It has been suggested that this article should be split into articles titled Demographics of immigration to the United States and Public opinion of immigration to the United States. (discuss) (July 2021)
|United States citizenship and immigration|
|United States portal|
Immigration to the United States has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of its history. In absolute numbers, the United States has by far the highest number of immigrant population in the world, with 50,661,149 people as of 2019. This represents 19.1% of the 244 million international migrants worldwide, and 14.4% of the United States' population. In 2018, there were almost 90 million immigrants and U.S.-born children of immigrants in the United States, accounting for 28% of the overall U.S. population.
According to the 2016 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, the United States admitted a total of 1.18 million legal immigrants (618k new arrivals, 565k status adjustments) in 2016. Of these, 48% were the immediate relatives of United States citizens, 20% were family-sponsored, 13% were refugees or asylum seekers, 12% were employment-based preferences, 4.2% were part of the Diversity Immigrant Visa program, 1.4% were victims of a crime (U1) or their family members were (U2 to U5), and 1.0% who were granted the Special Immigrant Visa (SIV) for Iraqis and Afghans employed by the United States Government. The remaining 0.4% included small numbers from several other categories, including 0.2% who were granted suspension of deportation as an immediate relative of a citizen (Z13); persons admitted under the Nicaraguan and Central American Relief Act; children born after the issuance of a parent's visa; and certain parolees from the former Soviet Union, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam who were denied refugee status.
Between 1921 and 1965, policies such as the national origins formula limited immigration and naturalization opportunities for people from areas outside Northwestern Europe. Exclusion laws enacted as early as the 1880s generally prohibited or severely restricted immigration from Asia, and quota laws enacted in the 1920s curtailed Southern and Eastern European immigration. The civil rights movement led to the replacement of these ethnic quotas with per-country limits for family-sponsored and employment-based preference visas. Between 2018 and 2021, the number of first-generation immigrants living in the United States has quadrupled. Census estimates show 45.3 million foreign born residents in the United States as of March 2018 and 45.4 million in September 2021, the lowest three-year increase in decades.
In 2017, out of the U.S. foreign-born population, some 45% (20.7 million) were naturalized citizens, 27% (12.3 million) were lawful permanent residents, 6% (2.2 million) were temporary lawful residents, and 23% (10.5 million) were unauthorized immigrants. The United States led the world in refugee resettlement for decades, admitting more refugees than the rest of the world combined.
Some research suggests that immigration is beneficial to the United States economy. With few exceptions, the evidence suggests that on average, immigration has positive economic effects on the native population, but it is mixed as to whether low-skilled immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives. Studies also show that immigrants have lower crime rates than natives in the United States. The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding such issues as maintaining ethnic homogeneity, workers for employers versus jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility, crime, and voting behavior.
American immigration history can be viewed in four epochs: the colonial period, the mid-19th century, the start of the 20th century, and post-1965. Each period brought distinct national groups, races, and ethnicities to the United States.
During the 17th century, approximately 400,000 English people migrated to America under European colonization. They comprised 83.5% of the white population at the time of the first census in 1790. From 1700 to 1775, between 350,000 and 500,000 Europeans immigrated: estimates vary in sources. Regarding English settlers of the 18th century, one source says 52,000 English migrated during the period of 1701 to 1775, although this figure is likely too low. 400,000–450,000 of the 18th-century migrants were Scots, Scots-Irish from Ulster, Germans, Swiss, and French Huguenots. Over half of all European immigrants to Colonial America during the 17th and 18th centuries arrived as indentured servants. They numbered 350,000. From 1770 to 1775 (the latter year being when the American Revolutionary War began), 7,000 English, 15,000 Scots, 13,200 Scots-Irish, 5,200 Germans, and 3,900 Irish Catholics migrated to the Thirteen Colonies. According to Butler (2000), up to half of English migrants in the 18th century may have been young, single men who were well-skilled, trained artisans, like the Huguenots. Based on scholarly analysis, English was the largest single ancestry in all U.S. states at the time of the first census in 1790, ranging from a high of 82% in Massachusetts to a low of 35.3% in Pennsylvania, where Germans accounted for 33.3%.
Origins of immigrant stock in 1790
The Census Bureau published preliminary estimates of the origins of the colonial American population by scholarly classification of the names of all White heads of families recorded in the 1790 census in a 1909 report entitled A Century of Population Growth. These initial estimates were scrutinized and rejected following passage of the Immigration Act of 1924, when the government required accurate official estimates of the origins of the colonial stock population as basis for computing National Origins Formula immigration quotas in the 1920s. In 1927, proposed quotas based on CPG figures were rejected by the President's Committee chaired by the Secretaries of State, Commerce, and Labor, with the President reporting to Congress "the statistical and historical information available raises grave doubts as to the whole value of these computations as the basis for the purposes intended". Concluding that CPG "had not been accepted by scholars as better than a first approximation of the truth", an extensive scientific revision was produced, in collaboration with the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS), as basis for computing contemporary legal immigration quotas. For this task scholars estimated the proportion of names of unique derivation from each of the major national stocks present in the population as of the 1790 census. The final results, later also published in the journal of the American Historical Association, are presented below:
|State or Territory||English[a]||Scotch||Scotch-Irish||Irish||German||Dutch||French||Swedish[b]||Spanish||Other||Total|
|Kentucky & Tennessee||53,874||57.90%||9,305||10.00%||6,513||7.00%||4,838||5.20%||13,026||14.00%||1,200||1.29%||2,000||2.15%||500||0.54%||−||-||1,790||1.92%||93,046|
|Maryland & District of Columbia||134,579||64.50%||15,857||7.60%||12,102||5.80%||13,562||6.50%||24,412||11.70%||1,000||0.48%||2,500||1.20%||950||0.46%||−||-||3,687||1.77%||208,649|
|Virginia & West Virginia||302,850||68.50%||45,096||10.20%||27,411||6.20%||24,316||5.50%||27,853||6.30%||1,500||0.34%||6,500||1.47%||2,600||0.59%||−||-||3,991||0.90%||442,117|
|1790 Census Area||1,933,416||60.94%||260,322||8.21%||190,075||5.99%||115,886||3.65%||276,940||8.73%||100,000||3.15%||54,900||1.73%||21,100||0.67%||−||-||219,805||6.93%||3,172,444|
Historians estimate that fewer than one million immigrants moved to the United States from Europe between 1600 and 1799. By comparison, in the first federal census, in 1790, the population of the United States was enumerated to be 3,929,214.
Early United States era
The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited naturalization to "free white persons"; it was expanded to include black people in the 1860s and Asian people in the 1950s. This made the United States an outlier, since laws that made racial distinctions were uncommon in the world in the 18th century.
In the early years of the United States, immigration (not counting the enslaved, who were treated as merchandise rather than people) was fewer than 8,000 people a year, including French refugees from the slave revolt in Haiti. Legal importation of enslaved African was prohibited after 1808, though many were smuggled in to sell. After 1820, immigration gradually increased. From 1836 to 1914, over 30 million Europeans migrated to the United States. The death rate on these transatlantic voyages was high, during which one in seven travelers died.
After an initial wave of immigration from China following the California Gold Rush, Congress passed its first immigration law, the Page Act of 1875 which banned Chinese women. This was followed by the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, banning virtually all immigration from China until the law's repeal in 1943. In the late 1800s, immigration from other Asian countries, especially to the West Coast, became more common.
While the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 had already excluded immigrants from China, the immigration of people from Asian countries in addition to China was banned by the Immigration Act of 1917, also known as the Asiatic Barred Zone Act, which also banned homosexuals, people with intellectual disability, and people with an anarchist worldview. The Emergency Quota Act was enacted in 1921, limiting immigration from the Eastern Hemisphere by national quotas equal to 3 percent of the number of foreign-born from each nation in the 1910 census. The Act aimed to further restrict immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, particularly Italian, Slavic, and Jewish people, who had begun to enter the country in large numbers beginning in the 1890s. The temporary quota system was superseded by the National Origins Formula of the Immigration Act of 1924, which computed national quotas as a fraction of 150,000 in proportion to the national origins of the entire White American population as of the 1920 census, except those having origins in the nonquota countries of the Western Hemisphere (which remained unrestricted).
Origins of immigrant stock in 1920
The National Origins Formula was a unique computation which attempted to measure the total contributions of "blood" from each national origin as a share of the total stock of White Americans in 1920, counting immigrants, children of immigrants, and the grandchildren of immigrants (and later generations), in addition to estimating the colonial stock descended from the population who had immigrated in the colonial period and were enumerated in the 1790 census. European Americans remained predominant, although there were shifts toward Southern, Central, and Eastern Europe from immigration in the period 1790 to 1920. The formula determined that ancestry derived from Great Britain accounted for over 40% of the American gene pool, followed by German ancestry at 16%, then Irish ancestry at 11%. The restrictive immigration quota system established by the Immigration Act of 1924, revised and re-affirmed by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, sought to preserve this demographic makeup of America by allotting quotas in proportion to how much blood each national origin had contributed to the total stock of the population in 1920, as presented below:
|Country of origin||Total||Colonial stock||Postcolonial stock|
|Total||Immigrants||Children of||Grandchildren of|
|Syria & Leb.||73,442||0.08%||−||-||73,442||0.14%||42,039||0.31%||31,403||0.16%||−||-|
|All Quota Countries||89,506,558||100.00%||40,324,400||45.05%||49,182,158||54.95%||12,071,282||13.49%||17,620,676||19.69%||19,490,200||21.78%|
|1920 USA Total||94,820,915||100.00%||41,288,570||43.54%||53,532,345||56.46%||13,712,754||14.46%||19,190,372||20.24%||20,629,219||21.76%|
Immigration patterns of the 1930s were affected by the Great Depression. In the final prosperous year, 1929, there were 279,678 immigrants recorded, but in 1933, only 23,068 moved to the U.S. In the early 1930s, more people emigrated from the United States than to it. The U.S. government sponsored a Mexican Repatriation program which was intended to encourage people to voluntarily move to Mexico, but thousands were deported against their will. Altogether, approximately 400,000 Mexicans were repatriated; half of them were US citizens. Most of the Jewish refugees fleeing the Nazis and World War II were barred from coming to the United States. In the post-war era, the Justice Department launched Operation Wetback, under which 1,075,168 Mexicans were deported in 1954.
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, also known as the Hart-Cellar Act, abolished the system of national-origin quotas. By equalizing immigration policies, the act resulted in new immigration from non-European nations, which changed the ethnic demographics of the United States. In 1970, 60% of immigrants were from Europe; this decreased to 15% by 2000. In 1990, George H. W. Bush signed the Immigration Act of 1990, which increased legal immigration to the United States by 40%. In 1991, Bush signed the Armed Forces Immigration Adjustment Act 1991, allowing foreign service members who had served 12 or more years in the US Armed Forces to qualify for permanent residency and, in some cases, citizenship.
In November 1994, California voters passed Proposition 187 amending the state constitution, denying state financial aid to illegal immigrants. The federal courts voided this change, ruling that it violated the federal constitution.
Appointed by President Bill Clinton, the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform recommended reducing legal immigration from about 800,000 people per year to approximately 550,000. While an influx of new residents from different cultures presents some challenges, "the United States has always been energized by its immigrant populations", said President Bill Clinton in 1998. "America has constantly drawn strength and spirit from wave after wave of immigrants ... They have proved to be the most restless, the most adventurous, the most innovative, the most industrious of people."
In 2001, President George W. Bush discussed an accord with Mexican President Vincente Fox. Due to the September 11 attacks, the possible accord did not occur. From 2005 to 2013, the US Congress discussed various ways of controlling immigration. The Senate and House were unable to reach an agreement.
Nearly 14 million immigrants entered the United States from 2000 to 2010, and over one million persons were naturalized as U.S. citizens in 2008. The per-country limit applies the same maximum on the number of visas to all countries regardless of their population and has therefore had the effect of significantly restricting immigration of persons born in populous nations such as Mexico, China, India, and the Philippines—the leading countries of origin for legally admitted immigrants to the United States in 2013; nevertheless, China, India, and Mexico were the leading countries of origin for immigrants overall to the United States in 2013, regardless of legal status, according to a U.S. Census Bureau study.
Nearly 8 million people immigrated to the United States from 2000 to 2005; 3.7 million of them entered without papers. In 1986 president Ronald Reagan signed immigration reform that gave amnesty to 3 million undocumented immigrants in the country. Hispanic immigrants suffered job losses during the late-2000s recession, but since the recession's end in June 2009, immigrants posted a net gain of 656,000 jobs. Over 1 million immigrants were granted legal residence in 2011.
For those who enter the US illegally across the Mexico–United States border and elsewhere, migration is difficult, expensive and dangerous. Virtually all undocumented immigrants have no avenues for legal entry to the United States due to the restrictive legal limits on green cards, and lack of immigrant visas for low-skilled workers. Participants in debates on immigration in the early 21st century called for increasing enforcement of existing laws governing illegal immigration to the United States, building a barrier along some or all of the 2,000-mile (3,200 km) Mexico-U.S. border, or creating a new guest worker program. Through much of 2006 the country and Congress was engaged in a debate about these proposals. As of April 2010[update] few of these proposals had become law, though a partial border fence had been approved and subsequently canceled.
Modern reform attempts
Beginning with Ronald Reagan in the 1980s, presidents from both political parties have steadily increased the number of border patrol agents and instituted harsher punitive measures for immigration violations. Examples of these policies include Ronald Reagan's Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 and the Clinton-era Prevention Through Deterrence strategy. The sociologist Douglas Massey has argued that these policies have succeeded at producing a perception of border enforcement but have largely failed at preventing emigration from Latin America. Notably, rather than curtailing illegal immigration, the increase in border patrol agents decreased circular migration across the U.S.–Mexico border, thus increasing the population of Hispanics in the U.S.
Presidents from both parties have employed anti-immigrant rhetoric to appeal to their political base or to garner bi-partisan support for their policies. While Republicans like Reagan and Donald Trump have led the way in framing Hispanic immigrants as criminals, Douglas Massey points out that "the current moment of open racism and xenophobia could not have happened with Democratic acquiescence". For example, while lobbying for his 1986 immigration bill, Reagan framed unauthorized immigration as a "national security" issue and warned that "terrorists and subversives are just two days' driving time" from the border. Later presidents, including Democrats Bill Clinton and Barack Obama, used similar "security" rhetoric in their efforts to court Republican support for comprehensive immigration reform. In his 2013 State of the Union Address, Obama said "real reform means strong border security, and we can build on the progress my administration has already made – putting more boots on the southern border than at any time in our history".
Trump administration policies
ICE reports that it removed 240,255 immigrants in fiscal year 2016, as well as 226,119 in FY2017 and 256,085 in FY2018. Citizens of Central American countries (including Mexico) made up over 90% of removals in FY2017 and over 80% in FY2018.
In January 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump signed an executive order temporarily suspending entry to the United States by nationals of seven Muslim-majority countries. It was replaced by another executive order in March 2017 and by a presidential proclamation in September 2017, with various changes to the list of countries and exemptions. The orders were temporarily suspended by federal courts but later allowed to proceed by the Supreme Court, pending a definite ruling on their legality. Another executive order called for the immediate construction of a wall across the U.S.–Mexico border, the hiring of 5,000 new border patrol agents and 10,000 new immigration officers, and federal funding penalties for sanctuary cities.
The "zero-tolerance" policy was put in place in 2018, which legally allows children to be separated from adults unlawfully entering the United States. This is justified by labeling all adults that enter unlawfully as criminals, thus subjecting them to criminal prosecution. The Trump Administration also argued that its policy had precedent under the Obama Administration, which had opened family detention centers in response to migrants increasingly using children as a way to get adults into the country. However, the Obama Administration detained families together in administrative, rather than criminal, detention.
Other policies focused on what it means for an asylum seeker to claim credible fear. To further decrease the amount of asylum seekers into the United States, Attorney General Jeff Sessions released a decision that restricts those fleeing gang violence and domestic abuse as "private crime", therefore making their claims ineligible for asylum. These new policies that have been put in place are putting many lives at risk, to the point that the ACLU has officially sued Jeff Sessions along with other members of the Trump Administration. The ACLU claims that the policies that are currently being put in place by this Presidential Administration is undermining the fundamental human rights of those immigrating into the United States, specifically women. They also claim that these policies violate decades of settle asylum law.
Biden administration policies
In January 2023, regarding the southern border crisis, Joe Biden announced a new immigration policy that would allow 30,000 migrants per month from Cuba, Haiti, Nicaragua and Venezuela but will also expel the migrants from those countries who violate US laws of immigration. The policy has faced criticism from "immigration reform advocates and lawyers who decry any expansion of Title 42."
Origins of the U.S. immigrant population, 1960–2016
|South and East Asia||4%||7%||15%||22%||23%||25%||25%||26%||26%||26%||27%||27%||28%|
|Other Latin America||4%||11%||16%||21%||22%||24%||24%||24%||24%||24%||24%||25%||25%|
Note: "Other Latin America" includes Central America, South America and the Caribbean.
|Decade||Average per year|
- Refugee numbers
According to the Department of State, in the 2016 fiscal year 84,988 refugees were accepted into the US from around the world. In the fiscal year of 2017, 53,691 refugees were accepted to the US. There was a significant decrease after Trump took office; it continued in the fiscal year of 2018 when only 22,405 refugees were accepted into the US. This displays a massive drop in acceptance of refugees since the Trump Administration has been in place.[original research?]
On September 26, 2019, The Trump administration announced it plans to allow only 18,000 refugees to resettle in the United States in the 2020 fiscal year, its lowest level since the modern program began in 1980.
In 2020 The Trump administration announces that it plans to slash refugee admissions to U.S. for 2021 to a record low, 15,000 refugees down from a cap of 18,000 for 2020. This is the fourth consecutive year of declining refugee admissions under the Trump term.
|Period||Refugee Program |
As of 2018[update], approximately half of immigrants living in the United States are from Mexico and other Latin American countries. Many Central Americans are fleeing because of desperate social and economic circumstances in their countries. Some believe that the large number of Central American refugees arriving in the United States can be explained as a "blowback" to policies such as United States military interventions and covert operations that installed or maintained in power authoritarian leaders allied with wealthy land owners and multinational corporations who stop family farming and democratic efforts, which have caused drastically sharp social inequality, wide-scale poverty and rampant crime. Economic austerity dictated by neoliberal policies imposed by the International Monetary Fund and its ally, the U.S., has also been cited as a driver of the dire social and economic conditions, as has the U.S. "War on Drugs", which has been understood as fueling murderous gang violence in the region. Another major migration driver from Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador) are crop failures, which are (partly) caused by climate change. "The current debate ... is almost totally about what to do about immigrants when they get here. But the 800-pound gorilla that's missing from the table is what we have been doing there that brings them here, that drives them here", according to Jeff Faux, an economist who is a distinguished fellow at the Economic Policy Institute.
Until the 1930s most legal immigrants were male. By the 1990s women accounted for just over half of all legal immigrants. Contemporary immigrants tend to be younger than the native population of the United States, with people between the ages of 15 and 34 substantially overrepresented. Immigrants are also more likely to be married and less likely to be divorced than native-born Americans of the same age.
Immigrants are likely to move to and live in areas populated by people with similar backgrounds. This phenomenon has remained true throughout the history of immigration to the United States. Seven out of ten immigrants surveyed by Public Agenda in 2009 said they intended to make the U.S. their permanent home, and 71% said if they could do it over again they would still come to the US. In the same study, 76% of immigrants say the government has become stricter on enforcing immigration laws since the September 11, 2001 attacks ("9/11"), and 24% report that they personally have experienced some or a great deal of discrimination.
Public attitudes about immigration in the U.S. were heavily influenced in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks. After the attacks, 52% of Americans believed that immigration was a good thing overall for the U.S., down from 62% the year before, according to a 2009 Gallup poll. A 2008 Public Agenda survey found that half of Americans said tighter controls on immigration would do "a great deal" to enhance U.S. national security. Harvard political scientist and historian Samuel P. Huntington argued in his 2004 book Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity that a potential future consequence of continuing massive immigration from Latin America, especially Mexico, could lead to the bifurcation of the United States.
The estimated population of illegal Mexican immigrants in the US decreased from approximately 7 million in 2007 to 6.1 million in 2011 Commentators link the reversal of the immigration trend to the economic downturn that started in 2008 and which meant fewer available jobs, and to the introduction of tough immigration laws in many states. According to the Pew Hispanic Center, the net immigration of Mexican born persons had stagnated in 2010, and tended toward going into negative figures.
More than 80 cities in the United States, including Washington D.C., New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, San Francisco, San Diego, San Jose, Salt Lake City, Phoenix, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, Detroit, Jersey City, Minneapolis, Denver, Baltimore, Seattle, Portland, Oregon and Portland, Maine, have sanctuary policies, which vary locally.
|Region||2015||% of total||2016||% of total||2017||% of total||2018||% of total||2019||% of total||2020||% of total||/% in 2020|
|Australia and Oceania||5,404||0.5%||5,588||0.5%||5,071||0.5%||4,653||0.4%||5,359||0.5%||3,998||0.6%||25.4%|
|Guatemala||[data missing]||[data missing]||[data missing]||[data missing]||7,369||8,199||15,328|
|South Korea||21,801||19,194||17,676||18,479||16,244||12,351||[data missing]|
|Honduras||[data missing]||[data missing]||[data missing]||[data missing]||7,843||9,425||14,762|
|Canada||[data missing]||[data missing]||[data missing]||[data missing]||11,297||12,053||13,916|
Extent and destinations
The United States admitted more legal immigrants from 1991 to 2000, between ten and eleven million, than in any previous decade. In the most recent decade,[when?] the 10 million legal immigrants that settled in the U.S. represent roughly one third of the annual growth, as the U.S. population increased by 32 million (from 249 million to 281 million). By comparison, the highest previous decade was the 1900s, when 8.8 million people arrived, increasing the total U.S. population by one percent every year. Specifically, "nearly 15% of Americans were foreign-born in 1910, while in 1999, only about 10% were foreign-born".
By 1970, immigrants accounted for 4.7 percent of the US population and rising to 6.2 percent in 1980, with an estimated 12.5 percent in 2009. As of 2010[update], 25% of US residents under age 18 were first- or second-generation immigrants. Eight percent of all babies born in the U.S. in 2008 belonged to illegal immigrant parents, according to a recent[when?] analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data by the Pew Hispanic Center.
Legal immigration to the U.S. increased from 250,000 in the 1930s, to 2.5 million in the 1950s, to 4.5 million in the 1970s, and to 7.3 million in the 1980s, before becoming stable at about 10 million in the 1990s. Since 2000, legal immigrants to the United States number approximately 1,000,000 per year, of whom about 600,000 are Change of Status who already are in the U.S. Legal immigrants to the United States now[when?] are at their highest level ever, at just over 37,000,000 legal immigrants. In reports in 2005–2006, estimates of illegal immigration ranged from 700,000 to 1,500,000 per year. Immigration led to a 57.4% increase in foreign-born population from 1990 to 2000.
Foreign-born immigration has caused the U.S. population to continue its rapid increase with the foreign-born population doubling from almost 20 million in 1990 to over 47 million in 2015. In 2018, there were almost 90 million immigrants and U.S.-born children of immigrants (second-generation Americans) in the United States, accounting for 28% of the overall U.S. population.
While immigration has increased drastically over the 20th century, the foreign-born share of the population is, at 13.4, only somewhat below what it was at its peak in 1910 at 14.7%. A number of factors may be attributed to the decrease in the representation of foreign-born residents in the United States. Most significant has been the change in the composition of immigrants; prior to 1890, 82% of immigrants came from North and Western Europe. From 1891 to 1920, that number decreased to 25%, with a rise in immigrants from East, Central, and South Europe, summing up to 64%. Animosity towards these ethnically different immigrants increased in the United States, resulting in much legislation to limit immigration in the 20th century.
|Country of birth||2015[note 1]||2010[note 2]||2000||1990||1980||1970|
|Iran (Incl. Kurdistan)||377,741||353,169||283,226||210,941||N/A[b]||N/A[b]|
|Trinidad and Tobago||234,483||231,678||197,398||115,710||N/A[b]||N/A[b]|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||105,657||115,600||98,766||N/A[b]||N/A[b]||N/A[b]|
|St. Vincent and the Grenadines||22,898||21,478||N/A[b]||N/A[b]||N/A[b]||N/A[b]|
United States and its territories
United States and its territories
|Country of birth||Change (2019)||Population (2019)||2018–2019|
|Trinidad and Tobago||212,798||−9,770|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||104,612||−957|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||60,512||+/−|
|Republic of the Congo||38,932||+/−|
- Excluding Hong Kong and Taiwan
- Not counted separately; aggregated into "Other" category
- As well as North Korea
- Including Crown Dependencies
- Country was not independent; counted under "Russia"
- As well as the Gaza Strip
- Only Metropolitan France
- Does not include the Palestinian Territories or the Golan Heights
- Including the Golan Heights
- Only European Netherlands
- Does not include the Western Sahara
- As well as the West Bank
- Excluding Hong Kong, and, also Taiwan (Republic of China).
- Including North Korea.
- Including Crown Dependencies.
- Including the Gaza Strip.
- Metropolitan France only.
- Excluding the Golan Heights and the Palestinian territories.
- Including the Golan Heights.
- Including the West Bank.
- European Netherlands only.
- Excluding Western Sahara.
Effects of immigration
Immigration to the United States significantly increases the population. The Census Bureau estimates that the US population will increase from 317 million in 2014 to 417 million in 2060 with immigration, when nearly 20% will be foreign-born. In particular, the population of Hispanic and Asian Americans is significantly increased by immigration, with both populations expected to see major growth. Overall, the Pew Report predicts the population of the United States will rise from 296 million in 2005 to 441 million in 2065, but only to 338 million with no immigration. The prevalence of immigrant segregation has brought into question the accuracy of describing the United States as a melting pot. Immigration to the United States has also increased religious diversity, with Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism growing in the United States due to immigration. Changing demographics as a result of immigration have affected political affiliations. Immigrants are more likely than natives to support the Democratic Party. Interest groups that lobby for and against immigration play a role in immigration policy, with religious, ethnic, and business groups most likely to lobby on issues of immigration.
Immigrants have not been found to increase crime in the United States, and immigrants overall are associated with lower crime rates than natives. Some research even suggests that increases in immigration may partly explain the reduction in the U.S. crime rate. According to one study, sanctuary cities—which adopt policies designed to not prosecute people solely for being an illegal immigrant—have no statistically meaningful effect on crime. Research suggests that police practices, such as racial profiling, over-policing in areas populated by minorities and in-group bias may result in disproportionately high numbers of immigrants among crime suspects. Research also suggests that there may be possible discrimination by the judicial system, which contributes to a higher number of convictions for immigrants. Crimmigration has emerged as a field in which critical immigration scholars conceptualize the current immigration law enforcement system.
Increased immigration to the United States has historically caused discrimination and racial unrest. Areas with higher minority populations may be subject to increased policing and harsher sentencing. Faculty in educational facilities have been found to be more responsive toward white students, though affirmative action policies may cause colleges to favor minority applicants. Evidence also shows the existence of racial discrimination in the housing market and the labor market. Discrimination also exists between different immigrant groups. According to a 2018 study of longitudinal earnings, most immigrants economically assimilate into the United States within a span of 20 years, matching the economic situations of non-immigrants of similar race and ethnicity.
Immigration has been found to have little impact on the health of natives. Researchers have also found what is known as the "healthy immigrant effect", in which immigrants in general tend to be healthier than individuals born in the U.S. However, some illnesses are believed to have been introduced to the United States or caused to increase by immigration. Immigrants are more likely than native-born Americans to have a medical visit labeled uncompensated care.
A significant proportion of American scientists and engineers are immigrants. Graduate students are more likely to be immigrants than undergraduate students, as immigrants often complete undergraduate training in their native country before immigrating. 33% of all U.S. Ph.D.s in science and engineering were awarded to foreign-born graduate students as of 2004.
High-skilled immigration and low-skilled immigration have both been found to make economic conditions better for the average immigrant and the average American. The overall impact of immigration on the economy tends to be minimal. Research suggests that diversity has a net positive effect on productivity and economic prosperity. Contributions by immigrants through taxation and the economy have been found to exceed the cost of services they use. Overall immigration has not had much effect on native wage inequality but low-skill immigration has been linked to greater income inequality in the native population. Labor unions have historically opposed immigration over economic concerns.
Immigrants have also been found to raise economic productivity, as they are more likely to take jobs that natives are unwilling to do. Research indicates that immigrants are more likely to work in risky jobs than U.S.-born workers, partly due to differences in average characteristics, such as immigrants' lower English language ability and educational attainment. Refugees have been found to integrate more slowly into the labor market than other immigrants, but they have also been found to increase government revenue overall. Immigration has also been correlated with increased innovation and entrepreneurship, and immigrants are more likely to start businesses than Native Americans.
Undocumented immigrants have also been found to have a positive effect on economic conditions in the United States. According to NPR in 2005, about 3% of illegal immigrants were working in agriculture, and the H-2A visa allows U.S. employers to bring foreign nationals to the United States to fill temporary agricultural jobs. States that imposed harsher immigration laws were found to suffer significant economic losses.
The largely ambivalent feeling of Americans toward immigrants is shown by a positive attitude toward groups that have been visible for a century or more, and much more negative attitude toward recent arrivals. For example, a 1982 national poll by the Roper Center at the University of Connecticut showed respondents a card listing a number of groups and asked, "Thinking both of what they have contributed to this country and have gotten from this country, for each one tell me whether you think, on balance, they've been a good or a bad thing for this country", which produced the results shown in the table. "By high margins, Americans are telling pollsters it was a very good thing that Poles, Italians, and Jews immigrated to America. Once again, it's the newcomers who are viewed with suspicion. This time, it's the Mexicans, the Filipinos, and the people from the Caribbean who make Americans nervous."
In a 2002 study, which took place soon after the September 11 attacks, 55% of Americans favored decreasing legal immigration, 27% favored keeping it at the same level, and 15% favored increasing it.
In 2006, the immigration-reduction advocacy think tank the Center for Immigration Studies released a poll that found that 68% of Americans think U.S. immigration levels are too high, and just 2% said they are too low. They also found that 70% said they are less likely to vote for candidates that favor increasing legal immigration. In 2004, 55% of Americans believed legal immigration should remain at the current level or increased and 41% said it should be decreased. The less contact a native-born American has with immigrants, the more likely they would have a negative view of immigrants.
Surveys indicate that the U.S. public consistently makes a sharp distinction between legal and illegal immigrants, and generally views those perceived as "playing by the rules" with more sympathy than immigrants who have entered the country illegally.
According to a Gallup poll in July 2015, immigration is the fourth-most important problem facing the United States and seven percent of Americans said it was the most important problem facing America today. In March 2015, another Gallup poll provided insight into American public opinion on immigration; the poll revealed that 39% of people worried about immigration "a great deal". A January poll showed that only 33% of Americans were satisfied with the current state of immigration in America.
Before 2012, a majority of Americans supported securing United States borders compared to dealing with illegal immigrants in the United States. In 2013, that trend has reversed and 55% of people polled by Gallup revealed that they would choose "developing a plan to deal with immigrants who are currently in the U.S. illegally". Changes regarding border control are consistent across party lines, with the percentage of Republicans saying that "securing U.S. borders to halt flow of illegal immigrants" is extremely important decreasing from 68% in 2011 to 56% in 2014. Meanwhile, Democrats who chose extremely important shifted from 42% in 2011 to 31% in 2014. In July 2013, 87% of Americans said they would vote in support of a law that would "allow immigrants already in the country to become U.S. citizens if they meet certain requirements including paying taxes, having a criminal background check and learning English". However, in the same survey, 83% also said they would support the tightening of U.S. border security.
Donald Trump's campaign for presidency focused on a rhetoric of reducing illegal immigration and toughening border security. In July 2015, 48% of Americans thought that Donald Trump would do a poor job of handling immigration problems. In November 2016, 55% of Trump's voters thought that he would do the right thing regarding illegal immigration. In general, Trump supporters are not united upon how to handle immigration. In December 2016, Trump voters were polled and 60% said that "undocumented immigrants in the U.S. who meet certain requirements should be allowed to stay legally".
American opinion regarding how immigrants affect the country and how the government should respond to illegal immigration have changed over time. In 2006, out of all U.S. adults surveyed, 28% declared that they believed the growing number of immigrants helped American workers and 55% believed that it hurt American workers. In 2016, those views had changed, with 42% believing that they helped and 45% believing that they hurt. The PRRI 2015 American Values Atlas showed that between 46% and 53% of Americans believed that "the growing number of newcomers from other countries ... strengthens American society". In the same year, between 57% and 66% of Americans chose that the U.S. should "allow [immigrants living in the U.S. illegally] a way to become citizens provided they meet certain requirements".
In February 2017, the American Enterprise Institute released a report on recent surveys about immigration issues. In July 2016, 63% of Americans favored the temporary bans of immigrants from areas with high levels of terrorism and 53% said the U.S. should allow fewer refugees to enter the country. In November 2016, 55% of Americans were opposed to building a border wall with Mexico. Since 1994, Pew Research center has tracked a change from 63% of Americans saying that immigrants are a burden on the country to 27%.
The Trump administration's zero-tolerance policy was reacted to negatively by the public. One of the main concerns was how detained children of illegal immigrants were treated. Due to very poor conditions, a campaign was begun called "Close the Camps". Detainment facilities were compared to concentration and internment camps.
After the 2021 evacuation from Afghanistan in August 2021, an NPR/Ipsos poll (±4.6%) found 69% of Americans supported resettling in the United States Afghans who had worked with the U.S., with 65% support for Afghans who "fear repression or persecution from the Taliban". There was lower support for other refugees: 59% for those "fleeing from civil strife and violence in Africa", 56% for those "fleeing from violence in Syria and Libya", and 56% for "Central Americans fleeing violence and poverty". 57% supported the Trump-era Remain in Mexico policy, and 55% supported legalizing the status of those illegally brought to the U.S. as children (as proposed in the DREAM Act).
This section needs expansion with: needs a more historical view for Catholicism; rather than a point-in-time view of a single year: 2018. You can help by adding to it. (October 2023)
Religious figures in the United States have stated their views on the topic of immigration as informed by their religious traditions.
- Catholicism – In 2018, Catholic leaders stated that asylum-limiting laws proposed by the Trump administration were immoral. Some bishops considered imposing sanctions (known as "canonical penalties") on church members who have participated in enforcing such policies.
- Judaism – American Jewish rabbis from various denominations have stated that their understanding of Judaism is that immigrants and refugees should be welcomed, and even assisted. The exception would be if there is significant economic hardship or security issues faced by the host country or community, in which case immigration may be limited, discouraged or even prohibited altogether. Some liberal denominations place more emphasis on the welcoming of immigrants, while Conservative, Orthodox and Independent rabbis also consider economic and security concerns. Some provide moral arguments for both the right of country to enforce immigration standards as well as for providing some sort of amnesty for illegal migrants.
Laws concerning immigration and naturalization include the Immigration Act of 1990 (IMMACT), the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA), the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), the Naturalization Act of 1790, the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798, the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, and the Johnson-Reed Act of 1924. AEDPA and IIRARA exemplify many categories of criminal activity for which immigrants, including green card holders, can be deported and have imposed mandatory detention for certain types of cases. The Johnson-Reed Act limited the number of immigrants and the Chinese Exclusion Act banned immigration from China altogether.
Refugees are able to gain legal status in the United States through asylum, and a specified number of legally defined refugees, who either apply for asylum overseas or after arriving in the U.S., are admitted annually.[quantify] In 2014, the number of asylum seekers accepted into the U.S. was about 120,000. By comparison, about 31,000 were accepted in the UK and 13,500 in Canada. Asylum offices in the United States receive more applications for asylum than they can process every month and every year, and these continuous applications cause a significant backlog.
Removal proceedings are considered administrative proceedings under the authority of the United States Attorney General, and thus part of the executive branch rather than the judicial branch of government. in removal proceedings in front of an immigration judge, cancellation of removal is a form of relief that is available for some long-time residents of the United States. Eligibility may depend on time spent in the United States, criminal record, or family in the country. Members of Congress may submit private bills granting residency to specific named individuals. The United States allows immigrant relatives of active duty military personnel to reside in the United States through a green card.
As of 2015, there are estimated to be 11 to 12 million unauthorized immigrants in the United States, making up about 5% of the civilian labor force. Under the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, unauthorized immigrants that arrived as children were granted exemptions to immigration law.
Most immigration proceedings are civil matters, though criminal charges are applicable when evading border enforcement, committing fraud to gain entry, or committing identity theft to gain employment. Due process protections under the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution have been found to apply to immigration proceedings, but those of the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution have not due to their nature as civil matters.
In 2021 a new system establishes by The U.S. Citizenship Act, for responsibly manage and secure U.S. border's, for safety of families and communities, and better manage migration across the Hemisphere, sent by President Biden to U.S. Congress.
Immigration in popular culture
The history of immigration to the United States is the history of the country itself, and the journey from beyond the sea is an element found in American folklore, appearing in many works, such as The Godfather, Gangs of New York, "The Song of Myself", Neil Diamond's "America", and the animated feature An American Tail.
From the 1880s to the 1910s, vaudeville dominated the popular image of immigrants, with very popular caricature portrayals of ethnic groups. The specific features of these caricatures became widely accepted as accurate portrayals.
In The Melting Pot (1908), playwright Israel Zangwill (1864–1926) explored issues that dominated Progressive Era debates about immigration policies. Zangwill's theme of the positive benefits of the American melting pot resonated widely in popular culture and literary and academic circles in the 20th century; his cultural symbolism – in which he situated immigration issues – likewise informed American cultural imagining of immigrants for decades, as exemplified by Hollywood films.
The popular culture's image of ethnic celebrities often includes stereotypes about immigrant groups. For example, Frank Sinatra's public image as a superstar contained important elements of the American Dream while simultaneously incorporating stereotypes about Italian Americans that were based in nativist and Progressive responses to immigration.
The process of assimilation has been a common theme of popular culture. For example, "lace-curtain Irish" refers to middle-class Irish Americans desiring assimilation into mainstream society in counterpoint to the older, more raffish "shanty Irish". The occasional malapropisms and social blunders of these upward mobiles were lampooned in vaudeville, popular song, and the comic strips of the day such as Bringing Up Father, starring Maggie and Jiggs, which ran in daily newspapers for 87 years (1913 to 2000). In The Departed (2006), Staff Sergeant Dignam regularly points out the dichotomy between the lace-curtain Irish lifestyle Billy Costigan enjoyed with his mother, and the shanty Irish lifestyle of Costigan's father. Since the late 20th century popular culture has paid special attention to Mexican immigration; the film Spanglish (2004) tells of a friendship of a Mexican housemaid (played by Paz Vega) and her boss (played by Adam Sandler).
Immigration in literature
Novelists and writers have captured much of the color and challenge in their immigrant lives through their writings.
Regarding Irish women in the 19th century, there were numerous novels and short stories by Harvey O'Higgins, Peter McCorry, Bernard O'Reilly and Sarah Orne Jewett that emphasize emancipation from Old World controls, new opportunities and expansiveness of the immigrant experience.
Fears of population decline have at times fueled anti-emigration sentiment in foreign countries. Hladnik studies three popular novels of the late 19th century that warned Slovenes not to migrate to the dangerous new world of the United States. In India some politicians oppose emigration to the United States because of a supposed brain drain of highly qualified and educated Indian nationals.
Jewish American writer Anzia Yezierska wrote her novel Bread Givers (1925) to explore such themes as Russian-Jewish immigration in the early 20th century, the tension between Old and New World Yiddish culture, and women's experience of immigration. A well established author Yezierska focused on the Jewish struggle to escape the ghetto and enter middle- and upper-class America. In the novel, the heroine, Sara Smolinsky, escapes from New York City's "down-town ghetto" by breaking tradition. She quits her job at the family store and soon becomes engaged to a rich real-estate magnate. She graduates college and takes a high-prestige job teaching public school. Finally Sara restores her broken links to family and religion.
The Swedish author Vilhelm Moberg, in the mid-20th century, wrote a series of four novels describing one Swedish family's migration from Småland to Minnesota in the late 19th century, a destiny shared by almost one million people. The author emphasizes the authenticity of the experiences as depicted (although he did change names). These novels have been translated into English (The Emigrants, 1951, Unto a Good Land, 1954, The Settlers, 1961, The Last Letter Home, 1961). The musical Kristina från Duvemåla by ex-ABBA members Björn Ulvaeus and Benny Andersson is based on this story.
The Immigrant is a musical by Steven Alper, Sarah Knapp, and Mark Harelik. The show is based on the story of Harelik's grandparents, Matleh and Haskell Harelik, who traveled to Galveston, Texas in 1909.
In their documentary How Democracy Works Now: Twelve Stories, filmmakers Shari Robertson and Michael Camerini examine the American political system through the lens of immigration reform from 2001 to 2007. Since the debut of the first five films, the series has become an important resource for advocates, policy-makers and educators.
That film series premiered nearly a decade after the filmmakers' landmark documentary film Well-Founded Fear which provided a behind-the-scenes look at the process for seeking asylum in the United States. That film still marks the only time that a film-crew was privy to the private proceedings at the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), where individual asylum officers ponder the often life-or-death fate of immigrants seeking asylum.
The documentary Trafficked with Mariana van Zeller argued that weapons smuggling from the United States contributed to insecurity in Latin America, itself triggering more migration to the United States.
Overall approach to regulation
University of North Carolina School of Law professor Hiroshi Motomura has identified three approaches the United States has taken to the legal status of immigrants in his book Americans in Waiting: The Lost Story of Immigration and Citizenship in the United States. The first, dominant in the 19th century, treated immigrants as in transition; in other words, as prospective citizens. As soon as people declared their intention to become citizens, they received multiple low-cost benefits, including the eligibility for free homesteads in the Homestead Act of 1862, and in many states, the right to vote. The goal was to make the country more attractive, so large numbers of farmers and skilled craftsmen would settle new lands.
By the 1880s, a second approach took over, treating newcomers as "immigrants by contract". An implicit deal existed where immigrants who were literate and could earn their own living were permitted in restricted numbers. Once in the United States, they would have limited legal rights, but were not allowed to vote until they became citizens, and would not be eligible for the New Deal government benefits available in the 1930s.
The third policy is "immigration by affiliation", originating in the later half of the 20th century, which Motomura argues is the treatment which depends on how deeply rooted people have become in the country. An immigrant who applies for citizenship as soon as permitted, has a long history of working in the United States, and has significant family ties, is more deeply affiliated and can expect better treatment.
The American Dream is the belief that through hard work and determination, any United States immigrant can achieve a better life, usually in terms of financial prosperity and enhanced personal freedom of choice. According to historians, the rapid economic and industrial expansion of the U.S. is not simply a function of being a resource rich, hard working, and inventive country, but the belief that anybody could get a share of the country's wealth if he or she was willing to work hard. This dream has been a major factor in attracting immigrants to the United States.
- Demographics of the United States
- Emigration from the United States
- European colonization of the Americas
- History of laws concerning immigration and naturalization in the United States
- How Democracy Works Now: Twelve Stories
- Illegal immigration to the United States
- Immigration policies of American labor unions
- Inequality within immigrant families (United States)
- Nativism (politics), opposition to immigration
- Opposition to immigration
- United States immigration statistics
- Immigrant benefits urban legend, a hoax regarding benefits comparison
- Refers to 2013–2017 American Community Survey data; the last Decennial Census where foreign-born population data was collected was in the 2000 census
- Refers to 2008–2012 American Community Survey data; the last Decennial Census where foreign-born population data was collected was in the 2000 census
- "International Migrant Stock 2019 Documentation" (PDF). United Nations.
- "Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants and Immigration in the United States". Migration Policy Institute. March 14, 2019.
- "Table 7. Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status By Type And Detailed Class Of Admission: Fiscal Year 2016–2016 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics". DHS.gov. United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS). December 18, 2017. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- "Green Card for a Victim of a Crime (U Nonimmigrant)". www.uscis.gov. May 23, 2018. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
- "INS Class of Admission Codes" (PDF). www.hplct.org. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
- Foner, Nancy; Fredrickson, George M., eds. (December 8, 2005). "Chapter 6: American Gatekeeping: Race and Immigration Law in the Twentieth Century". Not Just Black and White: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States. Russell Sage Foundation. ISBN 978-0-87154-270-0. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016.
- "Per Country Limit". U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. Archived from the original on January 21, 2016. in 1965.
- "Immigrants in the United States and the Current Economic Crisis Archived April 8, 2010, at the Wayback Machine", Demetrios G. Papademetriou and Aaron Terrazas, Migration Policy Institute, April 2009.
- "Immigration Worldwide: Policies, Practices, and Trends Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine". Uma A. Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas (2010),
- "Monthly Census Bureau Data Shows Big Increase in Foreign-Born". November 2, 2021. Retrieved December 17, 2021.
- "Key findings about U.S. immigrants". Pew Research Center. June 17, 2019.
- Jens Manuel Krogstad (October 7, 2019). "Key facts about refugees to the U.S." Pew Research Center.
- The Integration of Immigrants into American Society. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. doi:10.17226/21746. ISBN 978-0-309-37398-2.
Americans have long believed that immigrants are more likely than natives to commit crimes and that rising immigration leads to rising crime ... This belief is remarkably resilient to the contrary evidence that immigrants are in fact much less likely than natives to commit crimes.
- Doleac, Jennifer (February 14, 2017). "Are immigrants more likely to commit crimes?". Econofact. Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Archived from the original on February 16, 2017.
- * Graif, Corina; Sampson, Robert J. (July 15, 2009). "Spatial Heterogeneity in the Effects of Immigration and Diversity on Neighborhood Homicide Rates". Homicide Studies. 13 (3): 242–60. doi:10.1177/1088767909336728. ISSN 1088-7679. PMC 2911240. PMID 20671811.
- Lee, Matthew T.; Martinez, Ramiro; Rosenfeld, Richard (September 1, 2001). "Does Immigration Increase Homicide?". Sociological Quarterly. 42 (4): 559–80. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.2001.tb01780.x. ISSN 1533-8525. S2CID 143182621.
- Ousey, Graham C.; Kubrin, Charis E. (October 15, 2013). "Immigration and the Changing Nature of Homicide in US Cities, 1980–2010". Journal of Quantitative Criminology. 30 (3): 453–83. doi:10.1007/s10940-013-9210-5. S2CID 42681671.
- Martinez, Ramiro; Lee, Matthew T.; Nielsen, Amie L. (March 1, 2004). "Segmented Assimilation, Local Context and Determinants of Drug Violence in Miami and San Diego: Does Ethnicity and Immigration Matter?". International Migration Review. 38 (1): 131–57. doi:10.1111/j.1747-7379.2004.tb00191.x. ISSN 1747-7379. S2CID 144567229.
- Kristin F. Butcher; Anne Morrison Piehl (Summer 1998). "Cross-city evidence on the relationship between immigration and crime". Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. 17 (3): 457–93. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6688(199822)17:3<457::AID-PAM4>3.0.CO;2-F.
- Butcher, Kristin F.; Piehl, Anne Morrison (July 1, 2007). "Why are Immigrants' Incarceration Rates so Low? Evidence on Selective Immigration, Deterrence, and Deportation" (PDF). NBER Working Paper No. 13229. doi:10.3386/w13229. hdl:10419/31301. S2CID 31160880.
- Butcher, Kristin F.; Piehl, Anne Morrison (1998). "Recent Immigrants: Unexpected Implications for Crime and Incarceration" (PDF). Industrial and Labor Relations Review. 51 (4): 654–79. doi:10.1177/001979399805100406. S2CID 154971599.
- Wolff, Kevin T.; Baglivio, Michael T.; Intravia, Jonathan; Piquero, Alex R. (November 1, 2015). "The protective impact of immigrant concentration on juvenile recidivism: A statewide analysis of youth offenders". Journal of Criminal Justice. 43 (6): 522–31. doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.05.004.
- Reid, Lesley Williams; Weiss, Harald E.; Adelman, Robert M.; Jaret, Charles (December 1, 2005). "The immigration–crime relationship: Evidence across US metropolitan areas". Social Science Research. 34 (4): 757–80. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2005.01.001.
- Davies, Garth; Fagan, Jeffrey (May 1, 2012). "Crime and Enforcement in Immigrant Neighborhoods Evidence from New York City". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 641 (1): 99–124. doi:10.1177/0002716212438938. ISSN 0002-7162. S2CID 143497882.
- Martinez, Ramiro Jr.; Stowell, Jacob I.; Iwama, Janice A. (March 21, 2016). "The Role of Immigration: Race/Ethnicity and San Diego Homicides Since 1970". Journal of Quantitative Criminology. 32 (3): 471–88. doi:10.1007/s10940-016-9294-9. ISSN 0748-4518. S2CID 147072245.
- Chalfin, Aaron (March 1, 2014). "What is the Contribution of Mexican Immigration to U.S. Crime Rates? Evidence from Rainfall Shocks in Mexico". American Law and Economics Review. 16 (1): 220–68. doi:10.1093/aler/aht019. ISSN 1465-7252.
- "Crime rises among second-generation immigrants as they assimilate". Pew Research Center. October 15, 2013. Archived from the original on February 11, 2016.
- Ousey, Graham C.; Kubrin, Charis E. (August 1, 2009). "Exploring the Connection between Immigration and Violent Crime Rates in U.S. Cities, 1980–2000". Social Problems. 56 (3): 447–73. doi:10.1525/sp.2009.56.3.447. ISSN 0037-7791. S2CID 3054800.
- Light, Michael T.; Ulmer, Jeffery T. (April 1, 2016). "Explaining the Gaps in White, Black, and Hispanic Violence since 1990 Accounting for Immigration, Incarceration, and Inequality". American Sociological Review. 81 (2): 290–315. doi:10.1177/0003122416635667. ISSN 0003-1224. S2CID 53346960.
- Bersani, Bianca E. (March 4, 2014). "An Examination of First and Second Generation Immigrant Offending Trajectories". Justice Quarterly. 31 (2): 315–43. doi:10.1080/07418825.2012.659200. ISSN 0741-8825. S2CID 144240275.
- Spenkuch, Jörg L. (June 2, 2014). "Does Immigration Increase Crime?". Archived from the original on May 14, 2016. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
- "Crime, Corrections, and California: What Does Immigration Have to Do with It? (PPIC Publication)". www.ppic.org. Archived from the original on May 14, 2016. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
- MacDonald, John M.; Hipp, John R.; Gill, Charlotte (June 2, 2012). "The Effects of Immigrant Concentration on Changes in Neighborhood Crime Rates". Journal of Quantitative Criminology. 29 (2): 191–215. doi:10.1007/s10940-012-9176-8. S2CID 26475008.
- Adelman, Robert; Reid, Lesley Williams; Markle, Gail; Weiss, Saskia; Jaret, Charles (January 2, 2017). "Urban crime rates and the changing face of immigration: Evidence across four decades". Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice. 15 (1): 52–77. doi:10.1080/15377938.2016.1261057. ISSN 1537-7938. S2CID 147588658.
- Harris, Casey T.; Feldmeyer, Ben (January 2013). "Latino immigration and White, Black, and Latino violent crime: A comparison of traditional and non-traditional immigrant destinations". Social Science Research. 42 (1): 202–16. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.08.014. PMID 23146607.
- "Leaving England: The Social Background of Indentured Servants in the Seventeenth Century Archived January 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine", The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
- "A Century of Population Growth. From the First to the Twelfth Census of the United States: 1790-1900" (PDF).
- Butler, Becoming America, The Revolution before 1776, 2000, pp. 34–35 ISBN 0-674-00091-9
- The Oxford History of the British Empire, "The Eighteenth Century," Ed. P. J. Marshall, p. 3 ISBN 0-19-820563-5 the number given is at 80,000 less 29,000 Welsh which seems strange to the author, James Horn; Duncan also regards this as a "mystery"; it does not include the 50,000–120,000 convicts transported, most of whom were English
- Encyclopedia of the Colonial and Revolutionary America, 1996 pp. 200–02 ISBN 0-306-80687-8; Jon Butler, Becoming America, The Revolution before 1776, 2000, pp. 16–49 ISBN 0-674-00091-9)
- "Indentured Servitude in Colonial America Archived December 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine". Deanna Barker, Frontier Resources.
- Encyclopedia, p. 202)
- Butler, p. 35
- Butler, p. 35 producers of watches, jewelry, furniture, skilled construction workers, food and service trade workers
- Rossiter, W. S. (1909). "Chapter XI. NATIONALITY AS INDICATED BY NAMES OF HEADS OF FAMILIES REPORTED AT THE FIRST CENSUS". A Century of Population Growth. From the First to the Twelfth Census of the United States: 1790-1900 (PDF). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census. pp. 116–124. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 10, 2022. Retrieved September 16, 2022.
- American Council of Learned Societies. Committee on Linguistic and National Stocks in the Population of the United States (1932). Report of the Committee on Linguistic and National Stocks in the Population of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. OCLC 1086749050.
- Thompson, Warren Simpson; Whelpton, Pascal Kidder (1933). "Chapter III The National Origins of the White Population". Population trends in the United States. Recent social trends monographs. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. hdl:2027/mdp.39015006471422. OCLC 3529140.
- Wedin, Maud (October 2012). "Highlights of Research in Scandinavia on Forest Finns" (PDF). American-Swedish Organization. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 9, 2017.
- "A Look at the Record: The Facts Behind the Current Controversy Over Immigration Archived February 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine". American Heritage Magazine. December 1981. Volume 33, Issue 1.
- "History: 1790 Fast Facts". U.S. Census Bureau.
- Schultz, Jeffrey D. (2002). Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: African Americans and Asian Americans. Oryx Press. p. 284. ISBN 978-1-57356-148-8. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- James Q. Whitman, Hitler's American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017), p. 35
- "A Nation of Immigrants Archived November 29, 2010, at the Wayback Machine". American Heritage Magazine. February/March 1994. Volume 45, Issue 1.
- Evans, Nicholas J. (2001). "Indirect passage from Europe: Transmigration via the UK, 1836–1914". Journal for Maritime Research. 3 (1): 70–84. doi:10.1080/21533369.2001.9668313.
- Wilson, Donna M; Northcott, Herbert C (2008). Dying and Death in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-55111-873-4. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016.
- Will, George P. (May 2, 2010). "The real immigration scare tactics". The Washington Post. Washington, DC. p. A17. Archived from the original on August 25, 2010.
- "Turn of the Century (1900–1910) Archived February 21, 2010, at the Wayback Machine". HoustonHistory.com.
- An Introduction to Bilingualism: Principles and Processes Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Jeanette Altarriba, Roberto R. Heredia (2008). p. 212. ISBN 0-8058-5135-6
- James Whitman, Hitler's American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017), p. 35
- "Old fears over new faces Archived August 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine", The Seattle Times, September 21, 2006
- Beaman, Middleton (July 1924). "CURRENT LEGISLATION: The Immigration Act of 1924". American Bar Association Journal. American Bar Association. 10 (7): 490–492. JSTOR 25709038. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
- "Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1931" (PDF) (53rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. August 1931. pp. 103–107. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 29, 2021. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
- U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary (April 20, 1950). Investigation of the Immigration and Naturalization Systems of the United States (PDF) (Report). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 768–925. Senate Report No. 81-1515. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 8, 2022. Retrieved September 16, 2022.
- Persons Obtaining Legal Permanent Resident Status in the United States of America Archived February 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Source: US Department of Homeland Security
- A Great Depression? Archived September 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, by Steve H. Hanke, Cato Institute
- Thernstrom, Harvard Guide to American Ethnic Groups (1980)
- The Great Depression and New Deal Archived March 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, by Joyce Bryant, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
- "Jewish refugees from the German Reich, 1933–1939". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- Navarro, Armando (2005). Mexicano Political Experience in Occupied Aztlán. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-0566-9.
- Peter S. Canellos (November 11, 2008). "Obama victory took root in Kennedy-inspired Immigration Act". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved November 14, 2008.
- Trends in International Migration 2002: Continuous Reporting System on Migration Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (2003). OECD Publishing. p. 280. ISBN 92-64-19949-7
- Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: African Americans and Asian Americans Archived September 19, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Jeffrey D. Schultz (2000). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 282. ISBN 1-57356-148-7
- The Paper curtain: employer sanctions' implementation, impact, and reform Archived September 19, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Michael Fix (1991). The Urban Institute. p. 304. ISBN 0-87766-550-8
- Gonzales, Daniel (March 13, 2016). "How we got here:The many attempts to reform immigration, secure the border". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. p. 1A. Archived from the original on March 14, 2016. Retrieved March 13, 2016.
- "New Limits In Works on Immigration / Powerful commission focusing on families of legal entrants Archived January 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine". San Francisco Chronicle. June 2, 1995
- Plummer Alston Jones (2004). Still struggling for equality: American public library services with minorities Archived February 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Libraries Unlimited. p. 154. ISBN 1-59158-243-1
- Mary E. Williams, Immigration. 2004. p. 69.
- "Immigrant Population at Record 40 Million in 2010". Yahoo! News. October 6, 2011.
- "Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status by Leading Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) of Residence and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2013". Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013. United States Department of Homeland Security. 2013. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- Shah, Neil (May 3, 2015). "Immigrants to U.S. From China Top Those From Mexico". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on May 5, 2015. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
China was the country of origin for 147,000 recent U.S. immigrants in 2013, while Mexico sent just 125,000, according to a Census Bureau study by researcher Eric Jensen and others. India, with 129,000 immigrants, also topped Mexico, though the two countries' results weren't statistically different from each other.
- "Study: Immigration grows, reaching record numbers". USA Today. December 12, 2005.
- "Immigration surge called 'highest ever' Archived May 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine". Washington Times. December 12, 2005.
- "A Reagan Legacy: Amnesty For Illegal Immigrants Archived November 23, 2016, at the Wayback Machine". NPR: National Public Radio. July 4, 2010
- Meyer, Guillaume (February 27, 2009). "Crisis hits Hispanic community hard". France24. Archived from the original on February 12, 2011. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- "Immigrants top native born in U.S. job hunt Archived November 3, 2010, at the Wayback Machine". CNNMoney.com. October 29, 2010.
- "U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: 2011" Archived August 17, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Office of Immigration Statistics Annual Flow Report.
- Archibold, Randal C. (February 9, 2007). "Illegal Immigrants Slain in an Attack in Arizona". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 16, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2008.
- "Why Don't They Just Get In Line?". Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Council. Archived from the original on March 19, 2013.
- Sullivan, Cheryl (January 15, 2011). "US Cancels "virtual fence"". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on January 20, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
- Massey 2021, p. 6.
- Massey 2021, p. 11.
- Massey 2021, p. 13.
- "Fiscal Year 2018 ICE Enforcement and Removal Operations Report" (PDF).
- Fact Sheet: The President's Proclamation on Enhancing Vetting Capabilities and Processes for Detecting Attempted Entry into the United States by Terrorists or Other Public-Safety Threats, United States Department of Homeland Security, September 24, 2017.
- "Trump travel ban to take effect after Supreme Court ruling". The New York Times. December 4, 2017. Archived from the original on January 3, 2022.
- "Trump orders clamp down on immigrant "sanctuary cities," pushes border wall". USA Today. Archived from the original on January 27, 2017.
- Villazor, Rose, and Kevin Johnson. "The Trump Administration and the War on Immigration Diversity." Wake Forest Law Review 54.2 (2019): 575.
- Shear, Michael D.; Davis, Julie (June 16, 2018). "How Trump Came to Enforce a Practice of Separating Migrant Families". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 3, 2022. Retrieved June 8, 2021.
- Qiu, Linda (June 14, 2018). "Republicans Misplace Blame for Splitting Families at the Border". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 3, 2022. Retrieved June 8, 2021.
- "Trump Admin Quietly Made Asylum More Difficult". CNN. March 8, 2017. Archived from the original on March 8, 2017.
- "Sessions Moves to Block Asylum for Most Victims of Domestic, Gang Violence". Politico. June 11, 2018. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- Hartmann, Margaret (August 8, 2018). "ACLU Sues Sessions Over Ending Asylum for Victims of Domestic and Gang Violence". New York Intelligencer. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- "Trump's latest move to limit immigration worries Seattle-area tech community". The Seattle Times. April 21, 2020.
- "Coronavirus: US green cards to be halted for 60 days, Trump says". BBC News. April 22, 2020.
- "Biden announces new program to curb illegal migration as he prepares for visit to border". Politico. January 5, 2023. Retrieved January 15, 2023.
- "Biden announces new migration programs as he prepares to visit the border on Sunday". Retrieved January 15, 2023.
- JYNNAH RADFORD; ABBY BUDIMAN (September 14, 2018). "Facts on U.S. Immigrants, 2016. Statistical portrait of the foreign-born population in the United States". Pew Research Center.
- "Table 1. Persons obtaining lawful permanent resident status: fiscal years 1820 to 2017". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. August 14, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- U.S. 2018 Lawful Permanent Residents Annual Flow Report authored by the Office of Immigration Statistics (OIS) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
- U.S. 2019 Lawful Permanent Residents Annual Flow Report authored by the Office of Immigration Statistics (OIS) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
- U.S. Lawful Permanent Residents 2020 Data Tables 11/18/2021, authored by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
- "Refugees and Asylees". Department of Homeland Security. April 5, 2016. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- "Trump proposes slashing refugee numbers". SBS News.
- "Trump aims to slash US refugee intake, claiming backlog". www.aljazeera.com.
- "Trump to cut number of refugees allowed in U.S. to lowest ever". www.cbsnews.com.
- "US slashes refugee limit to all-time low of 18,000". BBC News. September 27, 2019.
- "Trump to limit 2021 US refugee admissions to 15,000, a record low". www.aljazeera.com.
- "U.S. to cut refugee admissions to U.S. to a record low". NBC News. October 2020.
- "Donald Trump slashes US refugee admissions to record low". DW.COM. October 1, 2020.
- "US slashes number of refugees it is ready to resettle". www.aljazeera.com.
- "'Shameful': US slashes number of refugees it will admit to 30,000". www.aljazeera.com.
- "Immigrants in America: Key Charts and Facts". Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project. August 20, 2020. Retrieved January 15, 2022.
- The Guardian, December 19, 2019 "Fleeing a Hell the U.S. Helped Create: Why Central Americans Journey North – The region's inequality and violence, in which the US has long played a role, is driving people to leave their homes"
- The Nation, October 18, 2017, "How US Foreign Policy Helped Create the Immigration Crisis: Neoliberal Strictures, Support for Oligarchs, and the War on Drugs Have Impoverished Millions and Destabilized Latin America" Archived July 5, 2019, at the Wayback Machine
- "Climate Change Is Altering Migration Patterns Regionally and Globally". December 3, 2019.
- "Changing climate forces desperate Guatemalans to migrate". National Geographic Society. October 23, 2018. Archived from the original on October 31, 2018.
- "'People are dying': how the climate crisis has sparked an exodus to the US". TheGuardian.com. July 29, 2019.
- "How climate change is driving emigration from Central America". PBS. September 8, 2019.
- The New Americans, Smith and Edmonston, The Academy Press. p. 5253.
- The New Americans, Smith and Edmonston, The Academy Press. p. 54.
- The New Americans, Smith and Edmonston, The Academy Press. p. 56.
- The New Americans, Smith and Edmonston, The Academy Press. p. 58 ("Immigrants have always moved to relatively few places, settling where they have family or friends, or where there are people from their ancestral country or community.").
- http://www.publicagenda.org/pages/immigrants Archived July 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine 2009 report available for download, "A Place to Call Home: What Immigrants Say Now About Life in America"
- "Americans Return to Tougher Immigration Stance". Gallup.com. August 5, 2009. Archived from the original on November 7, 2011. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
- "Public Agenda Confidence in U.S. Foreign Policy Index". Publicagenda.org. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- "Table of contents for Who are we? : the challenges to America's national identity / Samuel P. Huntington". Library of Congress.
- "Samuel Huntington – on Immigration and the American Identity – Podcast Interview". Thoughtcast. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017.
- Yen, Hope (April 24, 2012). "Mexican Migration Appears To Be In Reverse". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- Ruben Navarrette Jr. (April 27, 2012). "Navarrette: The Mexican reverse migration". Newsday. Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- "Mexicans feeling persecuted flee U.S." CNN. November 27, 2012. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016.
- "L.A. Now". Los Angeles Times. October 23, 2012. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016.
- Preston, Julia (July 31, 2008). "Decline Seen in Numbers of People Here Illegally". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- "Net Migration from Mexico Falls to Zero – and Perhaps Less". Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project. April 23, 2012. Archived from the original on April 21, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- "Governor candidates oppose sanctuary cities Archived September 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine". San Francisco Chronicle. August 4, 2010.
- "Sanctuary Cities, USA". Ohio Jobs & Justice PAC. Archived from the original on August 12, 2007.
- Mossaad, Nadwa. "U.S. Lawful Permanent Residents: 2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 22, 2016. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- "Profiles on Lawful Permanent Residents 2015 Country - Homeland Security". January 31, 2017. Archived from the original on March 16, 2017.
- "U.S. Lawful Permanent Residents: 2016" (PDF).
- "U.S. Lawful Permanent Residents: 2017" (PDF).
- "Lawful Permanent Residents (LPR)". Retrieved November 17, 2023.
- Nativity of the Population and Place of Birth of the Native Population: 1850 to 2000 – .xls Archived October 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, .csv Archived July 23, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
- Population by Nativity Status and Citizenship: 2010 Archived February 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine (estimated to nearest thousand)
- "Place of Birth for the Foreign-born in the United States". 2016. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
- "Explore Census Data". Retrieved September 1, 2020
- "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: United States". Retrieved September 1, 2020
- Mary E. Williams, Immigration. (San Diego: GreenHaven Press) 2004. p. 82.
- "Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants in the United States Archived March 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine", Aaron Terrazas and Jeanne Batalova, Migration Policy Institute, October 2009.
- "Global Migration: A World Ever More on the Move Archived June 30, 2017, at the Wayback Machine". The New York Times. June 25, 2010.
- "Illegal Immigrants Estimated to Account for 1 in 12 U.S. Births". The Wall Street Journal. August 12, 2010.
- "National Review: Know the flow - economics of immigration". May 11, 2005. Archived from the original on May 11, 2005.
- "Illegal immigrants in the US: How many are there?". Csmonitor.com. May 16, 2006. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- Passel, Jeffrey S. "Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population" (PDF). pewhispanic.org. Pew Hispanic Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 7, 2015. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- "Characteristics of the Foreign Born in the United States: Results from Census 2000". Migrationpolicy.org. Migrationinformation.org. Archived from the original on April 10, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- "United Nations Population Division | Department of Economic and Social Affairs". www.un.org. Retrieved October 3, 2017.
- "Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants and Immigration in the United States". Migration Policy Institute. March 14, 2019.
- Cohn, D’Vera (May 30, 2020). "How U.S. immigration laws and rules have changed through history". Pew Research Center. Retrieved May 14, 2023.
- "B05006: PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE ... - Census Bureau Table". B05006 | PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 24, 2023.
- "B05006: PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE ... - Census Bureau Table". B05006 | PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 24, 2023.
- "PCT019: PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE ... - Census Bureau Table". PCT019 | PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION . U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 24, 2023.
- "1990 Census of Population Social and Economic Characteristics United States" (PDF). Social and Economic Characteristics: United States. U.S. Census Bureau. October 1993. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 19, 2022. Retrieved March 24, 2023.
- "General Social and Economic Characteristics UNITED STATES SUMMARY 1980 Census of Population" (PDF). untitled. U.S. Census Bureau. December 1983. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 6, 2022. Retrieved March 24, 2023.
- "Place of Birth for The Foreign-Born Population In The United States | 2019: ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables".
- Colby, Sandra L.; Ortman, Jennifer M. (March 2015). Projections of the Size and Composition of the U.S. Population: 2014 to 2060 (PDF) (Report). U.S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration U.S. Census Bureau. pp. 8–9. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- Modern Immigration Wave Brings 59 Million to U.S., Driving Population Growth and Change Through 2065 (Report). Pew Research Center. September 28, 2015. p. 1. Archived from the original on May 11, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- U.S. Hispanic population to triple by 2050 Archived June 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, USA Today
- Cutler, David M.; Glaeser, Edward L.; Vigdor, Jacob L. (2008). "Is the Melting Pot Still Hot? Explaining the Resurgence of Immigrant Segregation" (PDF). Review of Economics and Statistics. 90 (3): 478–97. doi:10.1162/rest.90.3.478. S2CID 1110772.
- Hook, J.; Snyder, J. (2007). "Immigration, ethnicity, and the loss of white students from California public schools, 1990–2000". Population Research and Policy Review. 26 (3): 259–77. doi:10.1007/s11113-007-9035-8. S2CID 153644027.
- Charles H. Lippy, Faith in America: Organized religion today (2006) ch 6 pp. 107–27
- Page, Susan (June 29, 2007). "Hispanics turning back to Democrats for 2008". USA Today. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- Fung, Margaret (November 9, 2006). "AALDEF Exit Poll of 4,600 Asian American Voters Reveals Robust Support for Democratic Candidates in Key Congressional and State Races". aaldef.org. American Legal Defense and Education Fund. Archived from the original on August 7, 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- Facchini, Giovanni; Mayda, Anna Maria; Mishra, Prachi (2011). "Do interest groups affect US immigration policy?". Journal of International Economics. 85 (1): 114–28. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.682.1264. doi:10.1016/j.jinteco.2011.05.006. S2CID 154694541.
- Facchini, Giovanni; Steinhardt, Max Friedrich (2011). "What drives U.S. immigration policy? Evidence from congressional roll call votes" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 95 (7–8): 734–43. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2011.02.008. ISSN 0047-2727. S2CID 6940099.
- Gomez, Alan (January 31, 2018). "Trump painted a dark picture of immigrants, despite the facts". USA Today. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
All available national crime statistics show immigrants commit fewer crimes, not more, than those born in the U.S.
- Wadsworth, Tim (June 1, 2010). "Is Immigration Responsible for the Crime Drop? An Assessment of the Influence of Immigration on Changes in Violent Crime Between 1990 and 2000". Social Science Quarterly. 91 (2): 531–53. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6237.2010.00706.x. ISSN 1540-6237.
- Stowell, Jacob I.; Messner, Steven F.; Mcgeever, Kelly F.; Raffalovich, Lawrence E. (August 1, 2009). "Immigration and the Recent Violent Crime Drop in the United States: A Pooled, Cross-Sectional Time-Series Analysis of Metropolitan Areas". Criminology. 47 (3): 889–928. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2009.00162.x. ISSN 1745-9125.
- Sampson, Robert J. (February 1, 2008). "Rethinking Crime and Immigration". Contexts. 7 (1): 28–33. doi:10.1525/ctx.2008.7.1.28. ISSN 1536-5042.
- Ferraro, Vincent (February 14, 2015). "Immigration and Crime in the New Destinations, 2000–2007: A Test of the Disorganizing Effect of Migration". Journal of Quantitative Criminology. 32 (1): 23–45. doi:10.1007/s10940-015-9252-y. ISSN 0748-4518. S2CID 144058620.
- Stansfield, Richard (August 2014). "Safer Cities: A Macro-level analysis of Recent Immigration, Hispanic-owned Businesses, and Crime Rates in the United States". Journal of Urban Affairs. 36 (3): 503–18. doi:10.1111/juaf.12051. S2CID 154982825.
- "Sanctuary cities do not experience an increase in crime". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 3, 2016. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
- Warren, Patricia Y.; Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald (May 1, 2009). "Racial profiling and searches: Did the politics of racial profiling change police behavior?". Criminology & Public Policy. 8 (2): 343–69. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9133.2009.00556.x. ISSN 1745-9133.
- Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2008/09 Archived October 22, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, p.p 8, 22
- West, Jeremy. "Racial Bias in Police Investigations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 7, 2016.
- Donohue III, John J.; Levitt, Steven D. (January 1, 2001). "The Impact of Race on Policing and Arrests". The Journal of Law & Economics. 44 (2): 367–94. doi:10.1086/322810. JSTOR 10.1086/322810. S2CID 1547854.
- Abrams, David S.; Bertrand, Marianne; Mullainathan, Sendhil (June 1, 2012). "Do Judges Vary in Their Treatment of Race?". The Journal of Legal Studies. 41 (2): 347–83. doi:10.1086/666006. ISSN 0047-2530. S2CID 2338687.
- Mustard, David B. (April 1, 2001). "Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Disparities in Sentencing: Evidence from the U.S. Federal Courts". The Journal of Law and Economics. 44 (1): 285–314. doi:10.1086/320276. ISSN 0022-2186. S2CID 154533225.
- Anwar, Shamena; Bayer, Patrick; Hjalmarsson, Randi (May 1, 2012). "The Impact of Jury Race in Criminal Trials". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 127 (2): 1017–55. doi:10.1093/qje/qjs014. ISSN 0033-5533.
- Daudistel, Howard C.; Hosch, Harmon M.; Holmes, Malcolm D.; Graves, Joseph B. (February 1, 1999). "Effects of Defendant Ethnicity on Juries' Dispositions of Felony Cases1". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 29 (2): 317–36. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1999.tb01389.x. ISSN 1559-1816.
- Depew, Briggs; Eren, Ozkan; Mocan, Naci (2017). "Judges, Juveniles, and In-Group Bias" (PDF). Journal of Law and Economics. 60 (2): 209–39. doi:10.1086/693822. S2CID 147631237.
- Armenta, Amanda (2016). "Radicalizing Crimmigration: Structural Racism, Colorblindness, and the Institutional Production of Immigrant Criminality". Sociology of Race and Ethnicity. 3.
- West, Jeremy (February 2018). "Racial Bias in Police Investigations" (PDF). Working Paper.
- Milkman, Katherine L.; Akinola, Modupe; Chugh, Dolly (November 1, 2015). "What happens before? A field experiment exploring how pay and representation differentially shape bias on the pathway into organizations". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 100 (6): 1678–1712. doi:10.1037/apl0000022. ISSN 1939-1854. PMID 25867167.
- Espenshade, Thomas J.; Radford, Alexandria Walton (November 2009). Espenshade, T.J. and Radford, A.W.: No Longer Separate, Not Yet Equal: Race and Class in Elite College Admission and Campus Life. (eBook, Paperback and Hardcover). Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691141602. Archived from the original on April 21, 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
- "IZA – Institute for the Study of Labor". www.iza.org. Archived from the original on September 17, 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
- Ondrich, Jan; Ross, Stephen; Yinger, John (November 1, 2003). "Now You See It, Now You Don't: Why Do Real Estate Agents Withhold Available Houses from Black Customers?" (PDF). Review of Economics and Statistics. 85 (4): 854–73. doi:10.1162/003465303772815772. ISSN 0034-6535. S2CID 8524510.
- "Housing Discrimination against Racial and Ethnic Minorities 2012: Full Report". www.urban.org. June 11, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
- Riach, P. A.; Rich, J. (November 1, 2002). "Field Experiments of Discrimination in the Market Place". The Economic Journal. 112 (483): F480–F518. doi:10.1111/1468-0297.00080. ISSN 1468-0297. S2CID 19024888.
- Zschirnt, Eva; Ruedin, Didier (May 27, 2016). "Ethnic discrimination in hiring decisions: a meta-analysis of correspondence tests 1990–2015". Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 42 (7): 1115–34. doi:10.1080/1369183X.2015.1133279. ISSN 1369-183X. S2CID 10261744.
- Ofari, Earl (November 25, 2007). "The black-Latino blame game". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 26, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- Quinones, Sam (October 18, 2007). "Gang rivalry grows into race war". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 26, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- Villarreal, Andrés; Tamborini, Christopher R. (2018). "Immigrants' Economic Assimilation: Evidence from Longitudinal Earnings Records". American Sociological Review. 83 (4): 686–715. doi:10.1177/0003122418780366. PMC 6290669. PMID 30555169.
- Gunadi, Christian (2020). "Immigration and the Health of U.S. Natives". Southern Economic Journal. 86 (4): 1278–1306. doi:10.1002/soej.12425. ISSN 2325-8012. S2CID 214313284.
- "What Happens to the "Healthy Immigrant Effect"". Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- notably, National Research Council. (1997) "From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families". Washington D.C.: National Academy Press (Available here )
- National Institutes of Health. Medical Encyclopedia Archived October 1, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Accessed September 25, 2006
- Stimpson, Jim P.; Wilson, Fernando A.; Eschbach, Karl (March 2010). "Trends in health care spending for immigrants in the United States". Health Affairs. 29 (3): 544–50. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0400. ISSN 1544-5208. PMID 20150234. S2CID 2757401.
- 'Foreign and Foreign-Born Engineers in the United States: Infusing Talent, Raising Issues', Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, 1988. online text
- William A. Wulf, President, National Academy of Engineering, Speaking before the 109th US Congress, September 15, 2005
- Kerr, Sari Pekkala; Kerr, William R. (2011). "Economic Impacts of Immigration: A Survey" (PDF). Finnish Economic Papers. 24 (1): 1–32.