Immigration

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Net migration rates for 2011: positive (blue), negative (orange), stable (green), and no data (gray)

Immigration is the movement of people into another country or region to which they are not native in order to settle there,[1]especially permanently[2] Immigration is a result of a number of factors, including economic and/or political reasons, family re-unification, natural disasters or the wish to change one's surroundings voluntarily.

By country[edit]

The Commitment to Development Index ranks 22 of the world's richest countries on their immigration policies and openness to migrants and refugees from the poorest nations. See the CDI for information about specific country policies and evaluation not listed below.

Asia[edit]

Israel[edit]

Meeting between Sudanese refugees and Israeli students, 2007. Only Jewish immigrants automatically acquire Israeli citizenship.

Jewish immigration to Palestine during the 19th century was promoted by the Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl in the late 19th century following the publication of "Der Judenstaat".[3] His Zionist movement sought to encourage Jewish migration, or immigration, to Palestine. Its proponents regard its aim as self-determination for the Jewish people.[4] The percentage of world Jewry living in the former Palestinian Mandate has steadily grown from 25,000 since the movement came into existence. Today about 40% of the world's Jews live in Israel, more than in any other country.[5]

The Israeli Law of Return, passed in 1950, gives those born Jews (having a Jewish mother or grandmother), those with Jewish ancestry (having a Jewish father or grandfather) and converts to Judaism (Orthodox, Reform, or Conservative denominations—not secular—though Reform and Conservative conversions must take place outside the state, similar to civil marriages) the right to immigrate to Israel. A 1970 amendment, extended immigration rights to "a child and a grandchild of a Jew, the spouse of a Jew, the spouse of a child of a Jew and the spouse of a grandchild of a Jew". Over a million Jews from the former Soviet Union have immigrated to Israel since the 1990s, and large numbers of Ethiopian Jews were airlifted to the country in Operation Moses. In the year 1991, Israel helped 14,000 Ethiopian immigrants arrive in operation Solomon.

There were 35,638 African migrants living in Israel in 2011.[6] Nearly 69,000 non-Jewish African migrants have entered Israel in recent years.[7]

Japan[edit]

Japan's population is very homogeneous because of the tight control it has had on immigration.

In the early 1990s, Japan relaxed its relatively tight immigration laws to allow special entry permits for foreigners of Japanese ancestry in South America to make up for a labor shortage.[8] According to Japanese immigration centre,[9] the number of foreign residents in Japan has steadily increased, and the number of foreign residents (including permanent residents, but excluding illegal immigrants and short-term visitors such as foreign nationals staying less than 90 days in Japan[10]) was more than 2.2 million in 2008.[9] The biggest groups are Koreans (both south and north), Chinese (including China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau nationalities), and Brazilians. Most of the Brazilians in Japan have Japanese ancestry due to the huge Japanese immigration to Brazil in the first decades of the 20th century. Immediately after World War II, most Koreans in Japan were illegal immigrants who escaped from civil war on the Korean Peninsula.[11]

Among the immigrants, Japan accepts a steady flow of 15,000 new Japanese citizens by naturalization (帰化 kika?) per year.[12] Indeed, the concept of ethnic groups by the Japanese statistics is different from that used in North American or some Western European statistics. For example, the United Kingdom Census asks about its citizens' "ethnic or racial background".[13] The Japanese Statistics Bureau does not ask this question. Since the Japanese census asks about nationality rather than ethnicity, naturalized Japanese citizens and Japanese nationals with multi-ethnic backgrounds are considered simply to be Japanese in the population of Japan.[9]

According to the Japanese Association for Refugees, the number of refugees who applied to live in Japan has rapidly increased since 2006,[14] and there were more than a thousand applications in 2008.[14] Japan's refugee policy has been criticized because the number of refugees accepted into Japan is small compared to countries such as Sweden and the United States.[15] For example, according to the UNHCR, in 1999 Japan accepted 16 refugees for resettlement, while the United States took in 85,010, and New Zealand (which has a much smaller population than Japan) accepted 1,140. Between 1981, when Japan ratified the U.N. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, and 2002, Japan recognized only 305 persons as refugees.[16][17]

Africa[edit]

Morocco[edit]

Morocco is home to more than 20,000 sub-Saharan African immigrants.[18]

Most of the foreign residents are French or Spanish. Prior to independence, Morocco was home to half a million Europeans.[19]

Europe[edit]

According to Eurostat, 47.3 million people lived in the EU in 2010, who were born outside their resident country. This corresponds to 9.4% of the total EU population. Of these, 31.4 million (6.3%) were born outside the EU and 16.0 million (3.2%) were born in another EU member state. The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4 million), France (5.1 million), the United Kingdom (4.7 million), Spain (4.1 million), Italy (3.2 million), and the Netherlands (1.4 million).[20][21]

Some EU member states are currently receiving large-scale immigration: for instance Spain, where the economy has created more than the whole of all the new jobs in the EU over the past five years.[22] The EU, in 2005, had an overall net gain from international migration of +1.8 million people. This accounts for almost 85% of Europe's total population growth in 2005.[23] In 2004, total 140,033 people immigrated to France. Of them, 90,250 were from Africa and 13,710 from Europe.[24] In 2005, immigration fell slightly to 135,890.[25] British emigration towards Southern Europe is of special relevance. Citizens from the European Union make up a growing proportion of immigrants in Spain. They mainly come from countries like the UK and Germany, but the British case is of special interest due to its magnitude. The British authorities estimate that the British population in Spain at 700,000.[26] Mid- and long term EU demographics indicate a shortage of skilled laborers on a scale that would endanger economic growth and the stability of numerous industries. For this reason the European Union launched an initiative called the EU Blue Card, In 2009. The EU Blue Card is initially a temporary residence and work permit. However it will offer holders the opportunity to apply for a permanent resident permit after working on an EU Blue Card for two to five years uninterrupted, depending on individual member state regulations.

Italy[edit]

Immigrants to Europe have entered by boat to the Italian island of Lampedusa

Italy now has an estimated 4 million to 4.5 million immigrants — about 8 percent of the population. Since the expansion of the European Union, the most recent wave of migration has been from surrounding European nations, particularly Central Europe, and increasingly Asia, replacing North Africa as the major immigration area. Some 997,000 Romanians are officially registered as living in Italy, replacing Albanians (590,000) and Moroccans (455,000) as the largest ethnic minority group, but independent estimates put the actual number of Romanians at double that figure or perhaps even more. Other immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe are Ukrainians (260,000), Polish (120,000), Moldovans (190 000) Macedonians (100,000), Serbs (75,000), Bulgarians (124,000), Bosnians (40,000), Russians (45,600), Croatians (25,000), Slovaks (9,000), Hungarians (8,600). As of 2009, the foreign born population origin of Italy was subdivided as follows: Europe (53.5%), Africa (22.3%), Asia (15.8%), the Americas (8.1%) and Oceania (0.06%). The distribution of foreign born population is largely uneven in Italy: 80% of immigrants live in the northern and central parts of the country (the most economically developed areas), while only 20% live in the southern half of the peninsula. In 2008, net immigration to Italy was 47,000.

Norway[edit]

Immigration to Norway has increased the amount of religious minorities, such as these Muslims in Oslo

Pr. January 1, 2012 registered immigrants in Norway numbered 547 000,[27] making up about 11% of the total population. Many are fairly recent immigrants as immigration has gradually increased [28] in Norway and per 2012 is very high, both historically and compared to other countries.[29] Net immigration in 2011 was 47 032, a national record high.[30] The immigrants come from 219 different countries. If children of two immigrants are included the immigrant population make up 655 170. The largest groups come from Poland (72 103), Sweden (36 578), Pakistan (32 737), Somalia (29 395) Iraq (28 935), Germany (25 683), Lithuania (23 941) and Vietnam (20 871) (numbers per 2012, include immigrants and children of two immigrants).[31] Children of Pakistani, Somali and Vietnamese parents made up the largest groups of all Norwegians born to immigrant parents.[32] The European and Pakistani immigrants are mainly labor immigrants while many other immigrants from outside Europe have come as asylium seekers or family members to such.

Portugal[edit]

Portugal, long a country of emigration, that have created big Portuguese communities in France, USA and Brazil [33] has now become a country of net immigration, and not just from the former colonies; by the end of 2003, legal immigrants represented about 4% of the population, and the largest communities were from Cape Verde, Brazil, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, UK, Spain, China and Ukraine.[34]

Spain[edit]

Spain is the most favoured European destination for Britons leaving the UK.[35] Since 2000, Spain has absorbed more than three million immigrants, growing its population by almost 10%. Immigrant population now tops over 4.5 million. According to residence permit data for 2005, about 500,000 were Moroccan, another 500,000 were Ecuadorian,[36] more than 200,000 were Romanian, and 260,000 were Colombian.[37][38] In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people.[39]

Sweden[edit]

Swedish politician Nyamko Sabuni was born in Burundi and immigrated to Sweden in 1981.

As the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity, there are no exact numbers on the total number of people of immigrant background in Sweden. As of 2010, 1.33 million people or 14.3% of the inhabitants in Sweden were foreign-born. Sweden has been transformed from a nation of emigration ending after World War I to a nation of immigration from World War II onwards. In 2009, immigration reached its highest level since records began with 102,280 people emigrating to Sweden. In 2010, 32000 people applied for asylum to Sweden, a 25% increase from 2009, the highest amount in Swedish history.[40] In 2009, Sweden had the fourth largest number of asylum applications in the EU and the largest number per capita after Cyprus and Malta.[41] [42] Immigrants in Sweden are mostly concentrated in the urban areas of Svealand and Götaland and the five largest foreign born populations in Sweden come from Finland, Yugoslavia, Iraq, Poland and Iran.[43]

Switzerland[edit]

Switzerland and Australia, with about a quarter of their population born outside the country, are the two countries with the highest proportion of immigrants in the world.[44]

United Kingdom[edit]

In 2007, net immigration to the UK was 237,000, a rise of 46,000 on 2006.[45] In 2004, the number of people who became British citizens rose to a record 140,795—a rise of 12% on the previous year. This number had risen dramatically since 2000. In the 2001 Census, citizens from the Republic of Ireland were the largest foreign born group and have been for the last 200 years. This figure does not include those from Northern Ireland located since it is part of the United Kingdom. Those of Irish ancestry number roughly 6 million from first, second and third generation. The overwhelming majority of new citizens come from Asia (40%) and Africa (32%), the largest three groups being people from Pakistan, India and Somalia.[46]

In 2011, an estimated 589,000 migrants arrived to live in the UK for at least a year, most of the migrants were people from Asia (particularly the Indian subcontinent) and Africa,[47] while 338,000 people emigrated from the UK for a year or more.[47] Following Poland's entry into the EU in May 2004 it was estimated that by the start of 2007, 375,000 Poles had registered to work in the UK, although the total Polish population in the UK was believed to be 500,000. Many Poles work in seasonal occupations and a large number are likely to move back and forth over time. Some migrants left after the world economic crisis of 2008. In 2011, citizens of the new EU member states made up 13% of the immigrants entering the country.[47] As of May 2010 the UK Immigration Minister was Damian Green, who has since been replaced by Mark Harper.

The British Asian (South Asian) population has increased from 2.2 million in 2001 to over 4.2 million in 2011,[48] while the Black British community has increased from 1.1 million in 2001 to nearly 1.9 million in 2011.[48] Between 2001 and 2009, this was part of a general trend seeing a drop in white British people by 36,000 and a concurrent rise in non-white British people from 6.64 million to 9.13 million, including Chinese, Pakistani, mixed white and black Caribbean, black African, Australian, Canadian and European immigrants.[49]

London has the largest immigrant population.[50]

North America[edit]

Mexico[edit]

Large numbers of Central American migrants who have crossed Guatemala's border into Mexico are deported every year.[51] Over 200,000 undocumented Central American migrants were deported in 2005 alone.[52] In a 2010 news story, USA Today reported, "... Mexico's Arizona-style law requires local police to check IDs. And Mexican police freely engage in racial profiling and routinely harass Central American migrants, say immigration activists."[53]

After the United States returned to a more closed border, immigration has been more difficult than ever for Mexican residents hoping to migrate. Mexico is the leading country of migrants to the United States. A Mexican Repatriation program was founded by the United States to encourage people to voluntarily move to Mexico. However, the program was not found successful and many immigrants were deported against their will. Last year alone, 400,000 Mexican immigrants were repatriated. In 2010 alone, there was a total of 139,120 legal immigrants who migrated to the United States. This put Mexico as the top country for emigration [54] According to recent studies, the amount of immigrants migrating from Mexico should continue to increase tremendously each year.[55]

Canada[edit]

Chinatown in Downtown Toronto, Ontario. In March 2005, Statistics Canada projected that the visible minority proportion will comprise a majority in both Toronto and Vancouver by 2012.

Canada's is driven by economic policy and family reunification, and is aiming for between 240,000 and 265,000 new permanent residents in 2012.[56] In 2001, 250,640 people immigrated to Canada. Newcomers settle mostly in the major urban areas of Toronto and Vancouver. Since the 1990s, the majority of Canada's immigrants have come from Asia.[57] The leading emigrating countries to Canada are China, Philippines and India.[58] India was the third largest source country for immigration to Canada in 2012, with 28,889 permanent residents admitted. This represents an increase of almost 15 percent since 2004.[59] In 2010, a record 280,636 people immigrated to Canada.[60] Accusing a person of racism in Canada is usually considered a serious slur.[61] All political parties are now cautious about criticizing of the high level of immigration, because, as noted by the Globe and Mail, "in the early 1990s, the old Reform Party was branded 'racist' for suggesting that immigration levels be lowered from 250,000 to 150,000."[62]

United States[edit]

Naturalization ceremony in New York City, 1930

Historians estimate that fewer than 1 million immigrants – perhaps as few as 400,000 – crossed the Atlantic during the 17th and 18th centuries.[63] Relatively few 18th-century immigrants came from England: only 80,000 between 1700 and 1775, compared to 350,000 during the 17th century.[64] In addition, between the 17th and 19th centuries, an estimated 645,000 Africans were brought to what is now the United States.[65] In the early years of the United States, immigration was fewer than 8,000 people a year.[66] After 1820, immigration gradually increased. From 1850 to 1930, the foreign born population of the United States increased from 2.2 million to 14.2 million. The highest percentage of foreign born people in the United States was found in this period, with the peak in 1890 at 14.7%. During this time, the lower costs of Atlantic Ocean travel in time and fare made it more advantageous for immigrants to move to the U.S. than in years prior. From 1880 to 1924, over 25 million Europeans migrated to the United States,[63] mainly economic migrants.[67] The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act meanwhile suppressed immigration from East Asia, while the Emergency Quota Act, followed by the Immigration Act of 1924, restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe.[68]

German immigrant family in the United States, 1930
Cesar Chavez speaking at a 1974 United Farm Workers rally in California. The UFW during Chavez's tenure was committed to restricting immigration.

Following this time period, immigration fell because in 1924 Congress passed the Immigration Act of 1924, which favored immigrant source countries that already had many immigrants in the U.S. by 1890.[69] Immigration patterns of the 1930s were dominated by the Great Depression, and in the early 1930s, more people emigrated from the United States than immigrated to it.[70] Immigration continued to fall throughout the 1940s and 1950s, but it increased again afterwards.[32]

The Mexico–U.S. border in Arizona.

Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 or McCarran-Walter Act brought in major changes to immigration policy and the act removed the immigration restrictions based on race and gender, ending the decades of repression levied upon Chinese immigrants and other Asian immigrant groups. The McCarran-Walter act retained national origin immigration quotas.[71]

The Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 (the Hart-Cellar Act) removed quotas on large segments of the immigration flow and legal immigration to the U.S. surged. In 2006, the number of immigrants totaled record 37.5 million.[72] After 2000, immigration to the United States numbered approximately 1,000,000 per year. Despite tougher border security after 9/11, nearly 8 million immigrants came to the United States from 2000 to 2005 – more than in any other five-year period in the nation's history.[73] Almost half entered illegally.[74] In 2006, 1.27 million immigrants were granted legal residence. Mexico has been the leading source of new U.S. residents for over two decades; and since 1998, China, India and the Philippines have been in the top four sending countries every year.[75] The U.S. has often been called the "melting pot" (derived from Carl N. Degler, a historian, author of Out of Our Past), a name derived from United States' rich tradition of immigrants coming to the US looking for something better and having their cultures melded and incorporated into the fabric of the country.

Appointed by President Clinton, the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, led by Barbara Jordan, called for reducing legal immigration to about 550,000 a year.[76] Since September 11, 2001, the politics of immigration has become an extremely hot issue. It was a central topic of the 2008 election cycle.[77]

The number of foreign nationals who became legal permanent residents (LPRs) of the U.S. in 2009 as a result of family reunification (66 percent) outpaced those who became LPRs on the basis of employment skills (13 percent) and humanitarian reasons (17 percent).[78] Since World War II, more refugees have found homes in the U.S. than any other nation and more than two million refugees have arrived in the U.S. since 1980. Of the top ten countries accepting resettled refugees in 2006, the United States accepted more than twice as much as the next nine countries combined.[79] One econometrics report in 2010 by analyst Kusum Mundra suggested that immigration positively affected bilateral trade when the U.S. had a networked community of immigrants, but that the trade benefit was weakened when the immigrants became assimilated into American culture.[80]

Persons Obtaining Legal Permanent Resident Status Fiscal Years 1820 to 2010
Somali-American community activist.
Year Year Year
1820 8,385 1915 326,700 1999 644,787
1821 9,127 1925 294,314 2000 841,002
1822 6,911 1935 34,956 2001 1,058,902
1825 10,199 1945 38,119 2002 1,059,536
1835 45,374 1955 237,790 2003 703,542
1845 114,371 1965 296,697 2004 957,883
1855 200,877 1975 385,378 2005 1,122,373
1865 248,120 1985 568,149 2006 1,266,129
1875 227,498 1995 720,177 2007 1,052,415
1885 395,346 1996 915,560 2008 1,107,126
1895 258,536 1997 797,847 2009 1,130,818
1905 1,026,499 1998 653,206 2010 1,042,625

Source: US Department of Homeland Security, Persons Obtaining Legal Permanent Resident Status: Fiscal Years 1820 to 2010[81]

The table above does not include the years 2011 and 2012. According to Permanent residence (United States), in 2011 there were 2.7 million entries entered in the Diversity Visa Lottery. So far in 2012, there has been 19.6 million participants.[when?] The numbers increase tremendously each year. There is now a waiting period held by the U.S. government to decide who will be eligible for entry as a permanent resident of the United States.

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

Countries of birth of Australian estimated resident population (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006[82]).

The overall level of immigration to Australia has grown substantially during the last decade. Net overseas migration increased from 30,000 in 1993[83] to 118,000 in 2003-04.[84] The largest components of immigration are the skilled migration and family re-union programs. The mandatory detention of unauthorised arrivals by boat has generated great levels of controversy. During the 2004-05, total 123,424 people immigrated to Australia. Of them, 17,736 were from Africa, 54,804 from Asia, 21,131 from Oceania, 18,220 from United Kingdom, 1,506 from South America, and 2,369 from the rest of Europe.[57] 131,000 people migrated to Australia in 2005-06[85] and migration target for 2012–13 is 190,000.[86][87]

Australia and Switzerland, with about a quarter of their population born outside the country, are the two countries with the highest proportion of immigrants in the world.[88]

New Zealand[edit]

New Zealand has relatively open immigration policies. 23% of the population was born overseas, mainly in Asia, Oceania, and UK, one of the highest rates in the world. In 2010-2014, an annual target of 45,000±5000 immigrants was set by the Immigration New Zealand.[citation needed]

Economic effects[edit]

The Cato Institute finds little or no effect of immigration on the income of citizens belonging to established populations.[89] The Brookings Institution finds a 2.3% depression of wages from immigration from 1980 to 2007.[90] The Center for Immigration Studies finds a 3.7% depression wages from immigration from 1980 to 2000.[91] Research indicates that immigrants are more likely to work in risky jobs than U.S.-born workers, partly due to differences in average characteristics, such as immigrants' lower English language ability and educational attainment.[92] Further, some studies indicate that higher ethnic concentration in metropolitan areas is positively related to the probability of self-employment of immigrants.[93]

According to the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, "In Europe, 28% of foreigners between the ages of 25 and 49 are unable to find work, with unemployment rates as high as 35% for Turks and Pakistanis and 60% for recent immigrant groups such as Somalis."[94]

Toronto’s unemployment rate was 6.7% in November 2010, including 19.7% among recent immigrants.[95]

Welfare[edit]

Research has found that that as immigration and ethnic heterogeneity increase, government funding of welfare and public support for welfare decrease. Ethnic nepotism may be an explanation for this phenomenon. Other possible explanations include theories regarding in-group and out-group effects as well as reciprocal altruism.[96]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

U. (2013, May 8). Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved March 27, 2014, from http://www.cbo.gov/publication/44134

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Further reading[edit]

  • Appel, Jacob. The Ethical Case for an Open Immigration Policy May 4, 2009.
  • Balin, Bryan. State Immigration Legislation and Immigrant Flows: An Analysis Johns Hopkins University, 2008.
  • Bauder, Harald. Labor Movement: How Migration Regulates Labor Markets, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Borjas, George J. (2014). Immigration Economics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-04977-2. 
  • Center for Immigration Studies Refer to "Publications" for research on illegal immigration, demographic trends, terrorism concerns, environmental impact, and other subjects.
  • De La Torre, Miguel A., Trails of Hope and Terror: Testimonies on Immigration. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Press, 2009.
  • Esbenshade, Jill. Division and Dislocation: Regulating Immigration through Local Housing Ordinances. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, Summer 2007.
  • Ewing, Walter A. Border Insecurity: U.S. Border-Enforcement Policies and National Security, Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, Spring 2006.
  • Fell, Peter and Hayes, Debra. What are they Doing Here? A Critical Guide to Asylum and Immigration, Birmimgham, Venture Press, 2007.
  • Fitzgerald, David Scott; Cook-Martin, David (2014). Culling the Masses: The Democratic Origins of Racist Immigration Policy in the Americas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674-72904-9. 
  • Freeman, Joe. Living and Working in the European Union for Non-EU Nationals. Lulu.com, 2007. ISBN 0-9786254-0-4
  • Immigration Policy Center. Economic Growth & Immigration: Bridging the Demographic Divide. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, November 2005.
  • Karakayali, Nedim. 2005. “Duality and Diversity in the Lives of Immigrant Children: Rethinking the ‘Problem of Second Generation’ in Light of Immigrant Autobiographies”, Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 325–344.
  • Kolb, Eva. The Evolution of New York City's Multiculturalism: Melting Pot or Salad Bowl. Immigrants in New York from the 19th Century until the End of the Gilded Age. BOD, 2009. ISBN 3-8370-9303-4
  • Legrain, Philippe. Immigrants: Your Country Needs Them. Little Brown, 2007. ISBN 0-316-73248-6
  • Massey, Douglas S. Beyond the Border Buildup: Towards a New Approach to Mexico-U.S. Migration. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, September 2005.
  • Massey, Douglas S., Joaquín Arango, Hugo Graeme, Ali Kouaouci, Adela, Pellegrino, and J. Edward Taylor.Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-928276-5
  • Meilander, Peter C. Towards a Theory of Immigration. Palgrave Macmillan, 2001. ISBN 978-0-312-24034-9
  • Molina, Natalia. Fit to Be Citizens?: Public Health and Race in Los Angeles, 1879-1940. University of California Press, 2006.
  • Myers, Dowell. Immigrants and Boomers: Forging a New Social Contract for the Future of America. Russell Sage Foundation, 2007. ISBN 978-0-87154-636-4
  • Passel, Jeffrey S. Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population. Pew Hispanic Center, March 2005.
  • Passel, Jeffrey S. Growing Share of Immigrants Choosing Naturalization. Pew Hispanic Center, March 2007.
  • Passel, Jeffrey S. and Roberto Suro. Rise, Peak and Decline: Trends in U.S. Immigration. Pew Hispanic Center, September 2005.
  • Pearce, Susan C. Immigrant Women in the United States: A Demographic Portrait. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, Summer 2006.
  • Portes, Alejandro and József Böröcz, "Contemporary Immigration: Theoretical Perspectives on Its Determinants and Modes of Incorporation" International Migration Review, 23,3, Silver Anniversary Issue, International Migration: an Assessment for the 90's. (Autumn, 1989), pp. 606–630.
  • Rumbaut, Ruben and Walter Ewing. "The Myth of Immigrant Criminality and the Paradox of Assimilation: Incarceration Rates among Native and Foreign-Born Men." The Immigration Policy Center, Spring 2007.
  • Sintès Pierre, La raison du mouvement : territoires et réseaux de migrants albanais en Grèce, Karthala, Maison Méditerranéenne des sciences de l’homme, Ecole française d’Athènes, Paris - Aix-en-Provence - Athens, 2010.
  • Sirkeci, Ibrahim The Environment of Insecurity in Turkey and the Emigration of Turkish Kurds to Germany, ISBN 9780773457393 New York, Edwin Mellen Press, 2006.
  • Valle, Isabel. Fields of Toil: A Migrant Family's Journey. ISBN 978-0-87422-101-5
  • West, Lorane A. Color: Latino Voices in the Pacific Northwest. ISBN 978-0-87422-274-6
  • Zolberg, Aristide. A Nation by Design: Immigration Policy in the Fashioning of America. Harvard University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-674-02218-1

External links[edit]