Immigration policy of Donald Trump
Immigration policy and, specifically, illegal immigration to the United States, was a signature issue of U.S. President Donald Trump's presidential campaign, and his proposed reforms and remarks about this issue generated much publicity. Trump has repeatedly emphasized that illegal immigrants are criminals, though multiple studies have found they have lower crime and incarceration rates than native-born Americans.
A hallmark promise of his campaign was to build a substantial wall on the United States–Mexico border. Trump has also expressed support for a variety of "limits on legal immigration and guest-worker visas", including a "pause" on granting green cards, which Trump says will "allow record immigration levels to subside to more moderate historical averages". Trump's proposals regarding H-1B visas frequently changed throughout his presidential campaign, but as of late July 2016, he appeared to oppose the H-1B visa program.
As president, Trump imposed a travel ban that prohibited issuing visas to citizens of seven largely-Muslim countries. In response to legal challenges he revised the ban twice, with his third version being upheld by the Supreme Court in June 2018. He attempted to end the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, but a legal injunction has allowed the policy to continue while the matter is the subject of legal challenge. He imposed a "zero tolerance" policy to require the arrest of all illegal immigrants caught crossing the border, which resulted in separating children from their families. Tim Cook and 58 other CEOs of major American companies warned of harm from Trump's immigration policy.
In his first State of the Union address on January 30, 2018, Trump outlined his administration's four pillars for immigration reform: (1) a path to citizenship for DREAMers; (2) increased border security funding; (3) ending the diversity visa lottery; and (4) restrictions on family-based immigration. The Four Pillars reinforce Trump's campaign slogan to "Buy American, Hire American" and 2017 executive order by the same name, and tracks with previously outlined immigration policy priorities.
- 1 Positions on immigration
- 1.1 Birthright citizenship
- 1.2 Changes to legal immigration
- 1.3 Kate's Law
- 1.4 Border security and border wall with Mexico
- 1.5 Mass deportation of undocumented immigrants
- 1.6 Proposed Muslim immigration ban
- 1.7 Syrian refugees
- 1.8 Restriction of asylum on the grounds of gang-based or domestic violence
- 1.9 Other proposals
- 2 Executive actions
- 2.1 Travel ban and refugee suspension
- 2.2 Increased immigration enforcement
- 2.3 Phase out of DACA
- 2.4 Cancellation of Temporary Protective Status
- 2.5 Zero-tolerance policy and family separation on the Mexico border
- 3 Legal and reports
- 4 See also
- 5 References
Positions on immigration
After Mitt Romney lost the 2012 U.S. presidential election, Trump criticized Romney's immigration policy, saying, "He had a crazy policy of self deportation which was maniacal. It sounded as bad as it was, and he lost all of the Latino vote. He lost the Asian vote. He lost everybody who is inspired to come into this country." At the 2014 Conservative Political Action Conference, Trump urged Republican politicians not to pass immigration reform, saying immigrants would vote for the Democratic Party and steal American jobs.
During the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Trump questioned official estimates of the number of undocumented immigrants in the United States asserting that the number is actually between 30-34,000,000. PolitiFact ruled that his statement was "Pants on Fire", citing experts who noted that no evidence supported an estimate in that range. For example, the Pew Research Center reported in March 2015 that the number of undocumented immigrants overall declined from 12.2 million in 2007 to 11.2 million in 2012. The number of undocumented immigrants in the U.S. labor force ranged from 8.1 million to 8.3 million between 2007-2012, approximately 5% of the U.S. labor force.
In 2015, prior to being elected to the presidency, Trump proposed rolling back birthright citizenship for U.S.–born children of undocumented immigrants (whom he refers to as "anchor babies"). Under the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, all persons born on U.S. soil and subject to its jurisdiction are citizens. The mainstream view of the Fourteenth Amendment among legal experts is that everyone born on U.S. soil, regardless of parents' citizenship, is automatically an American citizen, so long as the parents are not foreign diplomats. President Donald Trump said on October 30, 2018 that he intends to remove, by means of an executive order, the right of citizenship to people born in the U.S. to foreign nationals.
Changes to legal immigration
The Trump administration embraced the Reforming American Immigration for a Strong Economy (RAISE) Act in August 2017. The RAISE Act seeks to reduce levels of legal immigration to the United States by 50% by halving the number of green cards issued. The bill would also impose a cap of 50,000 refugee admissions a year and would end the visa diversity lottery. A study by Penn Wharton economists found that the legislation would by 2027 "reduce GDP by 0.7 percent relative to current law, and reduce jobs by 1.3 million. By 2040, GDP will be about 2 percent lower and jobs will fall by 4.6 million. Despite changes to population size, jobs and GDP, there is very little change to per capita GDP, increasing slightly in the short run and then eventually falling."
Kathryn Steinle was killed in July 2015 by an illegal immigrant, Juan Francisco Lopez-Sanchez, who had multiple convictions and had been previously deported on five occasions. During the election campaign, Trump promised to ask Congress to pass Kate's Law, named after her, to ensure that criminal aliens convicted of illegal reentry received strong, mandatory minimum sentences. A Senate version of the bill was previously introduced by Ted Cruz in July 2016, but it failed to pass a cloture motion.
Border security and border wall with Mexico
Trump has emphasized U.S. border security and illegal immigration to the United States as a campaign issue. During his announcement speech he stated in part, "When Mexico sends its people, they're not sending their best. They're not sending you. They're sending people that have lots of problems, and they're bringing those problems. ... They're bringing drugs. They're bringing crime. They're rapists. And some, I assume, are good people." On July 6, 2015, Trump issued a written statement to clarify his position on illegal immigration, which drew a reaction from critics. It read in part:
The Mexican Government is forcing their most unwanted people into the United States. They are, in many cases, criminals, drug dealers, rapists, etc. This was evident just this week when, as an example, a young woman in San Francisco was viciously killed by a 5-time deported Mexican with a long criminal record, who was forced back into the United States because they didn't want him in Mexico. This is merely one of thousands of similar incidents throughout the United States. In other words, the worst elements in Mexico are being pushed into the United States by the Mexican government. The largest suppliers of heroin, cocaine and other illicit drugs are Mexican cartels that arrange to have Mexican immigrants trying to cross the borders and smuggle in the drugs. The Border Patrol knows this. Likewise, tremendous infectious disease is pouring across the border. The United States has become a dumping ground for Mexico and, in fact, for many other parts of the world. On the other hand, many fabulous people come in from Mexico and our country is better for it. But these people are here legally, and are severely hurt by those coming in illegally. I am proud to say that I know many hard working Mexicans—many of them are working for and with me ... and, just like our country, my organization is better for it.
A study published in Social Science Quarterly in May 2016 tested Trump's claim that immigrants are responsible for higher levels of violent and drug-related crime in the United States. It found no evidence that links Mexican or illegal Mexican immigrants specifically to violent or drug-related crime. It did however find a small but significant association between undocumented immigrant populations (including non-Mexican undocumented immigrants) and drug-related arrests.
In addition to his proposals to construct a border wall (see below), Trump has called for tripling the number of Border Patrol agents.
Trump has repeatedly pledged to build a wall along the U.S.'s southern border, and has said that Mexico would pay for its construction through increased border-crossing fees and NAFTA tariffs. In his speech announcing his candidacy, Trump pledged to "build a great, great wall on our southern border. And I will have Mexico pay for that wall. Mark my words." Trump also said "nobody builds walls better than me, believe me, and I'll build them very inexpensively." The concept for building a barrier to keep undocumented immigrants out of the U.S. is not new; 670 miles of fencing (about one-third of the border) was erected under the Secure Fence Act of 2006, at a cost of $2.4 billion. Trump said later that his proposed wall would be "a real wall. Not a toy wall like we have now." In his 2015 book, Trump cites the Israeli West Bank barrier as a successful example of a border wall. "Trump has at times suggested building a wall across the nearly 2,000-mile border and at other times indicated more selective placement." After a meeting with Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto on August 31, 2016, Trump said that they "didn't discuss" who would pay for the border wall that Trump has made a centerpiece of his presidential campaign. Nieto contradicted that later that day, saying that he at the start of the meeting "made it clear that Mexico will not pay for the wall". Later that day, Trump reiterated his position that Mexico will pay to build an "impenetrable" wall on the Southern border.
John Cassidy of The New Yorker wrote that Trump is "the latest representative of an anti-immigrant, nativist American tradition that dates back at least to the Know-Nothings" of the 1840s and 1850s. Trump says "it was legal immigrants who made America great," that the Latinos who have worked for him have been "unbelievable people", and that he wants a wall between the U.S. and Mexico to have a "big, beautiful door" for people to come legally and feel welcomed in the United States.
According to experts and analyses, the actual cost to construct a wall along the remaining 1,300 miles of the border could be as high as $16 million per mile, with a total cost of up to $25 billion, with the cost of private land acquisitions and fence maintenance pushing up the total cost further. Maintenance of the wall could cost up to $750 million a year, and if the Border Patrol agents were to patrol the wall, additional funds would have to be expended. Rough and remote terrain on many parts of the border, such as deserts and mountains, would make construction and maintenance of a wall expensive, and such terrain may be a greater deterrent than a wall in any case. Experts also note that on federally protected wilderness areas and Native American reservations, the Department of Homeland Security may have only limited construction authority, and a wall could cause environmental damage.
Despite campaign promises to build a full wall, Trump later stated that he favors putting up some fences.
In February 2017, Reuters reported that an internal report by the Department of Homeland Security estimated that Trump's proposed border wall would cost $21.6 billion and take 3.5 years to build. This estimate is far higher than estimates by Trump during the campaign ($12 billion) and the $15-billion estimate from Republican House Speaker Paul Ryan and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell.
In August 2017, the transcript of the January 2017 phone call between President Trump and Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto was leaked; in the phone call, Trump conceded that he would fund the border wall, not by charging Mexico as he promised during the campaign, but through other ways. But Trump implored the Mexican President to stop saying publicly that the Mexican Government would not pay for the border wall.
Critics of Trump's plan question whether a wall would be effective at stopping unauthorized crossings, noting that walls are of limited use unless they are patrolled by agents and to intercept those climbing over or tunneling under the wall. Experts also note that approximately half of undocumented immigrants in the U.S. did not surreptitiously enter, but rather "entered through official crossing points, either by overstaying visas, using fraudulent documents, or being smuggled past the border".
On September 12, 2017, the United States Department of Homeland Security issued a notice that Acting Secretary of Homeland Security Elaine Duke would be waiving "certain laws, regulations and other legal requirements" to begin construction of the new wall near Calexico, California. The waiver allows the Department of Homeland Security to bypass the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Historic Preservation Act, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Migratory Bird Conservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Noise Control Act, the Solid Waste Disposal Act, the Antiquities Act, the Federal Land Policy and Management Act, the Administrative Procedure Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. The state of California, some environmental groups, and Rep. Raúl M. Grijalva (D-Ariz.) filed suit challenging the waivers granted to permit the building of a border wall. On February 27, 2018, Judge Gonzalo P. Curiel ruled that under federal law the administration has the authority to waive multiple environmental laws and regulations in order to expedite the construction of border walls and other infrastructure, so that wall construction can proceed.
After the federal government was partially shut down in December 2018 over a funding dispute for the Trump border wall, on January 4, 2019, White House press secretary Sarah Sanders falsely asserted that nearly 4,000 known or suspected terrorists "that came across our southern border" were apprehended during 2018. However, the figure was actually from fiscal 2017 and referred mostly to individuals who were stopped while attempting to enter America by air at both domestic and foreign airports. DHS secretary Kirstjen Nielsen made a similar false assertion the same day. The State Department reported in September 2018 that by the end of 2017 "there was no credible evidence indicating that international terrorist groups have established bases in Mexico, worked with Mexican drug cartels, or sent operatives via Mexico into the United States."
Mass deportation of undocumented immigrants
In August 2015, during his campaign, Trump proposed the mass deportation of undocumented immigrants as part of his immigration policy. During his first town hall campaign meeting in Derry, New Hampshire, Trump said that if he were to win the election, then on "[d]ay 1 of my presidency, they're getting out and getting out fast".
Trump has proposed a "Deportation Force" to carry out this plan, modeled after the 1950s-era "Operation Wetback" program during the Eisenhower administration that ended following a congressional investigation. Historian Mae Ngai of Columbia University, who has studied the program, has said that the military-style operation was both inhumane and ineffective.
According to analysts, Trump's mass-deportation plan would encounter legal and logistical difficulties, since U.S. immigration courts already face large backlogs. Such a program would also impose a fiscal cost; the fiscally conservative American Action Forum policy group estimates that deporting every undocumented immigrant would cause a slump of $381.5 billion to $623.2 billion in private sector output, amounting to roughly a loss of 2% of U.S. GDP. Doug Holtz-Eakin, the group's president, has said that the mass deportation of 11 million people would "harm the economy in ways it would normally not be harmed".
In June 2016, Trump stated on Twitter that "I have never liked the media term 'mass deportation'—but we must enforce the laws of the land!" Later in June, Trump stated that he would not characterize his immigration policies as including "mass deportations". However, on August 31, 2016, contrary to earlier reports of a "softening" in his stance, Trump laid out a 10-step plan reaffirming his hardline positions. He reiterated that "anyone who has entered the United States illegally is subject to deportation" with priority given to those who have committed significant crimes and those who have overstayed visas. He noted that all those seeking legalization would have to go home and re-enter the country legally.
Proposed Muslim immigration ban
Trump frequently revised proposals to ban Muslim immigration to the United States in the course of his presidential campaign. In late July 2016, NBC News characterized his position as: "Ban all Muslims, and maybe other people from countries with a history of terrorism, but just don't say 'Muslims'." (Rudy Giuliani said on Fox News that Trump tasked him to craft a "Muslim ban" and asked Giuliani to form a committee to show him "the right way to do it legally". The committee, which included former U.S. Attorney General and Chief Judge of the Southern District of New York Michael Mukasey, and Reps. Mike McCaul and Peter T. King, decided to drop the religious basis and instead focused on regions where Giuliani says that there is "substantial evidence that people are sending terrorists" to the United States.)
In December 2015, Trump proposed a temporary ban on foreign Muslims entering the United States (the U.S. admits approximately 100,000 Muslim immigrants each year) "until we can figure out what's going on". In response to the 2015 San Bernardino shooting, Trump released a statement on "Preventing Muslim Immigration" and called for "a total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our country's representatives can figure out what the hell is going on". In a December 2015 interview, the host Willie Geist repeatedly questioned Trump if airline representatives, customs agents or border guards would ask a person's religion. Trump responded that they would and if the person said they were Muslim, they will be denied entry into the country.
Trump cited President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's use during World War II of the Alien and Sedition Acts to issue presidential proclamations for rounding up, holding, and deporting German, Japanese, and Italian alien immigrants, and noted that Roosevelt was highly respected and had highways named after him. Trump stated that he did not agree with Roosevelt's internment of Japanese Americans, and clarified that the proposal would not apply to Muslims who were U.S. citizens or to Muslims who were serving in the U.S. military.
In May 2016, Trump retreated slightly from his call for a Muslim ban, calling it "merely an idea, not a proposal". On June 13, 2016, he reformulated the ban so that it would be geographical, not religious, applying to "areas of the world where there is a proven history of terrorism against the United States, Europe or our allies". Two hours later, he claimed that ban was only for nations "tied to Islamic terror". In June 2016, he also stated that he would allow Muslims from allies like the United Kingdom to enter the United States. In May 2016, Trump said "There will always be exceptions" to the ban, when asked how the ban would apply to London's newly elected mayor Sadiq Khan. A spokesman for Sadiq Khan said in response that Trump's views were "ignorant, divisive and dangerous" and play into the hands of extremists.
In June 2016, Trump expanded his proposed ban on Muslim immigration to the United States to cover immigration from areas with a history of terrorism. Specifically, Trump stated, "When I am elected, I will suspend immigration from areas of the world when there is a proven history of terrorism against the United States, Europe, or our allies, until we understand how to end these threats." According to lawyers and legal scholars cited in a New York Times report, the president has the power to carry out the plan but it would take an ambitious and likely time-consuming bureaucratic effort, and make sweeping use of executive authority. Immigration analysts also noted that the implementation of Trump's plan could "prompt a wave of retaliation against American citizens traveling and living abroad". In July 2016, Trump described his proposal as encompassing "any nation that has been compromised by terrorism". Trump later referred to the reformulation as "extreme vetting".
When asked in July 2016 about his proposal to restrict immigration from areas with high levels of terrorism, Trump insisted that it was not a "rollback" of his initial proposal to ban all Muslim immigrants. He said, "In fact, you could say it's an expansion. I'm looking now at territory." When asked if his new proposal meant that there would be greater checks on immigration from countries that have been compromised by terrorism, such as France, Germany and Spain, Trump answered, "It's their own fault, because they've allowed people over years to come into their territory."
On August 15, 2016, Trump suggested that "extreme views" would be grounds to be thrown out of the U.S., saying he would deport Seddique Mateen, the father of Omar Mateen (the gunman in the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting), who has expressed support for the Taliban. On August 31, during a speech in Phoenix, Trump said he would form a commission to study which regions or countries he would suspend immigration from, noting that Syria and Libya would be high on that list. Jeff Sessions an advisor to Trump's campaign on immigration at the time said the Trump campaign's plan was "the best laid out law enforcement plan to fix this country's immigration system that's been stated in this country maybe forever". During confirmation-hearing testimony, he acknowledged supporting vetting based on "areas where we have an unusually high risk of terrorists coming in"; Sessions acknowledged the DOJ would need to evaluate such a plan if it were outside the "Constitutional order."
Trump has on several occasions expressed opposition to allowing Syrian refugees into the U.S.—saying they could be the "ultimate Trojan horse"—and has proposed deporting back to Syria refugees settled in the U.S. By September 2015, Trump had expressed support for taking in some Syrian refugees and praised Germany's decision to take in Syrian refugees.
On a number of occasions in 2015, Trump asserted that "If you're from Syria and you're a Christian, you cannot come into this country, and they're the ones that are being decimated. If you are Islamic ... it's hard to believe, you can come in so easily." PolitiFact rated Trump's claim as "false" and found it to be "wrong on its face", citing the fact that 3 percent of the refugees from Syria have been Christian (although they represent 10 percent of the Syrian population) and finding that the U.S. government is not discriminating against Christians as a matter of official policy.
In a May 2016 interview with Bill O'Reilly, Trump stated "Look, we are at war with these people and they don't wear uniforms. ... . This is a war against people that are vicious, violent people, that we have no idea who they are, where they come from. We are allowing tens of thousands of them into our country now." Politifact ruled this statement "pants on fire", stating that the U.S. is on track to accept 100,000 refugees in 2017, but there is no evidence that tens of thousands of them are terrorists.
Restriction of asylum on the grounds of gang-based or domestic violence
On July 11, 2018, new guidance was given to UCSIS officers who interview asylum seekers at the US' borders and evaluate refugee applications. According to the guidance, asylum claims on the basis of gang-based or domestic violence are unlikely to meet the criterion of persecution "on account of the applicant's membership to a particular social group", unless the home government condones the behavior or demonstrates "a complete helplessness to protect the victims". Furthermore, an applicant's illegal entry may "weigh against a favorable exercise of discretion".
The guidance followed an earlier reversal by Jeff Sessions on June 11, 2018 of a decision by the Board of Immigration Appeals granting a battered woman asylum. Sessions had stated that "[t]he mere fact that a country may have problems effectively policing certain crimes – such as domestic violence or gang violence – or that certain populations are more likely to be victims of crime, cannot itself establish an asylum claim". Domestic violence victims had been eligible for asylum since 2014.
The Trump administration is considering housing up to 20,000 unaccompanied migrant children on military bases. In a notification to lawmakers, the Pentagon reported officials at Health and Human Services asked about providing beds for children at military installations "for occupancy as early as July through December 31, 2018."
In the 2016 fiscal year, the US accepted 84,995 refugees from around the world. In 2017 it was announced it is prepared to welcome for resettlement to only 45,000 a decrease from the 84,995 the last year. In 2018 it was announced by the US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo that the United States would cap the number of refugees allowed into the country at 30,000 for fiscal year 2019.
|Period||Refugee Programme |
Travel ban and refugee suspension
On January 27, 2017, Trump signed an executive order (Number 13769), titled "Protecting the Nation From Terrorist Attacks by Foreign Nationals", that suspended entry for citizens of seven countries for 90 days: Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen, totaling more than 134 million people. The order also stopped the admission of refugees of the Syrian Civil War indefinitely, and the entry of all refugees to the United States for 120 days. Refugees who were on their way to the United States when the order was signed were stopped and detained at airports.
Implicated by this order is 8 U.S.C. Sec. 1182 "Whenever the President finds that the entry of any aliens or of any class of aliens into the United States would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, he may by proclamation, and for such period as he shall deem necessary, suspend the entry of all aliens or any class of aliens as immigrants or nonimmigrants, or impose on the entry of aliens any restrictions he may deem to be appropriate." 8 U.S. Code § 1182 (Section 212(f) of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952).
Critics argue that Congress later restricted this power in 1965, stating plainly that no person could be "discriminated against in the issuance of an immigrant visa because of the person's race, sex, nationality, place of birth or place of residence." (8 U.S. Code § 1152) The only exceptions are those provided for by Congress (such as the preference for Cuban asylum seekers).
Many legal challenges to the order were brought immediately after its issuance: from January 28 to 31, almost 50 cases were filed in federal courts. Some courts, in turn, granted temporary relief, including a nationwide temporary restraining order (TRO) that barred the enforcement of major parts of the executive order. The Trump administration is appealing the TRO.
On March 6, 2017, Trump signed a revised executive order, that, among other differences with the original order, excluded Iraq, visa-holders, and permanent residents from the temporary suspension and did not differentiate Syrian refugees from refugees from other countries.
On September 24, 2017 the executive order was superseded by Presidential Proclamation 9645 to establish travel restrictions on seven countries, omitting Sudan from the previous list while adding North Korea and Venezuela.
In late October 2017, Trump ended a ban on refugee admissions while adding new rules for "tougher vetting of applicants" and essentially halting entry of refugees from 11 high risk nations. This has led to a 40% drop in entrants.
On June 26, 2018, the Supreme Court ruled 5-4 along ideological lines in favor of the September 2017 version (Presidential Proclamation 9645) of the Trump administration's travel ban, reversing lower courts that had deemed the ban unconstitutional.
Increased immigration enforcement
On January 25, 2017, Trump signed Executive Order 13768 which, among other things, significantly increased the number of immigrants considered a priority for deportation. Previously, under Obama, an immigrant ruled removable would only be considered a priority to actually be physically deported if they, in addition to being removable, were convicted of serious crimes such as felonies or multiple misdemeanors. Under the Trump administration, such an immigrant can be considered a priority to be removed even if convicted only of minor crimes, or even if merely accused of such criminal activity. Guadalupe Garcia de Rayos, who came illegally to the United States when she was 14, may have become the first person deported under the terms of this order on February 9, 2017. Garcia de Rayos had previously been convicted of felony criminal impersonation related to her use of a falsified Social Security card to work at an Arizona water park. This conviction had not been considered serious enough, under Obama, to actually remove her from the country, although she was required to check in regularly with ICE officials, which she had done regularly since 2008. The first time she checked in with ICE officials after the new executive order took effect, however, led to her detention and physical removal from the country. Greg Stanton, the Mayor of Phoenix commented that "Rather than tracking down violent criminals and drug dealers, ICE is spending its energy deporting a woman with two American children who has lived here for more than two decades and poses a threat to nobody." ICE officials said that her case went through multiple reviews in the immigration court system and that the "judges held she did not have a legal basis to remain in the US".
The Washington Post reported on February 10, 2017 that federal agents had begun to conduct sweeping immigration enforcement raids in at least six states.
Federal Reserve officials have warned that Trump's immigration restrictions will likely have an adverse impact on the economy. Immigration is a core component of economic growth, they have said.
Ilya Somin, Professor of Law at George Mason University, argued that Trump's withholding of federal funding would be unconstitutional: "Trump and future presidents could use [the executive order] to seriously undermine constitutional federalism by forcing dissenting cities and states to obey presidential dictates, even without authorization from Congress. The circumvention of Congress makes the order a threat to separation of powers, as well." On April 25, 2017, U.S. District Judge William Orrick issued a nationwide preliminary injunction halting the executive order. Subsequently, Judge Orrick issued a nationwide permanent injunction on November 20, 2017, declaring that section 9(a) of Executive Order 13768 was "unconstitutional on its face" and violates "the separation of powers doctrine and deprives [the plaintiffs] of their Tenth and Fifth Amendment rights."
Phase out of DACA
President Obama's "Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals" (DACA) Executive Order from 2012 enabled an estimated 800,000 young adults ("Dreamers") brought illegally into the U.S. as children to work legally without fear of deportation. President Trump announced in September 2017 that he was cancelling this Executive Order with effect from six months and he called for legislation to be enacted before the protection phased out in March 2018, stating "I have a love for these people, and hopefully now Congress will be able to help them and do it properly." Trump's action was widely protested across the country. Business leaders argued it was unfair and could harm the economy.
Cancellation of Temporary Protective Status
The Federal government grants Temporary Protective Status to immigrants in the country in the wake of national emergencies in their various countries of origin. The Trump administration announced it was canceling such status for immigrants as follows:
- Haiti – On November 5, 2017, the administration announced that 45,000 to 59,000 Haitians would lose temporary protective status effective July 22, 2019.
- El Salvador – On January 8, 2017, the administration announced that nearly 200,000 Salvadorans would lose temporary protective status effective September 9, 2019.
- Nicaragua – On November 5, 2017, the administration announced that some 2,500 Nicaraguans would lose temporary protective status effective January 5, 2019.
On January 11, 2018, during an Oval Office meeting about immigration reform, Democratic lawmakers proposed restoring Temporary Protective Status to these countries as part of compromise immigration legislation. In response, Trump reportedly said: "Those shitholes send us the people that they don't want", and suggested that the US should instead increase immigration from "places like Norway" and Asian countries. Trump's reported comments, which he later partially denied having made, received widespread domestic and international condemnation.
In June 2018, immigrants faced with losing their status filed suit against the terminations in Federal District Court in San Francisco, arguing that they were made arbitrarily, without a formal process, and in a discriminatory manner.
Zero-tolerance policy and family separation on the Mexico border
By February 2018, the Trump administration had begun a practice of separating minor children entering the United States from the parents or relatives that accompanied them, including people applying for asylum. On May 7, 2018, the Justice Department announced a policy of "zero tolerance" of unauthorized crossing of the border with Mexico, coordinated between the Departments of Homeland Security and the Justice Department. Under this policy, Federal authorities separated children from their parents, relatives, or other adults who accompanied them in crossing the border: parents were sent to federal jails awaiting their hearing while children were held in shelters under the aegis of the Department of Health and Human Services.
White House Chief of Staff John F. Kelly described the policy as "a tough deterrent" discouraging arrivals: "They're coming here for a reason. And I sympathize with the reason. But the laws are the laws. But a big name of the game is deterrence." In June 2018, Attorney General Sessions said, "If people don't want to be separated from their children, they should not bring them with them. We've got to get this message out. You're not given immunity." Court documents released in late June showed that it was the government's intent to separate children from their parents with "no procedure or mechanism for that parent to reunite with their child, absent hiring lawyers or pursuing it on their own."
The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Physicians and the American Psychiatric Association condemned the policy, with the American Academy of Pediatrics saying that the policy has caused "irreparable harm" to the children. Numerous religious groups and figures voiced opposition to the policy. Forty Democratic United States Senators sent a letter to President Trump urging him to "rescind this unethical, ineffective, and inhumane policy and instead prioritize approaches that align with our humanitarian and American values." In June, a national protest was held which drew hundreds of thousands of protesters from all 50 states in more than 600 towns and cities.
According to a PBS Frontline investigative report, almost 3,000 mostly Central American children were separated from their families before the practice was ended by a judicial order in June. On June 26, Judge Dana Sabraw ordered that all of the separated children were to be reunited with their parents within 30 days. The most recent data, current as of August 20, shows that about a fifth of the children have still not been reunited with their parents.
June 20, 2018, executive order
Responding to widespread criticism of family separation, President Trump issued an executive order titled "Affording Congress an Opportunity to Address Family Separation." The Order instructed the Department of Homeland Security to maintain custody of parents and children jointly, "to the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of appropriations." It also instructed the Justice Department to attempt to overturn the Flores Agreement, which limits the time for holding children and families with children to 20 days. At the signing ceremony, Trump said, "We're going to have strong, very strong borders but we are going to keep the families together. I didn't like the sight or the feeling of families being separated." Senator Kamala Harris criticized the order, saying that "This Executive Order doesn't fix the crisis. Indefinitely detaining children with their families in camps is inhumane and will not make us safe." On June 21, the Justice Department filed a request with a federal district court asking for a modification of the Flores agreement to allow children to be detained for more than 20 days.
June 24, 2018, tweet calling for suspension of due process rights
On June 24, 2018, Trump tweeted, "We cannot allow all of these people to invade our Country. When somebody comes in, we must immediately, with no Judges or Court Cases, bring them back from where they came ..." [sic] According to Harvard constitutional law professor Laurence H. Tribe, the Supreme Court has repeatedly held that "the due process requirements of the 5th and 14th Amendments apply to all persons, including those in the U.S. unlawfully." Tribe wrote, "Trump is making the tyrannical claim that he has the right to serve as prosecutor, judge and jury with respect to all those who enter our country. That is a breathtaking assertion of unbounded power – power without any plausible limit."
The Washington Post analyzed Trump's tweet and concluded, "As a legal question, experts say Trump's proposition is unsound. The Constitution grants due-process rights not only to U.S. citizens but to every 'person' in the United States. The Supreme Court has said this covers undocumented immigrants."
Legal and reports
The ACLU published a report; Neglect and Abuse of Unaccompanied Immigrant Children by U.S. Customs and Border Protection, in May 2018 that alleged a "culture of impunity" within US Customs and Border Protection and the Department of Homeland Security. The documents describe hundreds of cases of alleged abuse between 2009 and 2014, in a system that a staff attorney Mitra Ebadolahi called brutal and lawless. In response, the US Customs and Border Protection agency issued a statement in which it called the allegations "unfounded and baseless."
A federal lawsuit was brought forward by immigrant children, separate covering a period from 2015 though 2017. Immigrant children as young as 14, who are housed in the Shenandoah Valley Juvenile Center near Stauton, Virginia allege over half a dozen sworn statements from teens jailed in the center. The alleged behavior in the statements are claims of being beaten while handcuffed, locked up for extended time in solitary confinement, being left nude and shivering concert cells, and being stripped of clothes and strapped to chairs with bags over their heads.
The Texas Tribune reported that detained children who had been held at the Shiloh Treatment Center from 2014 through 2017 said they had been forcibly treated with antipsychotic drugs by the facility personnel, based on legal filings from a class action lawsuit. According to the filings, the drugs made the children listless, dizzy and incapacitated, and in some cases unable to walk. According to a mother, after receiving the drug, her child repeatedly fell, hitting her head and eventually ending up in a wheel chair. Another child stated that she tried to open a window, at which point one of the supervisors hurled her against a door, choked her until she fainted and had a doctor forcibly administer an injection while she was being held down by two guards. A forensic psychiatrist consulted by the Tribune compared the practice to what "the old Soviet Union used to do". The treatment center is one of the companies that have been investigated on charges of mistreating children, although the federal government continues to employ the private agency which runs it as a federal contractor.
- Immigration to the United States
- Immigration reduction in the United States
- Central American Minors Program
- Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals
- Immigration reform in the United States
- Mexico–United States barrier
- United States Refugee Admissions Program (USRAP)
- "Campaign 2015: The Candidates & the World: Donald Trump on Immigration". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
- "Trump Highlights Immigrant Crime to Defend His Border Policy. Statistics Don't Back Him Up". Retrieved June 24, 2018.
- "The Mythical Link Between Immigrants and High Crime Rates". www.governing.com. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
- Sahil Kapur, "Reality Check: 4 Reasons Trump's Immigration Plans Are Impractical", Bloomberg Politics (August 8, 2015).
- "Trump says would raise visa fees to pay for Mexican border wall", Reuters (August 16, 2015).
- Seung Min Kim, "Trump hits turbulence with immigration hard-liners", Politico (March 14, 2016).
- Jeremy Diamond & Sara Murray, "Trump outlines immigration specifics", CNN (August 17, 2015).
- Jane C. Timm (November 7, 2016). "Here Are All of Donald Trump's Flip-Flops on Big Issues". NBC News.
- Horwitz, Sari; Sacchetti, Maria (May 7, 2018). "Sessions vows to prosecute all illegal border crossers and separate children from their parents". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
- Kerr, Ashley (8 February 2018). "President Trump's Four Pillars for Immigration Reform". The National Law Review. Ogletree, Deakins, Nash, Smoak & Stewart, P.C. ISSN 2161-3362. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
- Phillip, Abby (18 April 2017). "Trump signs 'Buy American, Hire American' executive order, promising to fight for American workers". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
- Cory, Jennifer (31 January 2018). "The Four Pillars: Trump's Immigration Plan". The National Law Review. Womble Bond Dickinson (US) LLP. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
- Robillard, Kevin (November 26, 2012). "Trump: 'Self-deportation' cost votes". Politico. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- Blake, Aaron (March 6, 2014). "Trump warns GOP on immigration: 'They're taking your jobs'". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- Amy Sherman. "Donald Trump wrongly says the number of illegal immigrants is 30 million or higher". Politifact. Retrieved May 30, 2016.
- "Share of Unauthorized Immigrant Workers in Production, Construction Jobs Falls Since 2007". Pew Research Center. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- "US President Donald Trump plans to end birthright citizenship".
- Inae Oh (August 19, 2015). "Donald Trump: The 14th Amendment is Unconstitutional". Mother Jones. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
- Lauren Carroll, "Trump: 'Many' scholars say 'anchor babies' aren't covered by Constitution", Politifact (August 25, 2015).
- Da Silva, Chantal (30 October 2018). "Trump Says He Plans to Sign Executive Order to Terminate Birthright Citizenship". CNN. Retrieved 30 October 2018. Includes video.
- Schroeder, Robert (30 October 2018). "Trump Today: President says he's preparing order to end birthright citizenship". Market Watch. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
- "Wharton study: Immigration proposal will lead to less economic growth and fewer jobs". Philly.com. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
- "The RAISE Act: Effect on Economic Growth and Jobs". Penn Wharton Budget Model. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
- Hollyfield, Amy (September 1, 2016). "Donald Trump promises to ask Congress to pass Kate's Law".
- Ted, Cruz, (July 6, 2016). "Actions - S.2193 - 114th Congress (2015-2016): Kate's Law". www.congress.gov.
- http://www.washingtontimes.com, The Washington Times. "Kate Steinle 'Kate's Law': Congress gets another chance to pass immigration legislation".
- "'Kate's Law' to be considered on Senate floor".
- "Cruz's 'Kate's Law,' named for San Francisco woman killed by undocumented immigrant, stalls in Senate". Dallas News. July 6, 2016.
- Paredes Martín (August 6, 2015). "Donald Trump is a Failed Businessman". Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- Tina Vasquez (September 9, 2015). "I've experienced a new level of racism since Donald Trump went after Latinos". Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- Trump, Donald (June 16, 2015). "Full text: Donald Trump announces a presidential bid". The Washington Post.
- "Immigration reform that will make America great again". Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. July 6, 2015. Archived from the original on September 29, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- "Donald Trump's epic statement on Mexico". Business Insider. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- Green, David (May 1, 2016). "The Trump Hypothesis: Testing Immigrant Populations as a Determinant of Violent and Drug-Related Crime in the United States". Social Science Quarterly. 97 (3): n/a–n/a. doi:10.1111/ssqu.12300. ISSN 1540-6237.
- John Burnett, "How Realistic Is Donald Trump's Immigration Plan?", NPR Morning Edition (August 20, 2015).
- Corasaniti, Nick (August 31, 2016). "A Look at Trump's Immigration Plan, Then and Now". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- "Donald Trump Transcript: 'Our Country Needs a Truly Great Leader'". Federal News Service speech. June 16, 2015.
- Kate Drew, "This is what Trump's border wall could cost US: A roughly 2,000-mile fence on the Mexican border would cost tens of billions", CNBC (October 9, 2015).
- "Donald Trump emphasizes plans to build 'real' wall at Mexico border". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation News. August 19, 2015.
- "Trump in new book: Israel proof that walls work". The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles. November 3, 2015.
- Stephen Loiaconi, "Experts: Trump's border wall could be costly, ineffective", Sinclair Broadcast Group (August 18, 2015).
- "Trump 'Didn't Discuss' Border Wall Payment With Mexican President". ABC News. August 31, 2016. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
- Healy, Patrick (August 31, 2016). "Donald Trump and Mexican Leader Clash in Accounts of Meeting". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- Epstein, Reid J.; Hook, Janet; Luhnow, David (September 1, 2016). "Donald Trump Vows Deportations After Easing Tone in Meeting With Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- John Cassidy (December 28, 2015). "Donald Trump Isn't a Fascist; He's a Media-Savvy Know-Nothing".
- Richardson, Bradford. "Trump: It was legal immigrants that made America great", The Hill (February 4, 2016).
- Begley, Sarah. "Donald Trump: 'I'm Gonna Win the Hispanic Vote'", Time (December 17, 2015).
- "Donald Trump says parts of border wall could be fence instead". November 14, 2016.
- Department of Homeland Security-Border Security Metrics Report-May 2018
- Pew Research Center-U.S. Unauthorized Immigrant Total Dips to Lowest Level in a Decade-November 2018
- Ainsley, Julia Edwards (February 9, 2017). "Trump border 'wall' to cost $21.6 billion, take 3.5 years to build: Homeland Security internal report". Reuters.
- "Trump urged Mexican president to end his public defiance on border wall, transcript reveals". Washington Post. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
- "Determination Pursuant to Section 102 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, as Amended". Federal Register. September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
- Hand, Mark (September 12, 2017). "Homeland Security waives environmental review for California border project". Think Progress. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
- "Judge criticized by Trump will hear case on border wall".
- "The judge Trump disparaged as 'Mexican' will preside over an important border wall case".
- Kopan, Tal (February 28, 2018). "Judge Curiel, once attacked by Trump, rules border wall can proceed". CNN. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
- "Fact Check: Did the U.S. catch 4,000 terrorists at the border in 2018". NBC News. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
- "Trump officials exaggerate terrorist threat on southern border in tense briefing". mcclatchydc. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
- "Fox's Chris Wallace Repeatedly Nails Sarah Sanders on Bogus Border Terror Threat Claims". Retrieved January 6, 2019.
- "Trump's DHS Can't Back Up His Lie About Catching '10 Terrorists' at Border". Retrieved January 6, 2019.
- Nick Gass, "Trump's immigration plan: Mass deportation", Politico (August 17, 2015).
- Kelley Beaucar Vlahos, "Messy legal process could challenge Trump's mass deportation plan", Fox News (November 27, 2015).
- Kate Linthicum, "The dark, complex history of Trump's model for his mass deportation plan", Los Angeles Times (November 13, 2015).
- "Donald Trump emphasizes plans to build 'real' wall at Mexico border". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. August 19, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- Jim Avila & Serena Marshall, "Donald Trump Models 'Deportation Force' After Inhumane Eisenhower Plan, Scholar Says", ABC News (November 11, 2015).
- Luciana Lopez (May 5, 2016). "Trump's deportation plan could slice 2 percent off U.S. GDP: study". Reuters.
- Beth Reinhard (June 29, 2016). "Donald Trump Adjusts Some of His Positions". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Donald J. Trump on Twitter". Twitter. June 25, 2016. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
- Kevin Cirilli. "Trump Says Muslim Ban Plan to Focus on 'Terrorist' Countries". Bloomberg Politics. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
- Miller, Zeke J. (August 23, 2016). "Donald Trump Signals 'Softening' of Immigration Position". Time. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- Bradner, Eric (August 28, 2016). "Trump to give immigration speech amid major questions". CNN. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- "Donald Trump Pivots Back to Hard-Line Immigration Stance". Time. August 31, 2016. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- "Full Video: Trump lays out his 'Contract with America'". MSN. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Wang, Amy B. "Trump asked for a 'Muslim ban', Giuliani says – and ordered a commission to do it 'legally'". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- "The Religious Affiliation of U.S. Immigrants: Muslim Immigrants". Pew Research Center. May 17, 2013.
- Amanda Holpuch (January 4, 2016). "Trump re-ups controversial Muslim ban and Mexico wall in first campaign ad". The Guardian.
- Scott, Eugene. "Trump: My Muslim friends don't support my immigration ban", CNN (December 13, 2015).
- "Voters Like Trump's Proposed Muslim Ban", Rasmussen Reports. Retrieved December 18, 2015.
- Barro, Josh. "How Unpopular Is Trump's Muslim Ban? Depends How You Ask", The New York Times (December 15, 2015).
- Johnson, Jenna (December 7, 2015). "Trump calls for 'total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States". The Washington Post.
- "Donald Trump explains how his ban on Muslims entering the U.S. would work". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- Morning Joe, MSNBC, August 12, 2015.
- "Did a CNN Commentator Provide Donald Trump with a Defense of his Proposed Muslim Ban?" Erik Wemple, The Washington Post, August 12, 2015
- Similar to Presidential Proclamations 2525, 2526, and 2527:
- "Donald Trump Speaks Out on Plan to Ban Muslims". Good Morning America.
- "Donald Trump Cites These FDR Policies to Defend Muslim Ban". ABC News.
I mean, take a look at what FDR did many years ago and he's one of the most highly respected presidents. I mean respected by most people. They named highways after him.
- "ADL compares Trump's anti-Muslim proposal to persecution of Jews". Haaretz. December 7, 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Ben Kamisar (July 12, 2015). "Trump calls for 'shutdown' of Muslims entering US". The Hill.
- "Trump's plan would block all Muslims from entering the United States, with an exception for U.S. citizens who are Muslim, who would come and go as they wish. ... 'If a person is a Muslim, goes overseas and comes back, they can come back. They're a citizen. That's different,' Trump said." "Donald Trump Stands by Barring Muslims Despite Bipartisan Criticism", John Santucci, ABC News, December 8, 2015.
- Rappeport, Alan; Haberman, Maggie (June 29, 2016). "How Donald Trump Keeps Changing His Mind on Abortion, Torture and Banning Muslims". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
- Preston, Julia (June 18, 2016). "Many What-Ifs in Donald Trump's Plan for Migrants". New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
- "London's mayor an exception to proposed ban on Muslims: Trump". Reuters. May 9, 2016. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
- Tim Hume & Eric Bradner, "Donald Trump: London mayor made 'very rude statements' about me", CNN (May 16, 2016).
- "Trump Calls To Ban Immigration From Countries With 'Proven History Of Terrorism'". NPR. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
- Preston, Julia (June 18, 2016). "Many What-If's in Donald Trump's Plan for Migrants". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
- Park, Haeyoun (July 22, 2016). "Trump Vows to Stop Immigration From Nations 'Compromised' by Terrorism. How Could It Work?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- Blake, Aaron (September 15, 2016). "Donald Trump just completely undercut his own Muslim ban alternative". The Washington Post.
- "Trump: I'm Running Against Clinton, Not 'Rest of the World'". Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- "Meet the Press". July 24, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- "Donald Trump says French and Germans to face 'extreme vetting' entering the US". Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- "Campaign 2016 updates: Americans didn't worry this much about nuclear weapons post Cold War – then came Trump". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
- "Trump Says Fight Against ISIS Could Require Racial Profiling". New York.
- "Father of Pulse nightclub shooter backing Hillary Clinton". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 15, 2016. On August 31, 2016 Trump gave a speech
- Costa, Robert; Partlow, Joshua; DeYoung, Karen (August 30, 2016). "Trump to meet in Mexico with the country's president". Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- Trump, Donald (August 31, 2016). Presidential Candidate Donald Trump Remarks on Immigration Policy (Speech). C-SPAN. Event occurs at 56:42.
- Stephenson, Emily (August 31, 2016). "Trump returns to hardline position on illegal immigration". Phoenix: YahooNews – via Reuters.
- Sessions, Jeff (August 31, 2016). Presidential Candidate Donald Trump Remarks on Immigration Policy (Speech). C-SPAN. Event occurs at 10:35.
- Attorney General Confirmation Hearing [of Jeff Sessions]. January 10, 2017. Event occurs at 54:19.
- "Trump: Syria refugees could be the 'ultimate Trojan horse'". Fox News Channel. November 18, 2015. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
- "Donald Trump: I would send Syrian refugees home", BBC News (October 1, 2015).
- Jordyn Phelps, "Donald Trump Promises to Deport Syrian Migrants Who Settle in the US", ABC News (November 16, 2015).
- Nick Gass, "Trump calls for taking in Syrian refugees", Politico (September 9, 2015).
- "Trump discusses Ukraine and Syria with European politicians via video link". The Guardian. September 11, 2015.
- Louis Jacobson, "Donald Trump says if you're from Syria and a Christian, you can't come to the U.S. as a refugee", PolitiFact (July 20, 2015).
- "Donald Trump's Pants on Fire claim that US is letting in 'tens of thousands' of terrorists now". PolitiFact. May 25, 2016.
- Tal Kopan (12 July 2018). "Trump administration to turn away far more asylum seekers at the border under new guidance". CNN. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- "Policy Memorandum (PM-602-0162)" (PDF). UCSIS. 11 July 2018. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- Siddiqui, Sabrina (11 June 2018). "Trump administration moves to end asylum for victims of domestic abuse and gangs". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- "Matter of A-B-, Respondent. Interim Decision #3929. 27 I&N Dec. 316 (A.G. 2018)". www.justice.gov. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- Preston, Julia (29 August 2014). "In First for Court, Woman Is Ruled Eligible for Asylum in U.S. on Basis of Domestic Abuse". The New York Times. p. A12. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- Lamothe, Dan; Kim, Seung Min; Miroff, Nick (2018-06-21). "Pentagon will make room for up to 20,000 migrant children on military bases". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2018-06-22.
- Tribune, The Texas (2018-06-21). "Pentagon asked to make room for 20,000 migrant children on military bases". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 2018-06-22.
- Jeremy Diamond. "Trump's latest executive order: Banning people from 7 countries and more". CNN.
- D. Shear, Michael; Cooper, Helene (January 27, 2017). "Trump Bars Refugees and Citizens of 7 Muslim Countries". The New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Kulish, Nicholas; Fernandez, Manny (January 28, 2017). "Refugees Detained at U.S. Airports, Prompting Legal Challenges to Trump's Immigration Order". The New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Bier, David J. (January 27, 2017). "Trump's Immigration Ban Is Illegal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Special Collection: Civil Rights Challenges to Trump Immigration/Refugee Orders, University of Michigan Law School's Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse (last accessed January 31, 2017).
- Devlin Barrett & Dan Frosch Federal Judge Temporarily Halts Trump Order on Immigration, Refugees: Ruling applies nationwide to tens of thousands, Wall Street Journal (February 5, 2017).
- Adam Liptak, Where Trump's Travel Ban Stands, New York Times (February 5, 2017).
- Chakraborty, Barnini (March 6, 2017). "Trump Signs New Immigration Order, Narrows Scope of Travel Ban". Fox News. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- Berenson, Tessa (June 26, 2017). "Supreme Court Allows Travel Ban to Go Into Effect While It Hears Case". time.com. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
- "Presidential Proclamation Enhancing Vetting Capabilities and Processes for Detecting Attempted Entry Into the United States by Terrorists or Other Public-Safety Threats". whitehouse.gov. 2017-09-24. Retrieved 2017-09-26.
- Yeganeh Torbati (December 8, 2017). "Trump lifts refugee ban, but admissions still plummet, data shows". Reuters.
- "US Supreme Court upholds Trump's travel ban". BBC. 26 June 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
- "Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of the United States". Federal Register. January 25, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
- Sanchez, Ray; Burnside, Tina; Ansari, Azadeh (February 9, 2017). "Mother deported in Arizona immigration case that sparked protests". CNN.
- CNN, Ray Sanchez. "Guadalupe Garcia de Rayos has become the focus of a national debate over the Trump administration's crackdown on illegal immigration".
- "Federal agents conduct sweeping immigration enforcement raids in at least 6 states". Washington Post. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
- Raice, Shayndi (February 10, 2017). "Fed Officials Cite Economic Benefits of Immigration Amid Political Debate". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
- "Why Trump's executive order on sanctuary cities is unconstitutional". The Washington Post. January 26, 2017. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Levin, Sam (April 25, 2017). "Trump's order to restrict 'sanctuary cities' funding blocked by federal judge". The Guardian. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Egelko, Bob (April 25, 2017). "Judge says Trump can't punish cities over sanctuary city policies". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Diamond, Jeremy; McKirdy, Euan (November 21, 2017). "Judge issues blow against Trump's sanctuary city order". CNN. Archived from the original on November 22, 2017. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
- Visser, Nick (November 21, 2017). "Judge Permanently Blocks Trump's Executive Order On Sanctuary Cities". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on November 24, 2017. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
- County of Santa Clara v. Trump (17-cv-00485-WHO), p. 28 (N.D. Cal. November 20, 2017). Text
- "Trump Moves to End DACA and Calls on Congress to Act".
- "Amid call to reunite separated families, a plea to fix TPS for Haitians and others". miamiherald. Retrieved 2018-06-25.
- Jordan, Miriam (2017-11-21). "Trump Administration Ends Temporary Protection for Haitians". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-06-25.
- Jordan, Miriam (2018-01-20). "Trump Administration Says That Nearly 200,000 Salvadorans Must Leave". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-06-25.
- Nixon, Ron (2018-01-20). "About 2,500 Nicaraguans to Lose Special Permission to Live in U.S." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-06-25.
- Dawsey, Josh (2018-01-12). "Trump derides protections for immigrants from 'shithole' countries". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2018-06-25.
- Kiely, Eugene (January 16, 2018). "What Did Trump Say at Immigration Meeting?". FactCheck.org. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
- Kirby, Jen (January 11, 2018). "Trump wants fewer immigrants from 'shithole countries' and more from places like Norway". Vox. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
- Dawsey, Josh (January 12, 2018). "Trump derides protections for immigrants from 'shithole' countries". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
The president, according to a White House official, also suggested he would be open to more immigrants from Asian countries because he felt that they help the United States economically.
- Yuhas, Alan (January 12, 2018). "Donald Trump denies using the phrase 'shithole countries' in immigration talks". The Guardian.
- Beauchamp, Zack (January 11, 2018). "Trump's "shithole countries" comment exposes the core of Trumpism". Vox. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- Dawsey, Josh (January 11, 2018). "Trump's history of making offensive comments about nonwhite immigrants". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- "Immigrants Challenge End Of Their Temporary Protective Status". SFGate. Retrieved 2018-06-25.
- Hennessy-Fiske, Molly (February 20, 2018). "U.S. is separating immigrant parents and children to discourage others, activists say". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- "Attorney General Sessions Delivers Remarks Discussing the Immigration Enforcement Actions of the Trump Administration". www.justice.gov. May 7, 2018. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
The Department of Homeland Security is now referring 100 percent of illegal Southwest Border crossings to the Department of Justice for prosecution. And the Department of Justice will take up those cases.
- "Attorney General Sessions Delivers Remarks Discussing the Immigration Enforcement Actions of the Trump Administration". www.justice.gov. May 7, 2018. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
If you are smuggling a child, then we will prosecute you and that child will be separated from you as required by law.
- Bump, Philip (June 7, 2018). "Analysis | Trump's 'deterrent' of separating kids from their parents isn't deterring many migrants". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
- Rosenberg, Eli (June 5, 2018). "Sessions defends separating immigrant parents and children: 'We've got to get this message out'". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
- Kopan, Tal. "Government never had specific plan to reunify families, court testimony shows". CNN. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
- Catherine E. Shoichet (June 14, 2018). "Doctors saw immigrant kids separated from their parents. Now they're trying to stop it". CNN.
- "AAP Statement Opposing Separation of Children and Parents at the Border". www.aap.org. May 8, 2018. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
- CNN, Judith Vonberg,. "Pope criticizes Trump administration over family separations". CNN. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
- News, A. B. C. (June 15, 2018). "Religious groups implore Trump White House: Stop separating immigrant families". ABC News. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
- "LDS Church calls for unity, compassion in new statement on immigration". June 18, 2018. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- "Conservative Religious Leaders Are Denouncing Trump Immigration Policies". Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- CNN, Catherine E. Shoichet,. "Doctors saw immigrant kids separated from their parents. Now they're trying to stop it". CNN. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
- Lanard, Noah (June 7, 2018). "40 senators just demanded that Donald Trump stop separating families at the border". Mother Jones. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
- "Thousands across U.S. join 'Keep Families Together' march to protest family separation". NBC News. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- Miller, Leila. "After Deadline to Reunite Them, Hundreds of Children Remain Separated". PBS FRONTLINE. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
- "The Trump administration's legacy of orphans". The Washington Post. 26 August 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
- "Affording Congress an Opportunity to Address Family Separation". The White House. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
- Wagner, John; Miroff, Nick; DeBonis, Mike (2018-06-20). "Trump reverses course, signs order ending his policy of separating families at the border". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
- Haberman, Maggie; Shear, Michael (June 20, 2018). "Trump Retreats on Separating Families, Signing Order to Detain Them Together". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
- "Trump Signs Order To End Family Separations". NPR.org. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
- Manchester, Julia (June 21, 2018). "DOJ files request to modify Flores settlement". The Hill. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- Rogers and Stolberg, Katie and Sheryl (24 June 2018). "Trump Calls for Depriving Immigrants Who Illegally Cross Border of Due Process Rights". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
- Rizzo, Salvador (26 June 2018). "President Trump's misconceptions about immigration courts and law". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
- "CBP Report ACLU_IHRC 5.23 FINAL.pdf" (PDF). Dropbox. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
- "ACLU Report: Detained Immigrant Children Subjected To Widespread Abuse By Officials". NPR.org. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
- "ACLU Obtains Documents Showing Widespread Abuse of Child Immigrants in U.S. Custody - ACLU of San Diego and Imperial Counties". ACLU of San Diego and Imperial Counties. 2018-05-23. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
- "CBP's Response to Unfounded ACLU Report | U.S. Customs and Border Protection". www.cbp.gov. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
- "Young immigrants detained in Virginia center allege abuse". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
- "Immigrant children forcibly injected with drugs at Texas shelter, lawsuit claims". The Texas Tribune. 20 June 2018.
- Smith, Matt; Bogado, Aura. "Immigrant children forcibly injected with psychiatric drugs, lawsuit claims". Tulsa World.
- "Migrant children coming to the US are being sent to shelters with histories of child abuse allegations".
- Cerullo, Megan. "Government-funded treatment center forcibly injected immigrant kids with drugs: legal filings". San Diego Union Tribune.
- Olmstead, Molly. "Report: Nearly Half of Funding for Child Migrant Care Went to Shelters With Histories of Abuse". Slate.