Immigration to Mexico

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Immigrants at a naturalization ceremony in Los Pinos.

Over the centuries, Mexico has received immigrants from Europe, the Americas (e.g., the United States, Colombia, Guatemala, Argentina, Honduras, Cuba, Brazil and Canada), and sometimes from Asia. Today, millions of their descendants still live in Mexico and can be found working in different industries.

Mexico is a country of emigration, immigration, refuge, transit, and return migration. According to the 2010 National Census, there are 961,121 immigrants registered with the government as living in Mexico, the majority of whom are US citizens.[1] This is almost double the 492,617 foreign-born residents counted in the 2000 Census.[1] Unofficial estimates put the total number of foreigners in Mexico closer to four million.[2]

Immigration policy[edit]

Orphaned Polish children in Guanajuato that arrived with a larger group of refugees during the Second World War.

Prior to May 2011, Mexico's immigration flows were regulated by the highly restrictive 1974 General Law of Population. However, on May 24, President Felipe Calderón signed into law a new and much more liberal Migration Law.[3] The Mexican Senate and subsequently the House had unanimously approved the migration bill that led to this new law on February 24 and April 29, respectively. Some of the most significant principles of this new law deal with the rights of migrants. The new law guarantees that foreigners and Mexican nationals will receive equal treatment under Mexican law. Under this principle all immigrants, regardless of status are granted the right to access education and health services. Mechanisms aimed at promoting family unity are now in place. Moreover, before the government takes action (e.g. deportation) with respect to migrant children and other vulnerable individuals (women, seniors, the handicapped and victims of crime) their specific needs must be prioritized and adequate services must be provided. Migrants are also granted judicial rights that they previously lacked, such as the right to due process. The law also calls for establishing a Center for Trust Evaluation and Control which will be charged with the task of training and certifying immigration personnel in hopes of curtailing corruption practices. All Institute of Migration officials are to meet the same standards as the rest of the country's security agencies. Government officials found to be in violation of this law are now subject to penalties including fines and prison sentences.

With the Mexican government’s intent to control migration flows and attract foreigners who can contribute to economic development, the new migration law simplifies foreigners’ entrance and residence requirements. It replaces the two large immigration categories—immigrant and nonimmigrant—with the categories of “visitor” and “temporary resident”, while keeping the status of “permanent resident”. In the General Law of Population the two categories incorporate over 30 different types of foreigners—i.e. distinguished visitor, religious minister, etc.—each with its own stipulations and requirements to qualify for entry and stay. Under the new law the requirements are simplified, basically differentiating those foreigners who are allowed to work and those who are not. The law also expedites the permanent resident application process for retirees and other foreigners. For granting permanent residency, the law proposes using a point system based on factors such as level of education, employment experience, and scientific and technological knowledge.[4]

According to Article 81 of the Law and Article 70 of the regulations to the law—published on 28 September 2012— immigration officials are the only ones that can conduct immigration procedures although the Federal Police may assist but only under the request and guidance of the Institute of Migration. Verification procedures cannot be conducted in migrant shelters run by civil society organizations or by individuals that engage in providing humanitarian assistance to immigrants.

Undocumented immigration has been a problem for Mexico, especially since the 1970s. Although the number of deportations is declining with 61,034 registered cases in 2011, the Mexican government documented over 200,000 unauthorized border crossings in 2004 and 2005.[5] In 2011, 93% of undocumented immigrants in Mexico came from three countries -Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador- however, there is an increasing amount of immigrants from Asia and Africa.[6]

2015 Temporary Migrant Regularization Program[edit]

The Programa Temporal de Regularización Migratoria (PTRM) published on 12 January 2015 in the Diario Oficial de la Federación, is directed at those foreigners who have made their permanent residence in Mexico but due to 'diverse circumstances' did not regularize their stay in the country and find themselves turning to 'third parties' to perform various procedures, including finding employment.[7]

The program is aimed at foreign nationals who entered the country before 9 November 2012.[7] Foreigners wishing to live and be part of the national life of Mexico, will receive through the PTRM the status of 'temporary resident' by an immigration document that is valid for four years.[7] The temporary program will run from 13 January to 18 December 2015.[7]

In accordance with the provisions of Articles: 1, 2, 10, 18, 77, 126 and 133 of the Ley de Migración; 1 and 143 of the Reglamento de la Ley de Migración, any foreign national wishing to regularize their immigration status within Mexican territory, under the PTRM will complete the payment of fees for the following:

I. Proof of payment for receiving and examining the application of the procedure... ... MXN 1124.00 (USD 77.14 as of 12 January 2015)

II. For the issuance of the certificate giving them the status of temporary stay for four years ...... MXN 7914.00 (USD 514.17)

Through Article 16 of the Ley Federal de Derechos, foreign national are exempt them from payment if it can be proven that they earn a wage at or below minimum wage.[7] During the period that the PTRM is in effect, no fine is applied (as is the practice otherwise).[7]

Immigrant groups in Mexico[edit]

Second generation Armenian Mexican children in 1911.

Immigrants arrive in Mexico for many reasons, most of the documented immigrants have arrived for economic and/or work-related reasons. Many, such as executives, professionals, scientists, artists, or athletes working for either Mexican or foreign companies, arrive with secure jobs. Retirement is the main motivation for immigrants who tend to be more permanent. Aside from dual national descendants of Mexicans, naturalized Mexicans, or the undocumented, 262,672 foreign residents live on its soil. The majority of its foreign residents are from the U.S. followed by Spain and Guatemala.

United States[edit]

Main article: American Mexican

The largest number of Americans outside the United States live in Mexico. According to Mexico 2010 Census, there are 738,103 Americans living in the Mexican Republic,[1] while the US Embassy in Mexico City has at times given an estimate closer to 1 million (the disparity is due to non-permanent residents, notably the "snowbirds") . Mostly, people who come from the USA are students, retirees, religious workers (missionaries, pastors, etc.), Mexican-Americans, and spouses of Mexican citizens. A few are professors who come employed by Mexican companies to teach English, other English teachers, and corporate employees and executives.

While significant numbers live in Mexico year round, it is probable that a majority of these residents do not stay the whole year. Retirees may live half a year in the U.S. to keep retiree benefits. Those called "snowbirds" come in fall and leave in spring. The American community in Mexico is found throughout the country, but there are significant concentrations of U.S. citizens in all the north of Mexico, especially in Tijuana, Mexicali, Los Cabos, San Carlos, Mazatlán, Saltillo, Monterrey and Nuevo Laredo. Also in the central parts of the country such as San Miguel de Allende, Ajijic, Chapala, Mexico City and Cuernavaca, and along the Pacific coast, most especially in the greater Puerto Vallarta area. In the past few years, a growing American community has developed in Mérida, Yucatán.


Main article: Argentine Mexican

Argentine immigration to Mexico started in small waves during the 1970s, when they started escaping dictatorship and war in Argentina.

Currently, the Argentine community is one of the largest in Mexico, with about 13,000 documented residents living in Mexico. However, extra-official estimates range the number from 40,000 to 150,000[8][9]

In Quintana Roo, the number of Argentines doubled between 2011 and 2015, and now make a total of 10,000, making up the largest number of foreigners in the state[10]

Central American[edit]

Transient migrants from Central America making their way to the U.S.-Mexico border. These migrants use a rail network known as La Bestia to traverse Mexican territory.

The largest recent immigrant flows to Mexico are from Central America, with a total of 66,868 immigrants from Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Panama and Nicaragua living in Mexico in 2010.[11]

Recently, Mexico has also become a transit route for Central Americans and others (Africans, Asians, and East Europeans) into the United States. 2014 was the first year since records began when more non-Mexicans than Mexicans were apprehended trying to enter the United States illegally through the U.S.-Mexico border.[12] Non-Mexicans (vast majority of whom are Central American) were up from about 68,000 in 2007 to 257,000 in 2014; Mexicans dropped from 809,000 to 229,000 during the same period.[12]

In 2014, Mexico began to more heavily crackdown on these transient migrants.[13] According to Mexican officials, the Plan Frontera Sur (Southern Border Plan) is designed to retake control of the historically porous southern border and protect migrants from transnational crime groups.[13] However the measures have been widely attributed to pressure from the United States, who does not want a repeat of 2014, when a surge of tens of thousands of women and children clogged up American immigration courts and resulted in a severe lack of space in detention centers at the US-Mexico border.[13]


It is estimated that a total of 73,000 Colombians reside in Mexico.[14]


Cuban immigration to Mexico has been on the rise in recent years. A large number of them use Mexico as a route to the U.S., and Mexico has been deporting a large number of Cubans who attempt to. About 63,000 Cubans live in Mexico[15]


Although Mexico never received massive European immigration after its independence, over 1 million Europeans immigrated to Spanish America during the colonial period, which relative to the population of the time, could be said to have been massive European immigration. Although they were in their majority from Spain, other Europeans immigrated illegally. They migrated to Mexico for the most part, and to a lesser extent, Peru. They were called "inmigrantes clandestinos", of which 100,000 were Spanish. During the French Revolution, a good number of French immigrated to Mexico this way to escape violence.

During the Porfiriato, Mexico is estimated to have received 100,000 European immigrants. In 1911 to 1931, Mexico received 226,000 European immigrants.[16] During WWII, Mexico received 100,000 Germans, Italians, and Jewish people fleeing from the instability in Europe.[17] It was common for immigrants not to be processed.[citation needed]


Main article: British Mexican

There are many Mexicans of English, Welsh and Scottish descent. According to Mexico's Migration Institute in 2009 there were 3,761 British expatriates living in Mexico.[18]

Cornish culture still survives in local architecture and food in the state of Hidalgo. The Scottish and Welsh have also made their mark in Mexico, especially in the states of Hidalgo, Jalisco, Aguascalientes, and Veracruz. British immigrants formed the first football teams in Mexico in the late 19th century. Northern Spaniards of Celtic ancestry like the Asturians, Galicians, and Cantabrians, have also left an imprint in Mexican culture and their languages formed many distinct accents in various regions in Mexico, especially in the central and northern states.


Main article: French Mexican

Mexico received immigration from France in waves in the 19th and 20th centuries. According to the 2010 census, there were 7,163 French nationals living in Mexico. According to the French consulate, there are 30,000 French citizens in Mexico as of 2015.[19]

The French language is often taught and studied in secondary public education and in universities throughout the country. French may also be heard occasionally in the state of Veracruz in the cities of Jicaltepec, San Rafael, Mentideros, and Los Altos, where the architecture and food is also very French. These immigrants came from Haute-Saône département in France, especially from Champlitte and Bourgogne.

Another French group were the "Barcelonettes" from the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département, who migrated specifically to Mexico to find jobs and work in merchandising and are well known in Mexico City, Puebla, Veracruz and Yucatán.

An important French village in Mexico is Santa Rosalía, Baja California Sur, where the French culture/architecture are still found. Other French cultural traits are in a number of regional cultures such as the states of Jalisco and Sinaloa.

The national folk music mariachi is thought to been named after the French word for "marriage" when the music developed in wedding parties held by French landowning families. It is the legacy of settlers brought in during the Napoleonic-era French occupation is found in Guadalajara, Jalisco. The Second Mexican Empire, created another trend of refuge for French settlers.

For the Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico from the Habsburg dynasty brought with him French, Austrian, Italian and Belgian troops, and after the fall of the Second Empire, most scattered through the area of the Empire. The descendants of these soldiers can be found in the state of Jalisco in the region called Los Altos de Jalisco and in many towns around this region and in Michoacán in cities like Coalcomán, Aguililla, Zamora, and Cotija.

These refugees intermixed with the Austrians, Galicians, Basques, Cantabrians, Italians, and Mexicans in those areas of Michoacán and Jalisco, as well as neighboring states.

During World War II, tens of thousands of French expatriates from Mexico participated in the Free French Forces and the French Resistance, including Mexican-born Lieutenant Rene Luis Campeon of French parentage, was thought to be the first in command to enter Paris during the Liberation of Paris from the retreating Nazis in August 1944.

Other Francophone peoples include those from Belgium such as the Walloons and Franco-Swiss from Switzerland. The Belgians, started by the veteran Ch. Loomans, tried to establish a Belgian colony in the state of Chihuahua called Nueva Bélgica, and hundreds of Belgian settlers established it, but many moved to the capital of the state and other towns around the area, where the Walloon and French could be heard.

The Occitan language can be heard in the state of Guanajuato, it is also known as Langue D'oc is a language originally spoken in Southern France. Also to note is the city Guanajuato has a sizable French expatriate community.


Main article: German Mexican

The Plautdietsch language, is spoken by descendants of German and Dutch Mennonite immigrants in the states of Chihuahua and Durango. Other German communities are in Nuevo León, Puebla, Mexico City, Sinaloa and Chiapas, and the Yucatán Peninsula. The largest German school outside of Germany is in Mexico City (Alexander von Humboldt school). These represent the large German populations where they still try to preserve the German culture (evident in its popular regional polka-like music types, conjunto and norteño) and language. Other strong German communities lie in Coahuila (notably the Mennonites), Chiapas (Tapachula) and other parts of Nuevo León (esp. the Monterrey area has a large German minority), Tamaulipas (the Rio Grande Valley in connections to German American culture and Mexican American or Tejano influences), Puebla (Nuevo Necaxa) where the German culture and language have been preserved to different extents. According to the 2010 census, there were 6,214 Germans living in Mexico.[1] As of 2012, about 20,000 Germans reside in Mexico.[20]

Of special interest is the settlement Villa Carlota: that was the name under which two German farming settlements, in the villages of Santa Elena and Pustunich in Yucatán, were founded during the Second Mexican Empire (1864–1867).[21] Villa Carlota attracted a total of 443 German-speaking immigrants, most of them were farmers and artisans who emigrated with their families: the majority came from Prussia and many among them were Protestants.[22] Although in general these immigrants were well received by the hosting society, and the Imperial government honored to the extent of its capabilities the contract it offered to these farmers, the colonies collapsed in 1867.[23] After the disintegration of Villa Carlota as such, some families migrated to other parts of the peninsular, into the United States and back to Germany. Many stayed in Yucatán, where we can find descendents of these pioneers with last names such as Worbis, Dietrich and Sols, among others.[24]

Included in the ethnic German immigration to Mexico are from Austria, Switzerland and the French region of Alsace which was part of France since 1919, as well those from Bavaria and High German regions of Germany.[citation needed]. There are about 2,000,000 Mexicans with some partial German ancestry, without counting the ones with total German ancestry, making Mexico 3rd country with the largest German community in Latin America, behind Brazil and Argentina.[25]


Main article: Irish Mexican

There are roughly 600,000[citation needed] Mexicans of Irish descent. There is also an Irish-Mexican population in Hidalgo and the northern states. According to INM, in 2009 there were 289 Irish expatriates living in Mexico.[26]

Many Mexican Irish communities existed in Mexican Texas until the revolution. Many Irish then sided with Catholic Mexico against Protestant pro-US elements. The Batallón de San Patricio, a battalion of U.S. troops who deserted and fought alongside the Mexican Army against the United States in the Mexican–American War (1846–48). In some cases, Irish immigrants or Americans left from California (the Irish Confederate army of Fort Yuma, Arizona during the U.S. Civil War (1861–65). Álvaro Obregón (O'Brien) was president of Mexico during 1920-24 and Ciudad Obregón and its airport are named in his honor. Actor Anthony Quinn is another famous Mexican of Irish descent. There are also monuments in Mexico City paying tribute to those Irish who fought for Mexico in the 19th century.


Main article: Italian Mexican
Italian community in Monterrey (1905).

There has not been a huge influx of Italians to Mexico, as there has been to other countries in America such as Argentina, Brazil, and the United States. However, there was an important number of arrivals from northern Italy and Veneto in the late 19th century who are today well assimilated in Mexican society. The exact number of Italian descendants is not known, but it is estimated that there around 85,000 Italian Mexicans in the eight original communities. As of 2012, 20,000 Italians reside in Mexico[20] It is also estimated about 800,000-1.5 million Mexicans may have some Italian ancestry in the 2000s (decade).


Main article: Russian Mexican

According to INM in 2009 1,396 Russians are living documented in Mexico.[18] According to the Russian embassy, 25,000 reside in Mexico.[27] Most left Russia during its communist regime (Soviet Union), taking advantage of the Mexican law allowing migrants from communist countries refuge if they touch Mexican soil, and the ability to become legal residents of Mexico.[citation needed] The Molokans were a small early 20th century immigrant group to Valle de Guadalupe, Baja California.


Main article: Spanish Mexican
Statue in Veracruz, Veracruz commemorating the Spanish immigrants that arrived as a result of the Spanish Civil War.

Spaniards make up the largest group of Europeans in Mexico. Most of them arrived during the colonial period but others have since then immigrated, especially during the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) and the Francisco Franco regime (1939–75).

The first Spaniards who arrived in Mexico, were soldiers and sailors of Extremadura, Andalucia and La Mancha who discovered the Yucatán Peninsula, the shores of the Gulf of Mexico and then made the conquest of what they call the New Spain. Among the soldiers sent by the Spanish crown to the colonial territory were Muslims converts from Córdoba and Granada. At the end of the 16th century, both common and aristocrat people migrated to Mexico and disseminated by its territory.

Most recent immigrants came during the Spanish Civil War. Some of the migrants returned to Spain after the civil war, but some of them remained in Mexico. According to the 2010 census, there were 18,873 Spaniards living in Mexico.[1]

Due to the 2008 Financial Crisis and the resulting economic decline and high unemployment in Spain, many Spaniards have been emigrating to Mexico to seek new opportunities.[28] For example, during the last quarter of 2012, a number of 7,630 work permits were granted to Spaniards.[29]

The article on Basque Mexicans covers the large segment of Spaniards and some French immigrants of the Basque ethnic group.

Other European[edit]

Small waves of immigrants from Poland, Ukraine and other Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania etc.), arrived during the Cold War.

Immigrants came to a lesser amount from Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Cyprus, Greece (See Greek Mexican), Albania, Croatia, Serbia, Czech Republic, Montenegro, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Slovakia, Slovenia the island country of Malta and the Portuguese from Portugal and Cape Verde.


Main article: Arab Mexican

Ethnologue reports that 400,000 Mexicans speak Arabic.[30]

The Arab Mexican population consists of Lebanese, Syrians and Palestinians, whose families arrived in Mexico after the fall of the Ottoman Empire in World War I. The majority of them are Christian but some are Muslims.

Business tycoon and billionaire Carlos Slim Helú is the best-known Mexican of this immigrant group, as he is currently ranked by Forbes as the richest man in the world. His parents, Maronite Christians, immigrated to Mexico from Lebanon.

Other West Asian[edit]

Other members of the Middle Eastern community in Mexico include Armenians, smaller numbers of Persians from Iran, and Turks from Turkey.

East, South and Southeast Asian[edit]

Main article: Asian Mexican
Monument in Merida, Yucatan commemorating 100 years of Korean immigration.

Mexico has seen immigration from different parts of Asia throughout its history. The first known Asians arrived during the Colonial era as slaves, labourers and adventurers from the Philippines, southern China and India. Smaller amounts of immigrants came from Korea, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), Indonesia, Cambodia, Japan and the Malay peninsula. This group of immigrants were collectively described as "Chino" meaning Chinese despite coming from many diverse origins.[31][32][33] During the early 20th century, a significant amount of Asians, primarily Chinese and Korean, were imported as labourers. These immigrants were known as Henequen and Chinetescos and were heavily concentrated in agricultural plantations in the Pacific states (e.g. Sinaloa) and the Yucatán Peninsula.

A more recent wave (late 20th and early 21st century) of Korean immigrants have arrived as merchants and skilled labourers.[34] Modern immigrants can be found in large cities (especially Mexico City and Monterrey), while Korean descendants are most numerous in the coastal regions like Baja California, Sonora, Guerrero, Veracruz, Campeche, Yucatán and Quintana Roo. According to INM, in 2009 there were 5,518 South Koreans and 481 North Koreans living in México[26] There is an estimated 40,000 descendents of Korean henequen workers.

The story of Chinese immigration to Mexico extends from the late 19th century to the 1930s. By the 1920s, there was a significant population of Chinese nationals, with Mexican wives and Chinese-Mexican children. Most of these were deported in the 1930s to the United States and China with a number being repatriated in the late 1930s and in 1960. Smaller groups returned from the 1930s to the 1980s. The two main Chinese-Mexican communities are in Mexicali and Mexico City but few are of pure Chinese blood.[35]

The city of Mexicali in Baja California has the largest Chinese population in Mexico and the largest Chinatown called La Chinesca. The culture and language from the mainly Cantonese and Mandarin-speaking peoples are evident in the food, architecture, and everyday life in Mexico City. The Chinese entered the nation in the 19th century to build railroads, and many xenophobic acts were taken against them because Mexico preferred European immigrants. According to the 2010 Census there are 6,655 Chinese immigrants living in Mexico.[1]

Other Asian communities in Mexico are the Japanese, followed by Indians and Pakistanis, and there are Filipinos from the Philippines when the country was under Spanish colonial (1540's-1898) and U.S. American territorial rule (1899–1946). These ethnic groups arrived in the northern states of Mexico as contract farm laborers in the 20th century. And a small Vietnamese community that has close connections with the Vietnamese American community in the United States. The majority of Asian Mexicans live in urban areas or along the US-Mexican border.

The Japanese community is also important in Mexico, and they reside mainly in Mexico City, Morelia, San Luis Potosí, Puebla, Guadalajara, and Aguascalientes, and the immigrant colony in the state of Chiapas known as Colonia Enomoto. The Japanese language is important in their cultural life in Mexico and many institutions for nikkei exist and those wishing to learn the language and their ways of life can attend these lyceums. According to INM, in 2009 there were 4,485 Japanese immigrants residing in Mexico.[18]

There are approximately 200,000 (0.2%) Mexican people who can partly claim Filipino ancestry stemming from colonial times. The Philippines had a connection to Mexico through Spain, as it was administrated from New Spain for over 300 years. According to INM, in 2009 there were 823 immigrants from the Philippines residing in Mexico.[18]

Numbers of people by nationality in Mexico[edit]

Most foreigners in Mexico counted in the Census come from the United States or other Hispanophone countries, with smaller numbers from Europe, East Asia, and the non-Hispanophone Americas. Their numbers have been rising as the country's economy develops, but still comprise less than 1% of the population.

Place Country 2010 2000 1990
1  United States 738,103 343,591 194,619
2  Guatemala 35,322 23,597 46,005
3  Spain 18,873 21,024 24,783
4  Colombia 13,922 6,465 4,635
5  Argentina 13,696 6,215 4,964
6  Cuba 12,108 5,537 5,217
7  Honduras 10,991 3,722 1,997
8  Venezuela 10,063 2,823 1,533
9  El Salvador 8,088 6,647 2,979
10  Canada 7,943 5,768 3,011
11  France 7,163 5,723 4,195
12  China 6,655 2,100 1,161
13  Germany 6,214 5,595 4,499
14  Peru 5,886 3,749 1,633
15  Chile 5,267 3,848 2,501
16  Italy 4,964 3,904 2,397
17  Brazil 4,532 2,320 1,293
18  South Korea 3,960 2,079 1,161
19  Nicaragua 3,572 2,522 1,521
Other countries 43,799 37,126 32,487
TOTAL 961,121 492,617 340,246
Source: INEGI (2000),[36] CONAPO (1990)[37][38] and INEGI (2010)[39]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f "Conociendo...nos todos" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved October 30, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Opinión: ¿México es un destino de inmigración global?". ADN Político. Retrieved 18 September 2015. 
  3. ^ "Migratory Act May 25th 2011,"
  4. ^ Gonzalez-Murphy, Laura. "Protecting Immigrant Rights in Mexico: Understanding the State-Civil Society Nexus," Routledge, New York, Forthcoming 2013
  5. ^ "Estadísticas"
  6. ^ "Indios, chinos, somalíes… así son los migrantes invisibles de México". BBC Mundo. Retrieved 30 March 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Programa Temporal de Regularización Migratoria". Instituto Nacional de Migración. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ Insituto Nacional de Migración “Estadísticas.” 2012. {}
  12. ^ a b "U.S. border apprehensions of Mexicans fall to historic lows". Pew Research. Retrieved 5 January 2015. 
  13. ^ a b c Lakhani, Nina. "Mexico deports record numbers of women and children in US-driven effort". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^ a b c d Rodríguez Chávez, Ernesto; Cobo, Salvador (2012), Extranjeros residentes en México: Una aproximación cuantitativa con base en los registros administrativos del INM (PDF), México: Institution Nacional de Migración, retrieved 2013-09-28 
  19. ^
  20. ^ a b
  21. ^ Alma Durán-Merk (2007). Identifying Villa Carlota: German Settlements in Yucatán, México, During the Second Empire. Augsburg: Universität Augsburg.
  22. ^ Alma Durán-Merk (2008a). Nur deutsche Elite für Yukatan? Neue Ergebnisse zur Migrationsforschung während des Zweiten mexikanischen Kaiserreiches. Only "Selected" German Immigrants in Yucatán? Recent Findings about the Colonization Policy of the Second Mexican Empire. In: OPUS Ausgburg, <
  23. ^ Alma Durán-Merk (2008b): Los colonos alemanes en Yucatán durante el Segundo Imperio Mexicano. In: OPUS Augsburg,án.pdf.
  24. ^ A full list with the more than 120 names of the families who colonized "Villa Carlota" as well as the names of the officers and organizers of these colonization program, can be found in: Alma Durán-Merk (2009). Villa Carlota. Colonias alemanas en Yucatán. Mérida: CEPSA/Instituto de Cultura de Yucatán/ CONACULTA, ISBN 978-607-7824-02-2.
  25. ^
  26. ^ a b Chavez, Ernesto y Cobo, Salvador, 2012. "Extranjeros Residentes en México: Una aproximación cuantitativa con base en los registros administrativos del INM" INM, Mexico DF, 2012
  27. ^!iDQcRYcrm7OHIpmKSCdQwA/
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^ Ethnologue: Mexico
  31. ^ Leslie Bethell (1984). Leslie Bethell, ed. The Cambridge History of Latin America. Volume 2 of The Cambridge History of Latin America: Colonial Latin America. I-II (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0521245168. 
  32. ^ Ignacio López-Calvo (2013). The Affinity of the Eye: Writing Nikkei in Peru. Fernando Iwasaki. University of Arizona Press. p. 134. ISBN 0816599874. 
  33. ^ Dirk Hoerder (2002). Cultures in Contact: World Migrations in the Second Millennium. Andrew Gordon, Alexander Keyssar, Daniel James. Duke University Press. p. 200. ISBN 0822384078. 
  34. ^ "Five Generations On, Mexico's Koreans Long for Home". The Chosun Ilbo. 2007-08-16. Retrieved 2009-07-30. 
  35. ^ Schiavone Camacho, Julia Maria (November 2009). "Crossing Boundaries, Claiming a Homeland: The Mexican Chinese Transpacific Journey to Becoming Mexican, 1930s-1960s". Pacific Historical Review (Berkeley) 78 (4): 547–565. doi:10.1525/phr.2009.78.4.545. 
  36. ^ Los extranjeros en México INEGI
  37. ^ Inmigrantes residentes en México por país de nacimiento CONAPO
  38. ^ OECD
  39. ^ "Los nacidos en otro país suman 961 121 personas" (PDF) (Press release) (in Spanish). INEGI. May 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-24. 

External links[edit]