are very close to those of the native Dutch. In all groups, rates for women are considerably lower than for men, with the highest found among non‐western migrants (Blom et al. 2005: 31).[23]


According to a 2011 report by Statistics Norway, in 2009 first,-generation immigrants from Africa were three times more likely than ethnic Norwegians (or rather individuals who are neither first- nor second-generation immigrants) to be convicted of a felony while Somali immigrants in particular being 4.4 times more likely to be convicted of a felony than an ethnic Norwegian was. Similarly, Iraqis and Pakistanis were found to have rates of conviction for felonies greater than ethnic Norwegians by a factor of 3 and 2.6 respectively. Another finding was that second-generation African and Asian immigrants had a higher rate of convictions for felonies than first-generation immigrants. While first-generation African immigrants had conviction rates for felonies of 16.7 per 1,000 individuals over the age of 15, for second-generation immigrants the rate was 28 per 1,000 – an increase of over 60%. And for Asian immigrants an increase from 9.3 per 1,000 to 17.1 per 1,000 was observed. In 2010 13% of sexual crimes charges were filed against first generation immigrants who make up 7.8% of the population – a rate of overrepresentaion of 1.7. Unfortunately, no data is available on sexual crime that is broken down by ethnic background.[12]

Immigrants are also overrepresented in sexual crime statistics. In a news report in 2010, a spokesperson for the Oslo Police Department stated that every case of assault rapes in Oslo in the years 2007, 2008 and 2009 was committed by a non-Western immigrant.[24] This picture has later been nuanced, as only perpetrators in the solved cases were counted, and 4 of the victims in the 16 unsolved cases described the perpetrator as being of Norwegian ethnicity.[25]

The report shows that, of 131 individuals charged with the 152 rapes in which the perpetrator could be identified, 45.8% were of African, Middle Eastern or Asian origin while 54.2% were of Norwegian, other European or American origin. In the cases of "assault rape", i.e. rape aggravated by physical violence, a category that included 6 of the 152 cases and 5 of the 131 identified individuals, the 5 identified individuals were of African, Middle Eastern or Asian origin. In the cases of assault rape where the individual responsible was not identified and the police relied on the description provided by the victim, "8 of the perpetrators were African / dark-skinned appearance, 4 were Western / light / Nordic and 4 had an Asian appearance".[26]


Further information: Immigration to Spain and Crime in Spain

The rates of crimes committed by immigrants are substantially higher than nationals.[27] The arrival of immigrants has resulted in a lack of progress in the reduction of offences against property and in a minor increase in the number of offences against Collective Security (i.e. drugs and trafficking). In the case of nationals, their contribution to the increase in the crime rate is primarily concentrated in offences against persons. Econometric results confirm the result even after controlling for all the observed socioeconomic and demographic factors. A report indicates that a higher proportions of American, non-UE European, and African immigrants tend to widen the crime differential, the effect being larger for the latter ones.[27]

The same paper generally supports that labur market related conditions seem to supersede other potential explanations for the relationship between crime and immigration. However, given the limitations of the dataset and the available statistics of crime in Spain, the econometric analysis cannot exclude other alternative explanations such as ethnical related activities or misperceptions about the law. Cultural differences were statistically detected, endorsing the view that some communities of immigrants might not see Spanish criminal law as a body of rules that captures their own views of society.[27]

Spanish National Statistics Institute (INE) published a study that analyzes records in the Register of Convicted in 2008. The data show that immigrants are overrepresented in the crime statistics: 70% of all crimes were committed by Spaniards and 30% by foreigners.[28] Foreigners make up 15% of the population.[28]


In Switzerland, 69.7% of prison population did not have Swiss citizenship, compared to 22.1% of total resident population (as of 2008). The figure of arrests by residence status is not usually made public. In 1997, when there were for the first time more foreigners than Swiss among the convicts under criminal law (out of a fraction of 20.6% of the total population at the time), a special report was compiled by the Federal Department of Justice and Police (published in 2001) which for the year 1998 found an arrest rate per 1000 adult population of 2.3 for Swiss citizens, 4.2 for legally resident aliens and 32 for asylum seekers. 21% of arrests made concerned individuals with no residence status, who were thus either sans papiers or "crime tourists" without any permanent residence in Switzerland.[29]

The term Ausländerkriminalität ("foreigner criminality") since the 1990s has become a politically charged term, with the populist "black sheep" campaign for the "initiative for the extradition of criminal foreigners" of the Swiss People's Party making international headlines in September 2007. [30] [31]

In 2010, a statistic was published which listed delinquency by nationality (based on 2009 data). To avoid distortions due to demographic structure, only the male population aged between 18 and 34 was considered for each group. From the study, it became clear that crime rate is highly correlated on the country of origin of the various migrant groups. Thus, immigrants from Germany, France and Austria had a significantly lower crime rate than Swiss citizens (60% to 80%), while immigrants from Angola, Nigeria and Algeria had a crime rate of above 600% of that of Swiss population. In between these extremes were immigrants from Former Yugoslavia, with crime rates of between 210% and 300% of the Swiss value.[32]

In April 2010, the director of the Federal Office for Migration (BFM), Alard du Bois-Reymond, issued a statement on the large number of unfounded requests for asylum by nationals of Nigeria in particular. Du Bois-Reymond said that 99.5% of asylum seekers of Nigerian origin were abusing the asylum system, entering Switzerland with the intention of pursuing petty crime and drug dealing.[33] The Nigerian ambassador to Switzerland, Martin Ihoeghian Uhomoibhi, objected to du Boi-Reymond's statement as an undue generalization.[34]


Further information: Immigration to Sweden and Crime in Sweden

A report studying 4.4 million Swedes between the ages of 15 and 51 during the period 1997-2001 found that 25% of crimes were committed by foreign-born individuals while and additional 20% were committed by individuals born to foreign-born parents. In particular, immigrants from Africa and Southern and Western Asian were more likely to be charged of a crime than individuals born to two Swedish parents by a factor of 4.5 and 3.5 respectively. Findings from a previous study published by the Swedish government in 1996 determined that between 1985 and 1989 individuals born in Iraq, North Africa (Algeria, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia), and Africa (excluding Uganda and the North African countries) were convicted of rape at rates 20, 23, and 17 greater than individuals born in Sweden respectively.[12]

In a study by the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention in 1997-2001, 25% of the almost 1,520,000 offences were found to be committed by people born abroad, while almost 20% were committed by Swedish-born people with a foreign background. In the study, immigrants were found to be four times more likely to be investigated for lethal violence and robbery than ethnic Swedes. In addition, immigrants were three times more likely to be investigated for violent assault, and five times more likely to be investigated for sex crimes. Overall, North Africa and Western Asia were strongly overrepresented in the crime statistics.

The report is based on statistics for those "suspected" of offences, but Stina Holmberg of the Council for Crime Prevention said that there was "little difference" in the statistics for those suspected of crimes and those actually convicted.

"Slightly under 60 percent of the almost 1,520,000 offences ... registered during the period covered by the study can be attributed to persons who were born in Sweden to two Swedish-born parents," it said.[35]

United Kingdom[edit]

According to a report on prison population statistics published by the Ministry of Justice, in 2013 blacks made up 13.2% of the prison population and 2.8% of the general population. Given that whites make up 88.3% of the total population but only 73.8% of the prison population, it follows that blacks are 5.6 times more likely to be incarcerated than whites. Similarly, in 2013 Muslims made up 13.1% of the prison population but just 4% of the general population meaning that they are 3.3 times more likely to be incarcerated than a member of the general population.[36]

It was reported in 2007 that more than one-fifth of solved crimes in London was committed by immigrants. Around a third of all solved, reported sex offences and a half of all solved, reported frauds in the capital were carried out by non-British citizens.[37] A 2008 study found that the crime rate of Eastern European immigrants was the same as that of the indigenous population.[38]


According to the latest data from Interior Ministry, in 2007 35% of crimes in Italy were committed by immigrants (immigrants make up 8.2% of the Italian population).[39]

Romanians, Moroccans and Albanians commit the most crimes, the three ethnicity are also the major minorities in Italy. Regarding murders, Romanians are in first place (15.4% of the total number of foreigners reported for this offense), followed by Albanians (11.9%) and Moroccans (9.1%).

For sexual violence, Romanians are in the lead (representing 16.2% of the total number of foreigners reported for this offense), followed by Moroccans (15.9%) and Croats (13.9%),perpetrators of rape are of Italian nationality in 60.9 percent of cases.[40] For home robberies, still in command Romanians (19.8%), followed by Albanians (13.8%) and Moroccans (8.7%).For muggings Moroccans are in first place (20.6%), followed by Romanians (19.3%) and Albanians (6%). As for car theft, Romanians return to the top (29.8%), followed by Moroccans (13.2%) and Albanians (8.8%). For extortion, finally, still Romanians (15%), followed by Albanians (11.2%) and Moroccans (10.7%).[41]

Illegal immigrants are the 80% of immigrants involved in criminal activities, and their share of total foreign residents is well below 20%. In short, the probability of committing crimes for illegal aliens is 16 times that of regulars (regulars instead show crime rates similar to the rest of the Italian population).[42]

Crime rate of legal immigrants is "slightly higher" than Italians (between 1.23% and 1.4%, vs. 0.75%) and even less between people over 40 years old,comparable data considering that immigrants have a lower average age.[43]

United States[edit]

The Handbook of Crime Correlates states that unlike studies outside the US, a majority of studies in the US have found lower crime rates among immigrants than among non-immigrants. Again, the country of origin may be more important than immigrant status itself.[1]


The alleged link between immigration and criminality has been a longstanding meme in Australian history with many of the original immigrants being convicts. During the 1950s and 1960s, the majority of emigrants to the country arrived from Italy and Greece, and were shortly afterwards associated with local crime. This culminated in the "Greek conspiracy case" of the 1970s, when Greek physicians were accused of defrauding the Medibank system. The police were later found to have conducted investigations improperly, and the doctors were eventually cleared of all charges. After the demise of the White Australia policy restricting non-European immigration, the first large settler communities from Asia emerged. This development was accompanied by a moral panic regarding a potential spike in criminal activity by the Triads and similar organizations. In 1978, the erstwhile weekly The National Times also reported on involvement in the local drug trade by Calabrian Italian, Turkish, Lebanese and Chinese dealers.[44]

Discourse surrounding immigrant crime reached a head in the late 1990s. The fatal stabbing of a Korean teenager in Punchbowl in October 1998 followed by a drive-by shooting of the Lakemba police station prompted then New South Wales Premier Bob Carr and NSW Police Commissioner Peter Ryan to blame the incidents on Lebanese gangs. Spurred on by the War on Terror, immigrant identities became increasingly criminalized in the popular Sydney media. By the mid-2000s and the outbreak of the Cronulla riots, sensationalist broadcast and tabloid media representations had reinforced existing stereotypes of immigrant communities as criminal entities and ethnic enclaves as violent and dangerous areas.[44]

The only reliable statistics on immigrant crime in Australia are based on imprisonment rates by place of birth. As of 1999, this data indicated that immigrants from Vietnam (2.7 per 1,000 of population), Lebanon (1.6) and New Zealand (1.6) were over-represented within the national criminal justice system. Compared to the Australian-born (1), immigrants from Italy (0.6), the United Kingdom (0.6), Ireland (0.6) and Greece (0.5) were under-represented.[44]

In the late 2000s, following a series of arrests in Melbourne on terrorism-related charges, Australian security officials expressed concerns of possible attacks by Al-Qaeda-affiliated extremists from North Africa.[45] Victoria Police department officers also claimed in 2012 that Sudanese and Somali immigrants were around five times more likely to commit crimes than other state residents. Internal police figures asserted that the rate of offending in the Sudanese community was 7109.1 per 100,000 individuals, whereas it was said to be 6141.8 per 100,000 for Somalis, and 1301.0 per 100,000 for the wider Victoria community. Robbery and assault were alleged to have been the most common types of crime committed by the Sudanese and Somali residents, with assault purported to represent 29.5% and 24.3% of all offences, respectively. However, the overall proportion of crime in the state said to have been committed by members of the Sudanese community was only 0.92 percent, while it was reportedly 0.35 percent for Somali residents. The police also stated that individuals arrested and charged might have been falsely claiming to belong to each community, and that it was meeting with local representatives as part of a civic engagement strategy.[46]

In 2010, six applicants brought charges of impropriety against several members of the Victorian Police, the Chief Commissioner of Victoria Police, and the State of Victoria in the Melbourne areas of Flemington and Kensington. The ensuing Haile-Michael v Konstantinidis case alleged various forms of mistreatment by the public officials in violation of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975. In March 2012, an order of discovery was made, whereby established statistician Ian Gordon of the University of Melbourne independently analysed Victorian Police LEAP data from Flemington and North Melbourne (2005-2008). The report concluded that residents from Africa were two and a half times more likely to be subjected to an arbitrary "stop and search" than their numbers in the area would suggest is appropriate. Although the justification provided for such disproportionate policing measures was over-representation in local crime statistics, the study found that the same police LEAP data in reality showed that male immigrants from Africa on average committed substantially less crime than male immigrants from other backgrounds. Despite this, the latter alleged male offenders were observed to be 8.5 times more likely not to be the subject of a police "field contact". The case was eventually settled on 18 February 2013, with a landmark agreement that the Victoria Police would publicly review its "field contact" and training processes. The inquiry is expected to help police identify areas where discrimination in the criminal justice system has the potential to or does occur; implement institutional reforms as pre-emptive measures in terms of training, policy and practice; predicate changes on international law enforcement best practices; ammeliorate the local police's interactions with new immigrants and ethnic minorities, as well as with the Aboriginal community; and serve as a benchmark for proper conduct vis-a-vis other police departments throughout the country.[47][48]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Handbook of Crime Correlates; Lee Ellis, Kevin M. Beaver, John Wright; 2009; Academic Press
  2. ^ McDonald, William Frank. Immigration, Crime and Justice. Emerald Group Publishing. 
  3. ^ "Flygtninges krigstraumer gør deres børn kriminelle". Information. 
  4. ^ "Identifying the Roots of Immigrant Crime". DW.COM. 
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ "Greeks confront crime wave amid austerity". BBC News. 
  7. ^ "Schokkende cijfers criminaliteit Marokkanen Rotterdam". Elsevier. 
  8. ^ French, Howard W. (September 30, 1999). "Disdainful of Foreigners, the Japanese Blame Them for Crime". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  9. ^ Wudunn, Sheryl (March 12, 1997). "Japan Worries About a Trend: Crime by Chinese". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  10. ^ "Crime in Japan : analysis per nationality- Wa-pedia". Wa-pedia. 
  11. ^ "Crime, immigration and safety issues have dominated Dutch political debate for a decade, leading to measures such as imprisoning asylum seekers, outlawing psychedelic mushrooms, mandating citizenship classes for immigrants and forcing people to carry ID cards." Associated Press, 18 November 2010. "The Swiss vote highlights the tensions across Europe with foreign immigrants arriving from Africa and the Middle East. France recently made it easier to deport foreign criminals and has already deported thousands of Roma living in the country illegally. New anti-immigrant movements in Scandinavia, Austria and the Netherlands, where anti-Islam politician Geert Wilders has a hand in government, have garnered substantial voter support. In Switzerland, where more than a fifth of the 7.8 million inhabitants are foreigners, the far-right SVP has long played on fears of surging crime rates, the loss of traditional Swiss culture and the abuse of the generous welfare system by immigrants to raise support for its xenophobic initiatives." UPI Europe 30 November 2010
  12. ^ a b c Alex, Martin. "Immigration and Crime in Scandinavia". Psych and Society. Retrieved 2015-09-24. 
  13. ^ a b Hannu Niemi. "Rikollisuustilanne Suomessa — II.B.3. Oikeuspoliittinen tutkimuslaitos 2005". 
  14. ^ "Acts of sexual violence as reported to the Tukinainen Rape Crisis Centre helpline (Home - Tuesday 22.8.2000)". 
  15. ^ "Foreigners figure high in rape statistics (Home - Tuesday 22.8.2000)". 
  16. ^
  17. ^ "Identifying the Roots of Immigrant Crime". DW.COM. 
  18. ^ a b c "Greeks confront crime wave amid austerity". BBC News. 
  19. ^ a b c d "Greece: Illegal Immigration in the Midst of Crisis". 
  20. ^ "Veel jonge criminele allochtonen in Rotterdam". RTV Rijnmond. 
  21. ^ "Schokkende cijfers criminaliteit Marokkanen Rotterdam". Elsevier. 
  22. ^ a b
  23. ^
  24. ^ Martin Fjørtoft, Tone Staude (January 13, 2010). Rekordmange overfallsvoldtekter "Rekordmange overfallsvoldtekter" [Record number of assault rapes] Check |url= scheme (help) (in Norwegian). Norsk Rikskringkasting. Retrieved July 13, 2012. 
  25. ^ Tanveer Hussain (May 2, 2012). "Myten om ikke-vestlige voldtektsmenn sprekker" [The myth about non-Western rapists is breaking up] (in Norwegian). Utrop. 
  26. ^
  27. ^ a b c "Fedea — Fundación de Estudios de Economía Aplicada" (PDF). 
  28. ^ a b "El 70% de la delincuencia es perpetrada por españoles según el INE". 
  29. ^ "Ausländerkriminalität in der Schweiz - Vimentis". Vimentis. 
  30. ^ Immigration, Black Sheep and Swiss Rage, The New York Times.
  31. ^ Swiss anti-immigrant party pushes plan to expel foreign criminals, The Times.
  32. ^ Neue Statistik: Tamilen sind krimineller als Ex-Jugoslawen, Tages-Anzeiger 12 September 2010.
  33. ^ Task-Force gegen Asylmissbrauch 11 April 2010.
  34. ^ Nigerianischer Botschafter verlangt Aussprache mit Schweizer Bundesamtschef 29 April 2010.
  35. ^ "Immigrants behind 25% of Swedish crime". 
  36. ^ Alex, Martin. "Race, Religion, and Crime in the UK". Psych and Society. Retrieved 2015-10-23. 
  37. ^ Harper, Tom; Leapman, Ben. "Foreigners 'commit fifth of crime in London'". The Daily Telegraph. 23 September 2007. Accessed 21 September 2011.
  38. ^ Johnston, Phillip. "Immigration and crime: the real results". The Daily Telegraph. 16 April 2008. Accessed 21 September 2011.
  40. ^ "News - Panorama". Panorama. 
  41. ^ "ITALIA - Viminale: un reato su tre commesso da immigrati". ADUC. 
  42. ^ "Immigrati, solo gli irregolari commettono più reati". LaRepubblica. 
  43. ^ "Immigrazione, Caritas: l'80% dei reati da irregolari". Ansa. 
  44. ^ a b c Collins, Jock. "Ethnic Minorities and Crime in Australia: Moral Panic or Meaningful Policy Responses" (PDF). Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  45. ^ "Australia arrests 'foil army base terror plot'". The Independent. 4 August 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  46. ^ Oakes, Dan (20 August 2012). "African youth crime concern". The Age. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  47. ^ "Flemington & Kensington Community Legal Centre - Race Discrimination Case Documents - Haile-Michael v Konstantinidis". Federation of Community Legal Centres. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  48. ^ "Summary of Experts' report - Daniel Haile-Michael & Ors v Nick Konstantinidis & Ors" (PDF). Federation of Community Legal Centres. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 

Further reading[edit]