Immigration to Portugal

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Historical population
YearPop.±%
1864 4,188,419—    
1878 4,550,699+8.6%
1890 5,049,729+11.0%
1911 5,969,056+18.2%
1920 6,032,991+1.1%
1930 6,825,883+13.1%
1940 7,722,152+13.1%
1950 8,510,240+10.2%
1960 8,851,240+4.0%
1970 8,648,369−2.3%
1981 9,833,041+13.7%
1991 9,862,540+0.3%
2001 10,356,117+5.0%
2011 10,561,614+2.0%
Source: INE 2011

As of 2019, Portugal had 590,000 immigrants out of 10,300,000 inhabitants, an increase of almost 23% from 2018.[1] With the COVID-19 pandemic, that number went up to 661,000 at the end of 2020.[2] In 2007 Portugal had 10,617,575 inhabitants of whom 332,137, or 3.13%, were legal immigrants (51,7% female, 48,3% male).[3] In 2017, Portugal had 416,682 legal residents of foreign origin, of which 203,753 identified as male, and 212,929 as female.[4]

Immigrants to Portugal include Brazilians, Ukrainians, Moldovans, Romanians, Russians, Asians, and Africans.

Immigration[edit]

Portugal, long a country of emigration, has now become a meeting country of net immigration, and not just from the last Portuguese overseas territories in India (until 1961), Africa (until 1975), and Far East Asia (until 1999). Since the 1990s, along with a boom in construction, several new waves of Ukrainian, Brazilian, people from the former Portuguese colonies in Africa and other Africans have settled in the country. Those communities currently make up the largest groups of immigrants in Portugal. Romanians, Moldovans and Chinese also have chosen Portugal as a destination. A number of EU citizens have also chosen Portugal as a destination, with a major part of the British, French, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, German, Swedish communities, among others, being mostly composed of persons looking for quality of life, including an increasing number of pensioners.

Country of origin 2018
 Brazil 105,423[5]
 Cape Verde 34,663[6]
 Romania 30,908[7]
 Ukraine 29,218[8]
 United Kingdom 26,455[9]
 China 25,357[10]
 France 19,771[11]
 Italy 18,862[12]
 Angola 18,382[13]
 Guinea-Bissau 16,186[14]
 Spain 14,066[15]
 Germany 12,817[16]
 India 11,393[17]
 São Tomé and Príncipe 9,153[18]
 Mozambique 3,005[19]
 Moldova 4,834[20]
 Pakistan 4,373[21]
 Russia 4,365[22]
 Sweden 4,274[23]
Legal foreign residents in Portugal
country of origin 2001 census[24] 2002 [25] 2004 [26] 2006 [27] 2011 census[24] % (2011)[24] change from 2001[24] 2018
Brazil 31 869 58,370 66,907 73,384 109 787 27,8% +244,5% 105,423[28]
Cape Verde 33 145 59,678 64,164 68,145 38,895 9,9% +17,3% 34,663[29]
Angola 37 014 31,332 35,264 26 954 6,8% -27,2% 18,382[30]
Guinea Bissau 15 824 22,855 25,148 16 360 4,1% +3,4% 16,186[31]
São Tomé and Príncipe 8 517 8,951 10,483 10 408 2,6% +22,2% 9,153[32]
Mozambique 5,312 5,471 3,005[33]
Ukraine 10 793 60,571 66,227 41,87 33 790 8,6% +213,1%
Romania 2 661 10,673 12,155 24 356 6,2% +815,3%
Spain 9 047 10 486 2,7% +15,9%
United Kingdom 8 227 15 774 4,0% +91,7%
France 15 359 14 360 3,6% -6,5%
Moldova 2 984 11,817 13,689 10 475 2,7% +251,0%
Russia 8,211
Macau 2 176 9,518 11 458 2,9% +426,6%
India 5,088
Pakistan 4,212
Total non-EU 340,187 374,652
European Union 65,393 74,542
Total 405,580 449,194 434,887

Immigration to Portugal has grown since the 1990s. Some immigrant communities, like those arrived from Africa and South America, grew as a result of economic emigration - foreigners looking for better economic conditions abroad. Other immigrant communities, like most of those arrived from other EU member states, are a result of the attractiveness of the country for high income foreign citizens looking for a better quality of life, a warmer sunny weather, security and exquisite cuisine.

However, despite Portugal's reputation as an economic success story since the financial crisis, many young, educated workers are still more attracted by significantly higher wages in European countries such as Germany, Britain or Switzerland.[34] Nearly 600,000 people emigrated during years of austerity between 2011 and 2015.[34]

The 20 largest legal immigrant communities in 2007 compared with their numbers in 1999
* : European Union citizenship
P : Portuguese speaking
Legal foreign residents Number in 1999 Number in 2007 Growth in percentage Number in 2011[24]
BraziliansP 20,851 66,354 + 218% 109,787
CapeverdeansP 43,951 63,925 + 45% 38,895
Ukrainians 123 39,480 + 31998% 33,790
AngolansP 17,721 32,728 + 85% 26,954
GuineansP 14,217 23,733 + 67% 16,360
British* 13,335 23,608 + 77% 15,774
Romanians* 224 19,155 + 8451% 24,356
Spanish* 11,122 18,030 + 62% 10,486
Germans* 9,605 15,498 + 61%
Moldovans 3 14,053 + 468333% 10,475
SantomeansP 4,809 10,627 + 121% 10,408
French* 6,499 10,556 + 62% 14,360
MacaneseP 2,762 10,448 + 278% 11,458
US-Americans 7,975 8,264 + 4%
Dutch* 3,675 6,589 + 79%
Italians* 2,700 5,985 + 122%
MozambicansP 4,502 5,681 + 26%
Russians 448 5,114 + 1042%
Bulgarians* 347 5,028 + 1349%
Indians 1,211 4,104 + 239%

Resident foreigners[edit]

Foreign-born naturalised citizens in Portugal by 2001.

While many earlier immigrants have now become naturalised citizens, there are still substantial numbers of foreign citizens resident in Portugal.

According to Statistics Portugal [35] there were 10,636,979 persons resident in Portugal in 2010, of whom 103,230 (0.97%) were citizens of other EU countries, and 344,853 (3.24%) were citizens of non EU countries.

Brazilians are the most prevalent foreign nationality. The 119,552 resident Brazilians are 1.12% of the total population. Other significant nationalities are the Ukrainians (0.47%), people from Cape Verde (0.42%), Romanians (0.35%), Angolans (0.22%), people from Guinea-Bissau (0.19%) and citizens of the United Kingdom (0.18%). There are also Macaneses and Moldovans (0.15% each), people from São Tomé and Príncipe (0.10%), Germans, Spaniards and Bulgarians (0.08% each), Indians, Russians, French and Italians (0.05% each) as well as citizens of the Netherlands (0.04%) and Mozambicans (0.03%). The numbers of Pakistanis, Americans, Venezuelans, Moroccans, Belgians and Senegalese (0.02% each) are also not insignificant. There are numerous additional nationalities present but communities of less than 1,500 persons are not listed here.

Illegal immigration[edit]

A Portuguese residence permit issued to non-EU citizens.

In 2006 the Portuguese government made it easier for second generation immigrants to gain citizenship in order to prevent illegal immigration.[36][37] There are now estimated to be 260,000 immigrants from Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova in Portugal, half of these illegal. Most work in agriculture.[38][unreliable source?]

Illegal immigration rose by 55% in 2009 most of the illegals being Brazilian nationals[39] Employers of illegal immigrants in Portugal face jail terms.[40]

Jewish immigration[edit]

In recent years, several hundred Turkish Jews, who have been able to prove that they are descended from Jews expelled from Portugal in 1497, have acquired Portuguese citizenship.[41][42][43]

Immigration by Investment[edit]

Another group of immigrants, especially among Non-European citizens, can have the chance of residing in Portugal through making an investment. RBI (Residency by Investment) schemes, also called “golden visa” or “golden passport”, offer Non-European citizens a residency and work permit inside Europe. According to RBI programmes operated by a handful of Member States of EU, Non-European citizens can have an access to residency or citizenship in exchange for specified investments. Under Portugal's Golden Visa programme, which has been in service since 8 October 2012, the Portuguese government grants a residence permit to those who invest an amount of at least 350.000 euros which is maintained for five years.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Henriques, Joana Gorjão. "Número de imigrantes em Portugal subiu quase 23%. Já somam 590 mil" (in Portuguese). Público. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
  2. ^ "661 mil imigrantes, mais 71 mil do que antes da pandemia" (in Portuguese). Diário de Notícias. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
  3. ^ "Statistics Portugal". Ine.pt. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  4. ^ "Fontes: Inquérito Social Europeu, INE". publico.pt. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  5. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Brasil". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  6. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Cabo Verde". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  7. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Roménia". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  8. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Ucrânia". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  9. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Reino Unido da Grã-Bretanha e Irlanda do Norte". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  10. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - China". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  11. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - França". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  12. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Itália". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  13. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Angola". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  14. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Guiné-Bissau". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  15. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Espanha". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  16. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Alemanha". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  17. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Índia". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  18. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - São Tomé e Príncipe". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  19. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Moçambique". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  20. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Moldávia". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  21. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Paquistão". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  22. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Rússia". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  23. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Suécia". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  24. ^ a b c d e "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 2015-12-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^ Estatísticas da Imigração (PDF) (in Portuguese), Alto Comissariado para a Imigração e Minorias Étnicas, 2003, archived from the original (pdf) on 2008-03-14, retrieved 2007-12-14
  26. ^ Estatísticas da Imigração (PDF) (in Portuguese), Alto Comissariado para a Imigração e Minorias Étnicas, 2005, archived from the original (pdf) on 2007-09-28, retrieved 2007-12-14
  27. ^ População Estrangeira em Portugal - 2006 (pdf) (in Portuguese), Instituto Nacional de Estatística, December 13, 2007, retrieved 2007-12-14
  28. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Brasil". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  29. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Cabo Verde". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  30. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Angola". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  31. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Guiné-Bissau". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  32. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - São Tomé e Príncipe". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  33. ^ "População Estrangeira Residente em Portugal - Moçambique". GEE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  34. ^ a b Victoria Waldersee (October 15, 2019), Portugal amends returnee program in bid to attract more citizens home Reuters.
  35. ^ "Statistics Portugal". Ine.pt. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  36. ^ "Portugal approves new immigration law". People's Daily Online. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  37. ^ "Portugal sees integration progress". BBC. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  38. ^ "Russian immigrants in Portugal – miracles and nightmares". Pravda. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  39. ^ "Deportation of illegal immigrants up 53%". The Portugal News. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  40. ^ "Jail terms for employers of illegal immigrants". The Portugal News. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  41. ^ "Amid rising European anti-Semitism, Portugal sees Jewish renaissance". Timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  42. ^ "New citizenship law has Jews flocking to tiny Portugal city". Timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  43. ^ "Portugal open to citizenship applications by descendants of Sephardic Jews". Jta.org. Retrieved 30 September 2017.