Immigration to Russia

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Immigration to Russia involves foreign citizens seeking permanent residence in the territory of the Russian Federation. The standard immigration procedure consists of the following steps: obtaining a temporary residence permit; obtaining a permanent residence permit and obtaining Russian citizenship.[1] Under current law, one can receive citizenship of Russia after five years of residence and after passing an exam in Russian language. Immigration to Russia is regulated by the Main Directorate for Migration Affairs.[2] Immigration plays an important role in modern Russian demographic processes, accounting for the increase in the population from 2011.[3]

Russia maintains one of the world's most liberal immigration policies; anyone who works in Russia for five years and develops fluency in the Russian language can become a citizen, provided they have not committed a crime. Almost anyone who is hired by a Russian firm can stay in the country and work indefinitely [4] This reflects a policy change, in response to declining birth rates, on the part of the government of Vladimir Putin from the more restrictive policy enacted after the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union.[5] The large non-Slavic immigrant populations arriving in response to Putin's liberal policy have sometimes encountered xenophobia. To counter this, pursuant to Russian hate-speech laws, the Russian state has shut down various anti-immigrant groups, such as the Movement Against Illegal Immigration.

Russian-language native-speakers, those married to Russian citizens, highly-qualified specialists, businessmen and refugees are eligible for a simplified immigration procedure. It allows gaining citizenship in 3 years (instead of 5 under the standard procedure) or sometimes skipping temporary or permanent residency.[6]

Statistics[edit]

Recent trends[edit]

Countries with at least 5,000 persons immigrating each year.[7][8]
Country Gross immigration Net immigration
2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Tajikistan Tajikistan 11,043 4,717 18,188 47,638 52,676 63,467 67,929 89,553 93,333 126,840 9,885 4,283 17,494 11,362 27,288 34,639 31,028 48,374 39,424 96,609
Ukraine Ukraine 74,748 30,760 27,508 194,810 178,274 150,182 137,776 161,351 143,988 122,669 39,147 18,120 21,230 146,131 118,819 47,691 14,822 64,245 52,775 64,669
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 124,903 51,945 27,862 65,750 69,356 71,680 72,141 86,311 64,494 72,668 106,990 39,508 20,533 34,767 37,130 32,736 26,516 39,166 8,440 48,317
Armenia Armenia 15,951 7,581 19,890 45,670 43,929 46,898 46,442 71,984 56,511 70,078 14,432 6,961 19,192 20,533 11,993 13,999 14,358 35,109 −1,836 45,235
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 15,536 15,592 20,901 26,045 28,202 41,165 44,408 53,810 45,676 61,101 13,679 15,119 20,260 9,935 11,043 19,355 8,978 15,106 1,402 42,549
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 40,810 30,436 24,100 74,242 60,977 64,073 55,378 60,796 50,188 56,808 37,724 29,841 23,266 −20,668 19,672 22,167 6,807 19,129 4,927 36,009
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 14,906 4,600 14,500 24,326 24,109 25,602 26,690 34,619 32,135 35,209 11,719 3,326 13,389 10,660 10,439 8,599 8,737 17,005 10,894 23,659
Moldova Moldova 11,652 6,569 11,814 34,026 32,418 31,369 30,676 26,513 22,129 27,248 9,415 5,783 11,197 17,380 14,364 9,605 7,688 5,385 3,490 16,144
Belarus Belarus 10,274 6,797 4,894 17,741 14,590 21,282 19,045 18,428 14,536 23,120 −3,002 763 1,995 4,909 2,127 11,770 7,191 6,283 −1,403 15,424
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 6,738 4,104 2,283 6,539 7,242 8,734 10,509 14,632 12,930 10,449 6,062 3,979 2,178 2,320 2,418 2,873 2,951 6,198 778 7,230
India India 203 54 110 2,894 4,768 5,622 5,032 9,588 4,506 7,132 41 93 1,282 1,421 1,437 −185 4,326 −4,779 5,007
Georgia (country) Georgia
*Abkhazia (disp. status)
*South Ossetia (disp. status)
20,213

5,497

5,245
814
33
7,038
2,267
342
6,511
2,261
216
6,809
2,357
270
6,345
1,975
260
6,925
1,429
110
5,764
1,217
131
6,506
1,190
148
18,411
-
-
4,806
-
-
4,786
732
23
3,309
1,272
-282
2,294
1,240
83
2,586
1,975
180
2,031
1,975
96
2,840
147
-4
1,274
30
14
3,838
245
87
China China 1,121 432 1,380 9,043 8,027 8,237 7,067 15,306 7,270 6,465 463 −24 1,132 −778 −810 637 −477 6,679 −3,764 4,248
Vietnam Vietnam 182 114 921 4,012 3,735 3,912 3,981 6,742 6,206 5,426 149 69 889 1,004 394 1,194 684 3,461 308 3,402
Total 359,330 177,230 191,656 598,617 575,158 589,033 565,685 701,234 594,146 667,922 213,610 107,432 158,078 245,384 261,948 211,878 124,854 285,103 106,510 429,902

Foreign population[edit]

As of May 2022, there are 5.99 million foreigners residing in the Russian Federation (up from 5.66 million in 2021 but down from 10.13 million in 2019), with the vast majority (91%) being citizens of CIS countries. Central Asians make up the most numerous group, followed by Ukrainian citizens. Temporary migration from Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan increased after a marked decline in 2020-2021. Other CIS countries have steadily demonstrated a decrease in the number of migrants.[9]

Foreign residents from the CIS in Russia:[9]

Country of origin Population (2022) 2021–2022
change
 Uzbekistan 1,626,308 Increase +435,674
 Tajikistan 1,262,695 Increase +453,529
 Kyrgyzstan 681,165 Increase +58,122
 Ukraine 597,051 Decrease -57,869
 Belarus 428,239 Decrease -134,722
 Armenia 280,520 Decrease -67,160
 Kazakhstan 228,142 Decrease -35,349
 Azerbaijan 215,481 Decrease -83,600
 Moldova 76,645 Decrease -56,230

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Immigrate to Russia https://www.immigratetorussia.com/russian-residence-permit-2/
  2. ^ "На просторах России". Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  3. ^ "Demographics". Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  4. ^ Malakhov, Vladimir S. (9 August 2014). "Russia as a New Immigration Country: Policy Response and Public Debate" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 66 (7): 1062–1079. doi:10.1080/09668136.2014.934140. ISSN 0966-8136. S2CID 153983927. Retrieved 3 October 2018.[dead link]
  5. ^ Ragozin, Leonid (13 March 2017). "Russia Wants Immigrants the World Doesn't". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  6. ^ How to Immigrate to Russia // SDV Consulting, Inc. Retrieved on 22.04.2020.
  7. ^ "Migration of the people" at gks.ru (Russian Statistical Bureau) website.
  8. ^ Demography. "International migration" at gks.ru (Russian Statistical Bureau) website.
  9. ^ a b "Мониторинг экономической ситуации в России" (PDF). Retrieved 24 August 2022.