Immingham shown within Lincolnshire
|OS grid reference|
|– London||150 mi (240 km) S|
|Unitary authority||North East Lincolnshire|
|Region||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||Yorkshire and the Humber|
Immingham is a town, civil parish and ward in the North East Lincolnshire unitary authority of England. It is situated on the southwest bank of the Humber Estuary, and is 6 miles (10 km) north-west from Grimsby.
The region was relatively unpopulated and undeveloped until the early 1900s, when the Great Central Railway began developing its Immingham Dock; as a consequence of the dock development, and of nearby post-Second World War large scale industrial developments Immingham developed from a minor place into a significant town during the 20th century.
The Immingham Ward of North East Lincolnshire Council includes Stallingborough, Healing and Habrough. As of 2015 its elected councilors are Mike Burton (Labour), David Bolton (Labour), and David Watson (Labour).
The civil parish of Immingham is located on the south bank of the Humber estuary 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) westnorthwest of Grimsby. The civil parish is bounded by South Killingholme to the northwest, with the drain watercourse outfalling at South Killingholme Haven forming the boundary - also the county boundary between North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. The southeastern boundary is with the civil parish of Stallingborough, with the North Beck Drain forming most of the boundary. The parish extends to the southwest as far as Roxton, with boundaries to the southwest and south with the civil parishes of Habrough and Keelby.
The civil parish is low lying, extending from below 5 metres (16 ft) above sea level near the Humber foreshore, to a peak of 21 metres (69 ft) in Roxton wood in the southwest corner. The main features within the parish are the Humber shoreline, running roughly NW-SE, the Immingham Dock and estate, and adjacent south of the dock the town of Immingham. The A180 and Stallingborough-Habrough section of the mainline railway west out of Grimsby (Great Grimsby and Sheffield Junction Railway) pass roughly east-west through the southern part of the parish. The A1173 connects the town and dock to the A180. Excluding farms there are no other places of habitation outside the town in the civil parish.
There are two abanandoned sites of medieval villages in the parish: that of the village of Immingham, northwest of the modern town, near St Andrew's Church; and Roxton in the southern extremity of the parish.
The town of Immingham is a compact urban area of approximately 1 square mile (2.6 km2), situated southwest of the dock in the middle of the parish. It is bisected by the B1210.
The town has a retail center, "Kennedy Way", a swimming pool and a golf club, and several schools.
On the northeastern outskirts of the town there is a Knauf UK GmbH plant that makes plasterboard.
The termination "-ham" is Anglo-Saxon in origin. The patronymic,[note 1] (interpreted as "Imming" or "Emming") has been noted as occurring elsewhere, such as in Imminghausen (Immenhausen), or Emmingen (Emmingen-Liptingen) (Germany).
Saint Andrew's church dates to the early medieval period, with much of the structure dating to the 13th century, with parts of the nave as early as the 11th or 12th century. The tower was constructed in the 16th/17th century, to a similar design to that found in nearby Aylesby, Wootton and Healing. The structure was restored in the 1880s and 1920. A decorated octangonal font in the church dates to the 15th C. The remains of a stone cross outside the church also dates to the medieval period.
There is archaeological evidence of the medieval settlement. Earthwork remains indicating a settlement and agicultural use exist near south of the church; earthwork remnants of a former shrunken village exist to the north of the church. Archaeological evidence of saltmaking has been found north of the village (formerly in the parish of Harbrough, now within the dock estate), references to a saltmaking site here exist from the Domesday book, and in a late 12th century document describing the gift of land including the saltpan to Newhouse Abbey.
In 1608 the village briefly became a location in the story of the Pilgrim Fathers of America; their vessel was force to put ashore due to bad weather, sailing up Killingholme Creek; the women of the party were allowed to sleep in the village church for the night, but news of this reached the authorities, with the consequence that the womenfolk were arrested, whilst the others escaped to the Netherlands. A popular protest secured the release of the women, who were then able to rejoin their families, and continue the journey.
In the later medieval period Immingham decline, reduced from 66 households in 1523 to 46 in 1723, in common with other Lincolnshire places on or near the Humber banks. The silting of the haven leading from the Humber has been supposed as one possible cause.
The Ings at Immingham were enclosed in 1840. A coastguard station erected in 1850. The Great Grimsby and Sheffield Junction Railway (opened 1845) passed through the parish south of Immingham.
In the 1870s the parish of Immingham had a population of 237, whilst Roxton was still known as a small hamlet. The parish had an area of 3,195 acres (1,293 ha) which was mostly good grazing land - much of which was owned by the Earl of Yarborough. In addition to the church the village also had Weslyan and Primitive Methodist chapels.
Building of the Immingham Dock began in 1906, and it was opened by King George V on 22 July 1912. In part funded by the Great Central Railway, the dock property was 2 1⁄2 by 1 mile (4.0 by 1.6 km); covering 1,000 acres (405 ha), with 45 acres (18 ha) of water. A railway line to the northwest, the Barton and Immingham Light Railway was opened in 1912. The docks were connected to their primary supply of labour in Grimsby by the Grimsby & Immingham Electric Railway, opened 1912. As part of the development of the new port some wood framed, corrugated iron clad housing was constructed; several of these survived to the 21st century, and one of these dated 1907 is now a listed structure.
During the First World War, Immingham was a submarine base for British D class submarine. There was also an anti-aircraft battery in the town, manned with 1 pounder and later a 12-pounder gun.
By the 1920s the village of Immingham had been eclipsed in importance by the port; a publication of the Cambridge University Press opined:
Immingham is solely a commercial port; its official title of Immingham Dock describes it. There is no town and only a small population resident in this artificial creation— R.N. Rudmose Brown, 1928.
By the early 1930s housing development was scattered across several locations: most was along Pelham Road, of which the majority was east of the original village (St. Andrew's church), centered around the County Hotel, and close to the dock estate; further development had taken place south and south east of the church, also on Pelham road, in two locations each centered on one of the two non-conformist chapels. Almost all the housing was terraced, with the more generous ground plans found moving southwest along Pelham road. By the mid 1930s the village had grown as much to require a comprehensive school which opened in 1936.
During the Second World War , John Dowland and Leonard Harrison received the George Cross for defusing a bomb that had fallen onto the grain ship SS Kildare in February 1940 in Immingham Dock. Anti-aircraft batteries were located around the dock during the war, as well as at Homestead Park, and near Immingham Grange.
The Humber Force, part of the Home Fleet which had two cruisers and a destroyer flotilla, including HMS Afridi (F07) was based at Immingham during the war, as well as submarines including HMS Seal (N37).
At the beginning of the 1950s the village of Immingham had little expanded. Development of new industries on the South Humber bank after the Second World War caused further growth of the town. By 1981 the population had risen to 11,506; making it North Lincolnshire's fourth town, after Grimsby, Cleethorpes and Scunthorpe.
The expansion of the village included: Eastfield County Junior School built in 1970; expansion of the comprehensive school, 1973; a shopping center "Kennedy Way" constructed in 1965-7; and north of the center 18 blocks of five storey flats constructed by George Wimpey from 1965; a Civic Center also opened in 1965.
Standard housing also expanded: By 1968 there were many new side streets, in particular a new estate encompassed by Pilgrim Avenue; development along Pelham road had become almost continuous, and the new village now expanding northwest towards the old Immingham. Further growth took place in the late 1960 and 1970s: northwest of Pelham road, with the village continuous towards Church Lane; a new estate southeast of Pilgrim road; as well as further infilling to the southwest.
Immingham Dock Station, originally part of the Barton and Immingham Light Railway closed in 1969, whilst Immingham Museum was established in 1970.[note 2] In 1979 the Kennedy Way center was extended to house a further supermarket and other shop units. The local council added a Sports center in 1980. The expansion of the new town had peaked by the mid 1980s, with only minor extra expansion in the next two decades to 2006.
In 2007 Immingham School was renamed Oasis Academy Immingham.
Plans for the redevelopment of the shopping center were published in January 2009. Plans drawn up by the owners, Wellway Properties Limited, and the supermarket chain Tesco show the partial demolition of the existing area and the creation of 30,000 sq ft (2,800 m2) superstore in its place, with the rest of the area being upgraded. By September 2014 Tesco had delayed the opening of the store several times, with the opening delayed to beyond Summer 2015. By 2015 Tesco had abandoned plans to open a store, though the construction of a the building had been completed, had caused heavy disruption to the town and resulted in the loss of the town's sports centre.
Supermarket retailers Somerfield took over a former Kwik Save shop at Kennedy Way c.2006; the branch became part of the Co-op after the takeover of the chain in 2010; in 2014 the Co-op announced it was to close the shop (closed September 2014). Supermarket chain Aldi acquired the site with the aim of opening a new store in 2015, the store was opened in May 2015 by the Mayor of Immingham.
The town's Yorkshire Bank closed in August 2009 after 40 years of operation. the Norwich and Peterborough Building Society closed their Immingham office in March 2010; Barclays Bank closed their branch in the centre in late 2010.
There was once a village at Roxton. The medieval village is evidenced by earthworks, as well a nearby cropmarking to the east. Additionally there may once have been a moated enclosure between Immingham and Roxton, now lost and not visible on modern maps.
- Sean Storey, professional snooker player
- Ian Huntley (born 31 January 1974, Grimsby), Soham murderer, lived at Immingham until the mid-1990s. Real name Ian Black
- Port of Immingham, Port of Grimsby, Industry of the South Humber Bank
- Barry, and Fishguard, minor places in Wales, both expanded as result of a new port development in the late 19th/early 20th century.
- The name "Imma" is found in use both as a male and female name. A Northumbrian aristocrat named Imma appers in Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (731 AD); whilst a female Imma is known as the daughter of Charlemagne, spouse to Eginhard (Einhard, 770-840 AD)
- As of 2015 housed in the Civic Center.
- "Parish population 2011". Retrieved 17 August 2015.
- "Immingham Ward", www.nelincs.gov.uk, retrieved July 2015
- "Area: Immingham (Ward)", 2001 census (Office for National Statistics)
- "Area: Immingham (Ward)", 2011 census (Office for National Statistics)
- Ordnance Survey 1:25000, Sheet 284, 2006
- "Area: Immingham (Parish)", 2001 census (Office for National Statistics)
- "Area: Immingham (Parish)", 2011 census (Office for National Statistics)
- Cameron, Kenneth (1966), Scandinavian Settlement in the Territory of the Five Boroughs: The Place-name Evidence; Inaugural Lecture, Nottingham University, p.23, §45
- "_", English Place-Name Society, 1975: 12
- Mills, David, A Dictionary of British Place-Names, Immingham, p.255
- Carr, Ralph (22 Mar 1851), "Observations on Composite Names of Places (chiefly in Northumberland) of Anglo-Saxon Derivation", Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club (F. & W. Dodsworth (Newcastle upon Tyne); Simpkin, Marshall, & Co. (London)), 2 (1851-1854): 155–6
- Taylor, Isaac (1864), Words and Places: Or, Etymological Illustrations of History, Ethnology, and Geography, Macmillan, p. 519
- "Immingham", opendomesday.org
- Pevsner, Harris & Antram 2002, p. 404.
- Historic England. "CHURCH OF ST.ANDREW (1310011)". National Heritage List for England.
- Historic England. "CROSS BASE APPROXIMATELY 8 METRES SOUTH OF CHURCH OF ST ANDREW (1161628)". National Heritage List for England.
- The earthworks have been partially incorporated into a modern gold course.
- Historic England. "Probable Medieval settlement (1053655)". PastScape.
- Historic England. "Shrunken Md.village rems.,Immingham (80391)". PastScape.
- Historic England. "Medieval salt making site (80411)". PastScape.
- Sharp, Chris (2001), "_", British Heritage (August/September)
- Toon, Peter (1970), The Pilgrims' Faith, Gospel Communication
- Thirsk, Joan (2010) , English Peasant Farming: The Agrarian History of Lincolnshire from Tudor to Recent Times, pp. 142–146
- Historic England. "CHURCHFIELD MANOR (1161630)". National Heritage List for England.
- Historic England. "BELMONT COTTAGE (1161631)". National Heritage List for England.
- White, William (1872), History, Gazetteer and Directory of Lincolnshire, and the City and Diocese of Lincoln, Immingham, p.540
- Dow 1985, pp.84-86; map, inside cover.
- Dow 1965, pp. 231, 242, 260.
- Bett, W.H.; Gillham, J.C., Price, J.H., ed., The Tramways of South Yorkshire and Humberside, Light Railway Transport League
- Historic England. "THE IRON BUNGALOW (1391349)". National Heritage List for England.
- "Countdown". Immingham 100. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013.
- Historic England. "IMMINGHAM HEAVY ANTI AIRCRAFT BATTERY (1473798)". PastScape.
- Rudmose Brown, R.N. (1928), "17. Holderness and the Humber", in Oglive, Alan Grant, Great Britain: Essays in Regional Geography, CUP Archive, p. 821
- Ordnance Survey 1:2500 1932
- Historic England. "HEAVY ANTI AIRCRAFT BATTERY HUMBER H22 (1472424)". PastScape.
- Historic England. "HEAVY ANTI AIRCRAFT BATTERY HUMBER H21 (1472359)". PastScape.
- Historic England. "HEAVY ANTI AIRCRAFT BATTERY HUMBER L (1472363)". PastScape.
- Historic England. "HEAVY ANTI AIRCRAFT BATTERY HUMBER H37 (1472436)". PastScape.
- Ordnance Survey 1:10560. 1932, 1951, 1956
- Ellis & Crowther 1990, p. 302.
- Pevsner, Harris & Antram 2002, p. 405.
- Ordnance Survey 1:10560. 1951, 1956, 1968
- Ordnance Survey 1:10560/10000. 1968, 1972-4
- Historic England. "IMMINGHAM DOCK STATION (498353)". PastScape.
- "Immingham Museum - About", www.imminghammuseum.org, retrieved July 2015
- Ordnance Survey. 1:10000, 1872-1985; 1:25000, 2006
- "New Tesco plan is unveiled", www.thisisgrimsby.co.uk, 29 January 2009
- "Opening of Immingham's new Tesco store delayed for a second time". Grimsby Telegraph. 8 September 2014.
- "'Pressure' on Tesco to find new tenant for axed Immingham store", www.grimsbytelegraph.co.uk, 20 Jan 2015
- "Immingham branch of Aldi will be opened next year". Grimsby Telegraph. 28 June 2014.
- "ALDI Immingham". ALDI. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Shoppers queue from 9pm last night to be first through door of new Aldi store", www.grimsbytelegraph.co.uk, 14 May 2014
- "Jobs saved as axe falls on bank", www.humberbusiness.com, 1 May 2009[dead link]
- "Closure at Norwich and Peterborough Building Society in Immingham North East Lincolnshire will cost jobs". This is Grimsby. 2 December 2009.
- Historic England. "Probable Medieval ridge and furrow (1053653)". PastScape.
- Historic England. "ROXTON (80462)". PastScape.
- Historic England. "Medieval or Post Medieval moated site (80477)". PastScape.
- "Trail of underage sex and violence that led to murders". The Telegraph (London: Telegraph Media Group Limited). 18 December 2003. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- Ellis, S.; Crowther, D.R., eds. (1990), Humber Pespectives - A region throghout the ages, Hull Univesrity Press, ISBN 0859584844
- Pevsner, Nikolaus; Harris, John; Antram, Nicholas (2002) , "Lincolnshire", Pevsner Architectural Guides (2nd ed.) (Yale University Press), ISBN 9780300096200
- Ellis, S.; Crowther, D.R., eds. (1990), Humber Pespectives - A region throghout the ages, Hull Univesrity Press, ISBN 0859584844
- Tailby, Alan R. (1970), Immingham: the story of a village, Immingham Parish Council, ISBN 0950151408
- Media related to Immingham at Wikimedia Commons
- "Immingham", www.abports.co.uk
- "Immingham Museum", www.imminghammuseum.org
- "Immingham Town Council", www.immingham-tc.gov.uk