Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on politics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Countries with at least one election/referendum date altered

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted politics, both international and domestic, by affecting the governing & political systems of multiple countries, causing suspensions of legislative activities, isolation or deaths of multiple politicians and reschedulings of elections due to fears of spreading the virus. The pandemic has triggered broader debates about political issues such as the relative advantages of democracy and autocracy,[1][2] how states respond to crises,[3] politicization of beliefs about the virus,[4] and the adequacy of existing frameworks of international cooperation.[5] Additionally, the pandemic has, in some cases, posed several challenges to democracy, leading to it being fatally undermined and damaged.[6]

General impacts[edit]

Anti-pandemic precautions during the 2020 Czech regional elections

The response to the pandemic has resulted in unprecedented expansion of government power. Advocates of small government worry that the state will be reluctant to give up that power once the crisis is over, as has often been the case historically.[7]

Leader popularity[edit]

There is evidence that the pandemic has caused a rally-round-the-flag effect in many countries, with government approval ratings rising in Italy (+27 percentage points), Germany (+11), France (+11), and the United Kingdom.[8][9][10] In the United States, President Donald Trump has seen a 6-point drop in approval,[11] while state governors have seen increases as high as 55 points for New York Governor Andrew Cuomo, 31 points for North Carolina Governor Roy Cooper, and 30 points for Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitmer.[9]

States of emergency[edit]

At least 84 countries have declared a state of emergency in response to the pandemic, leading to fears about misuse of power.[12] Reporters Without Borders has claimed that 38 countries have restricted freedom of the press as a result.[12] Other examples include banning mass protests, postponing elections or holding them while the opposition cannot effectively campaign, selectively enforcing lockdown rules on political opponents, handing out relief payments to political supporters, or scapegoating minorities.[13] Many countries have also unveiled large-scale surveillance programs for contact tracing, leading to worries about their impact on privacy.[14]

Human rights & freedoms[edit]

Whilst the emergency powers enacted by governments in order to stem the spread of the pandemic were made in good faith of protecting public health and minimising risk to countries’ economies and crucial services, such as health care, in many cases they inadvertently led to more pressures on human rights and civil liberties than perhaps intended. As a result of angered citizens and extrajudicial force taken by government actors such as police and security forces, many populations experienced undue and out of proportion violence and oppression, such as the highly militarised response seen in the Philippines which led to government forces violently detaining, attacking, and even killing citizens who flouted restrictive laws, with the authorities often citing tenuously related or far-reaching reasons to justify their actions.[15] Lesser examples of violent clashes between citizens and armed government authorities have also been seen in countries including Greece, the United States, and Germany.[16] Human rights and civil liberties have also been threatened through the oppressive and intrusive abuse of digital surveillance technology by multiple governments, violating the human rights to privacy, freedom, expression and association.[17] The Ecuadorean government introduced a new GPS tracking system without any kind of appropriate data handling legislation, leaving users’ details exposed and insecure.[18] In South Korea, health authorities launched a track and trace app which asked users to disclose heavy amounts of personal information, leading to concerns over both privacy and the potential for discrimination.[19]

Democracy[edit]

The COVID-19 pandemic has also opened up gaps in the action of democracy,[6] largely due to the heavy practical and logistical disruption the virus and its subsequent "lockdown" restrictions caused. Across the globe, national governments found themselves with no other choice but to suspend, cancel, or postpone numerous democratic elections at both national and subnational governmental levels.[20] This is a major disruption to democracy, challenging its very nature and contradicting the idea of fixed governmental terms (which are of course vital in true democracies).[21]

The media[edit]

Media, in its many forms, has also suffered greatly during the COVID-19 pandemic.[22] With the spread of the virus and subsequent government measures chasing unrest in many countries, multiple governments introduced new restrictions on media outlets in order to try and prevent the spread of misinformation, poor representations of governments and their nations, and in many cases, the truth - from being leaked to the outside world.[23] These restrictions allowed media outlets and journalists to be prosecuted and imprisoned more easily, often unfairly and arbitrarily.[24] Some governments even stopped media outlets from criticising them, a breach of freedom of expression; article 19 of the UDHR.[17]

Impact on international relations[edit]

European Union[edit]

The Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez stated that "If we don't propose now a unified, powerful and effective response to this economic crisis, not only the impact will be tougher, but its effects will last longer and we will be putting at risk the entire European project", while the Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte commented that "the whole European project risks losing its raison d'être in the eyes of our own citizens".[25] From 4 to 19 March, Germany banned the export of personal protective equipment,[26][27] and France also restricted exports of medical equipment, drawing criticism from EU officials who called for solidarity.[28] Many Schengen Area countries closed their borders to stem the spread of the virus.[29]

Jointly issued debt[edit]

Debates over how to respond to the epidemic and its economic fallout have opened up a rift between Northern and Southern European member states, reminiscent of debates over the 2010s European debt crisis.[30] Nine EU countries—Italy, France, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Ireland, Slovenia and Luxembourg—called for "corona bonds" (a type of eurobond) in order to help their countries to recover from the epidemic, on 25 March. Their letter stated, "The case for such a common instrument is strong, since we are all facing a symmetric external shock."[31][32] Northern European countries such as Germany, Austria, Finland, and the Netherlands oppose the issuing of joint debt, fearing that they would have to pay it back in the event of a default. Instead, they propose that countries should apply for loans from the European Stability Mechanism.[33][34] Corona bonds were discussed on 26 March 2020 in a European Council meeting, which dragged out for three hours longer than expected due to the "emotional" reactions of the prime ministers of Spain and Italy.[35][36] European Council President Charles Michel[34] and European Central Bank head Christine Lagarde have urged the EU to consider issuing joint debt.[36] Unlike the European debt crisis—partly caused by the affected countries—southern European countries did not cause the coronavirus pandemic, therefore eliminating the appeal to national responsibility.[33]

Civil liberties[edit]

Sixteen member nations of the European Union issued a statement warning that certain emergency measures issued by countries during the coronavirus pandemic could undermine the principles of rule of law and democracy on 1 April. They announced that they "support the European Commission initiative to monitor the emergency measures and their application to ensure the fundamental values of the Union are upheld."[37] The statement does not mention Hungary, but observers believe that it implicitly refers to a Hungarian law granting plenary power to the Hungarian Government during the coronavirus pandemic. The following day, the Hungarian Government joined the statement.[38][39]

The Hungarian parliament passed the law granting plenary power to the Government by qualified majority, 137 to 53 votes in favor, on 30 March 2020. After promulgating the law, the President of Hungary, János Áder, announced that he had concluded that the time frame of the Government's authorization would be definite and its scope would be limited.[40][41][42][43] Ursula von der Leyen, the President of the European Commission, stated that she was concerned about the Hungarian emergency measures and that it should be limited to what is necessary and Minister of State Michael Roth suggested that economic sanctions should be used against Hungary.[44][45]

The heads of thirteen member parties of the European People's Party (EPP) made a proposal to expunge the Hungarian Fidesz for the new legislation on 2 April. In response, Viktor Orbán expressed his willingness to discuss any issues relating to Fidesz's membership "once the pandemic is over" in a letter addressed to the Secretary General of EPP Antonio López-Istúriz White. Referring to the thirteen leading politicians' proposal, Orbán also stated that "I can hardly imagine that any of us having time for fantasies about the intentions of other countries. This seems to be a costly luxury these days."[46] During a video conference of the foreign ministers of the European Union member states on 3 April 2020, Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Péter Szijjártó, asked for the other ministers to read the legislation itself not its politically motivated presentations in newspapers before commenting on it.[47]

Japan–South Korea relations[edit]

Japan–South Korea relations worsened as a result of the pandemic.[48] After Japan declared it would start quarantining all arrivals from South Korea, the South Korean government described the move as "unreasonable, excessive and extremely regrettable", and that it couldn't "help but question whether Japan has other motives than containing the outbreak".[49] Some South Korean media have offered opinions to improve relations with Japan through mask assistance to Japan.[50] In addition, some local governments in Japan who did not disclose their names have also announced their intention to purchase masks in Korea.[51] When this fact became known, some online commentators in Japan expressed that they would never receive a mask even if it came from Korea, as it would not be free, as it would be a public pressure for concede of the Japanese government if South Korea gave masks to Japan.[52] However, the Korean government has never reviewed the support of masks to Japan, and expressed that it would only proceed with the formally disclosed request of the Japanese government for supply support such as facial mask, following the public opinion of the Korean people.[53] On the contrary, inside Japan, an editorial was published stating that the Korean government should donate medical supplies like face mask covertly and the Japanese government should accept it casually.[54]

China[edit]

The United States has criticised the Chinese government for its handling of the pandemic, which began in the Chinese province of Hubei.[55] In Brazil, the Congressman Eduardo Bolsonaro, son of President Jair Bolsonaro, caused a diplomatic dispute with China when he retweeted a message saying: "The blame for the global coronavirus pandemic has a name and surname: the Chinese Communist party." Yang Wanming, China's top diplomat in Brazil, retweeted a message that said: "The Bolsonaro family is the great poison of this country."[56]

Some commentators believe the state propaganda in China is promoting a narrative that China's authoritarian system is uniquely capable of curbing the coronavirus and contrasts that with the chaotic response of the Western democracies.[57][58][59] European Union foreign policy chief Josep Borrell said that "China is aggressively pushing the message that, unlike the US, it is a responsible and reliable partner."[60]

The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs has claimed that the United States military is behind the virus.[61] When Australia suggested an inquiry to better understand the origin of the pandemic and to undermine the World Health Organization, the Chinese ambassador threatened with economic retaliation.[61] The Chinese embassy to France has in turn claimed that French nursing homes were ""abandoning their posts overnight … and leaving their residents to die of hunger and disease".[61] The Chinese government has also tried to directly influence statements of other governments in order to show the country in a more positive light, including in Germany,[62] and Wisconsin.[63]

China has sent aid to 82 countries, the World Health Organization, and the African Union, which is considered by some western media as to "counter its negative image in the early stage of the pandemic".[64][65][66] According to Yangyang Cheng, a postdoctoral research associate at Cornell University, "The Chinese government has been trying to project Chinese state power beyond its borders and establish China as a global leader, not dissimilar to what the U.S. government has been doing for the better part of a century, and the distribution of medical aid is part of this mission."[66] Borrell warned that there is "a geo-political component including a struggle for influence through spinning and the 'politics of generosity'."[60]

Trade in medical supplies between the United States and China has also become politically complicated. Exports of face masks and other medical equipment to China from the United States (and many other countries) spiked in February, according to statistics from Trade Data Monitor, prompting criticism from the Washington Post that the United States government failed to anticipate the domestic needs for that equipment.[67] Similarly, The Wall Street Journal, citing Trade Data Monitor to show that China is the leading source of many key medical supplies, raised concerns that US tariffs on imports from China threaten imports of medical supplies into the United States.[68]

United States[edit]

In early March, European Union leaders condemned the United States' decision to restrict travel from Europe to the United States.[69]

The U.S. has come under scrutiny by officials from other countries for allegedly hijacking shipments of crucial supplies meant for other countries.[70][71]

Jean Rottner, the President of France's Regional council of Grand Est, accused the United States of disrupting face mask deliveries by buying at the last minute.[72] French officials stated that Americans came to the airport tarmac and offered several times the French payment as the shipment was prepared for departure to France.[71] Justin Trudeau, the Prime Minister of Canada, asked Bill Blair, the Public Safety Minister, and Marc Garneau, the Transportation Minister, to investigate allegations that medical supplies originally intended for Canada were diverted to the United States.[73] German politician Andreas Geisel accused the United States of committing "modern piracy" after reports that 200,000 N95 masks meant for German police were diverted during an en-route transfer between airplanes in Thailand to the United States,[74] but later changed his statement after he clarified that the mask orders were made through a German firm, not a U.S. firm as earlier stated, and the supply chain issues were under review.[75]

Due to shortages in coronavirus tests Maryland Governor Larry Hogan had his wife Yumi Hogan, who was born in South Korea, to speak with the South Korean ambassador and afterwards multiple South Korea companies stated that they would send tests to Maryland.[76]

On 2 April 2020, President Trump invoked the Defense Production Act of 1950 to halt exports of masks produced by 3M to Canada and Latin America.[77] Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said that it would be a mistake for both their countries to limit trade of essential goods or services, including medical supplies and professionals, and remarked that this moves in both directions.[77] The Canadian government has turned to China and other places for crucial medical supplies, while they seek a constructive discussion about the issue with the Trump administration.[78]

As of 30 December 2020, two federal politicians, eight state politicians, and five local politicians have died from COVID-19.[79]

World Health Organization[edit]

The head of the World Health Organization, Tedros Adhanom, claimed that he had been "severely discriminated against", and had received death threats and racist insults, claiming that "This attack came from Taiwan".[80] The foreign ministry of Taiwan protested this accusation, indicating "strong dissatisfaction and a high degree of regret" and that the Taiwanese people "condemn all forms of discrimination and injustice".[80]

On 7 April 2020, United States President Donald Trump threatened to cut funding to the WHO.[81] On 7 July 2020, the Trump administration announced that the United States would formally withdraw from the WHO.[82] On 22 January 2021, president Joe Biden re-admitted the United States to the World Health Organization.[83]

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development[edit]

The OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría wrote that "This is the third and greatest economic, financial and social shock of the 21st century, and it demands a modern, global effort akin to the last century’s Marshall Plan and New Deal – combined.[84]" COVID-19 has a strong regional and global impact, calling for differentiated governance and policy responses from local to international levels. A coordinated response by all levels of government can minimize crisis-management failures.[85]

International Court of Justice[edit]

The International Court of Justice (ICJ) planned to discuss Guyana and Venezuela border dispute over Guayana Esequiba in March 2020. The ICJ also delayed public hearings over maritime border disputes between Somalia and Kenya until March 2021.[86] Both hearings were postponed due to the pandemic.[87][88]

Global ceasefire[edit]

The coronavirus pandemic appears to have worsened conflict dynamics;[89] it has also led to a United Nations Security Council resolution demanding a global ceasefire. On 23 March 2020, United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres issued an appeal for a global ceasefire as part of the United Nations' response to the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic.[90][91] On 24 June 2020, 170 UN Member States and Observers signed a non-binding statement in support of the appeal,[92] rising to 172 on 25 June 2020. On 1 July 2020, the UN Security Council passed resolution S/RES/2532 (2020), demanding a "general and immediate cessation of hostilities in all situations on its agenda," expressing support for "the efforts undertaken by the Secretary-General and his Special Representatives and Special Envoys in that respect," calling for "all parties to armed conflicts to engage immediately in a durable humanitarian pause" of at least 90 consecutive days, and calling for greater international cooperation to address the pandemic.

Impact on national politics[edit]

Belgium[edit]

On 17 March 2020, Sophie Wilmès was sworn in as Prime Minister of Belgium. Seven opposition parties pledged to support the minority Wilmès II Government, in its previous composition, with plenary power to handle the coronavirus pandemic in Belgium.[93]

Brazil[edit]

President Jair Bolsonaro has been criticized for his handling of the crisis.[94] He has referred to the pandemic as a "fantasy".[95] According to one poll, 64% of Brazilians reject the way Bolsonaro has handled the pandemic, while 44.8% support his impeachment, an all-time high.[96] During a speech by the president about the pandemic, many Brazilians participated in a panelaço protesting the president by banging pots and pans on balconies.[97][98]

Canada[edit]

On 13 March 2020, the Parliament of Canada voted to suspend activity in both houses until 20 April for the House of Commons and 21 April for the Senate.[99] The House of Commons' Health and Finance committees were granted the ability to hold weekly virtual meetings during the pandemic.[100]

The leadership contests of the Conservative Party of Canada, Green Party of British Columbia, Quebec Liberal Party and Parti Québécois were postponed.[101][102][103][104]

On 1 December 2020, the Canadian federal government announced plans for a $100 billion to kick-start the countries post-pandemic economy. Which is its biggest relief package since the Second World War and it will account for about to 3-4% of Canada's GDP and will bring the countries deficit to $381.6 billion.[105]

On 7 January the Canadian government made it compulsory that to travel to Canada that you must have returned a negative COVID-19 test prior to travel. It was introduced to try and prevent new strains of COVID-19 from entering thee country.[106] This was to extends the restrictions on entry further from 26 March 2020 which saw a requirement that made it mandatory to isolate after entering Canada except if you were from the USA.[107]

China[edit]

Multiple provincial-level administrators of the Communist Party of China (CPC) were dismissed over their handling of the quarantine efforts in central China. Some experts believe this is likely in a move to protect Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping from people's anger over the coronavirus outbreak.[108] Taiwan has also voiced concern over being included in any travel ban involving the People's Republic of China due to the "one-China policy" and Chinese claims.[109] A few countries have been using the epidemic to build political bridges with Beijing, raising accusations that these countries, which include Cambodia among others, were putting politics before health.[110] Existing tensions between the United States and China may have delayed a coordinated effort to combat the outbreak in Wuhan.[111]

Outlets such as Politico, Foreign Policy, and Bloomberg have reported that efforts from China to send aid to other countries and claim without evidence that the virus originated in the United States are a propaganda push for global influence while deflecting blame for its handling of the outbreak.[112][58][59]

Hong Kong[edit]

Protests in Hong Kong strengthened due to fears of immigration from mainland China.[113] In order to crackdown Hong Kong protests, China drift a new Hong Kong national security law which have drawn international concerns.

Hungary[edit]

The Hungarian Parliament gave the government plenary power which authorizes it to override acts and to rule by decree to the extent that is "necessary and proportional" in order to "prevent, manage, and eradicate the epidemic and to avoid and mitigate its effects".[114] The law prescribes that the government is to report back to the parliament, or if it's unable to convene, to its speaker and the leaders of the parliamentary groups, regularly about the measures it has taken.[114] The law also suspends by-elections and referendums for the duration of the emergency.[115][114] The Constitutional Court of Hungary is authorized to hold sessions via electronic communications networks.[114] The act also criminalizes "statements known to be false or statements distorting true facts" with 1 to 5 years imprisonment "if done in a manner capable of hindering or derailing the effectiveness of the response effort".[114] The opposition had demanded a 90-day sunset clause to the emergency powers in return for its support, but had its amendments voted down and therefore opposed the act.[114]

Human Rights Watch described the legislation as an authoritarian takeover, due to the rule of decree supposedly without parliamentary or judicial scrutiny and for criminal penalties for the publishing of "false" or "distorted" facts, and gave support to the European Commission using Article 7 against Hungary. Criticism and concern regarding the decree stemmed from existing backsliding of Hungarian democracy under the premiership of Viktor Orbán and his majority-ruling Fidesz party since Orbán began his second tenure as Prime Minister in 2010. Orbán has been accused by opposition leaders and other critics of his premiership of shifting Hungary towards authoritarianism by centralizing legislative and executive power through Constitutional reforms passed in 2011 and 2013, curbing civil liberties, restricting freedom of speech to the extent that some independent media outlets once critical of his rule have since been acquired by allies of Orbán, and weakening other institutional checks on Orbán's power including the Constitutional Court and judiciary. Critics of the Orbán/Fidesz government expressed concern that the emergency plenary powers may not be rescinded once the pandemic subsides, and could be abused to dubiously prosecute independent journalists critical of his coronavirus response or his governance more broadly, and curtail other freedoms of speech and expression. Some observers suggest that any significant misuse of or, once the crisis subsides, failure to rescind the plenary powers by Orbán government could place Hungary at great risk of becoming the European Union's first dictatorship, in violation of E.U. regulations.[116][117][118][119] A petition against the legislation was signed by over 100,000 people. Péter Jakab, the president of the opposition party Jobbik, said that the bill put Hungarian democracy in quarantine. Nézőpont, a pro-government polling agency, conducted a poll that showed that 90% of Hungarians supported extending emergency measures and 72% supported strengthening the criminal code.[120]

In response to news reports about the state of emergency being a danger to democracy, Foreign Minister Péter Szijjártó called them "fake news and lies" and stated that the measures that Hungary had adopted were not unprecedented in Europe. He specifically stated that there were unfounded reports in mainstream media about the government's unlimited authorization and the closing down of the Parliament.[121]

European Commission vice-president Věra Jourová after a thorough examination confirmed that Hungary's recently adopted emergency measures do not break any EU rules.[122][123]

Iran[edit]

The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been heavily affected by the virus.[124] The spread of the virus has raised questions about the future survival of the regime.[125] Iran's President Hassan Rouhani wrote a public letter to world leaders asking for help, saying that his country doesn't have access to international markets due to the United States sanctions against Iran.[126] On 3 March 2020, Iranian Parliament was shut down after having 23 of the 290 members of parliament reported to have had tested positive for the virus.[127]

Israel[edit]

After facing political deadlock since the legislative election held on 9 April 2019, Israel held two more elections in 2020, which ended with Netanyahu forming the Thirty-fifth government of Israel.

On 28 March 2020, the United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process, Nickolay Mladenov praised the Israel and Palestinian authorities for their coordination in tackling the COVID-19 pandemic. Mladenov appreciated the response strategy, especially for focusing on Gaza, as the region faces a relatively substantial risk of the disease spreading. Since the start of the novel coronavirus crisis, Israel permitted the entry of significant medical and aid supplies inside Gaza.[128]

Kosovo[edit]

On 18 March, Interior Minister Agim Veliu was sacked due to his support for declaring a state of emergency to handle the coronavirus pandemic which would have given power to the Kosovo Security Council chaired by Hashim Thaçi. The Democratic League of Kosovo, the junior partner leader of the coalition, filed a no-confidence vote motion in retaliation for the sacking and on 25 March eighty two members of the Kosovo Assembly voted in favor of the motion.[129][130]

Slovenia[edit]

On its 1st Session on 13 March 2020, immediately following its confirmation, the 13th Government set up an informal Crisis Management Staff (CMS) of the Republic of Slovenia in order to contain and manage the COVID-19 epidemic. Head of the Staff was Prime Minister Janez Janša and its secretary was former SOVA director Andrej Rupnik. CMS was composed of all government members (prime minister and ministers) and other experts and civil servants in an advisory capacity.[131] Head of the Health Group was Bojana Beovič.[132] Jelko Kacin, former minister and ambassador to NATO, was the official spokesman of the Staff, he had a similar role during the 1991 Slovenian war of independence.[133]

Crisis Management Staff was abolished on 24 March 2020 after the political transition was completed, its functions were transferred on the responsible ministries. Health Experts Group was transferred under the Ministry of Health. Kacin became the official government spokesperson on the topic.[134]

Government never proposed the declaration of emergency to the National Assembly, which would suspend the Assembly's powers and transfer them to the President of the Republic Borut Pahor to rule by decrees with the force of law, which are still subject to the National Assembly's approval once it gains its powers back. The provision is only applicable if the National Assembly is unable to meet in the session.[135] Assembly however passed a Rules of Procedure Amendment to enable itself a "long-distance" session using technology.[136]

South Korea[edit]

Diplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea worsened, as South Korea criticized Japan's "ambiguous and passive quarantine efforts", after Japan announced anybody coming from South Korea will be placed in two weeks’ quarantine at government-designated sites.[137]

Following the outbreak of the virus in South Korea over 1,450,000 people signed a petition supporting the impeachment of President Moon Jae-in due to him sending masks and medical supplies to China to aid them in their response to the virus outbreak.[138] Moon administration's continuing handling of the crisis has however been noted in other sectors of the Korean society and internationally. An opinion poll by Gallup Korea in March 2020 showed Moon's approval rating rising by 5% to 49%.[139]

In April 2020, Moon's Democratic Party won a record landslide in the country's legislative election for 21st session until 2024.[140][141]

Spain[edit]

On 12 March 2020, the Congress of Deputies voted to suspend activity for a week after multiple members had tested positive for the virus.[142] When the Congress of Deputies approved the extension of the State of Alarm on 18 March, it was the first time that opposition parties Popular Party and Vox had supported the government in a vote while separatist parties, such as Catalan Republican Left, abstained from the vote.[143]

The response to the coronavirus has been complicated by the fact that Pedro Sánchez is leading PSOE (in coalition with Unidas Podemos) minority government which is counting on support from opposition parties to enact coronavirus measures, especially with regards to economic stimulus. So far, the cabinet is discussing proposals to offer zero-interest loans to tenants to pay rent so that smaller landlords who depend on rent income can stay afloat. PP leader Pablo Casado complained that the government was not keeping him informed of developments on the coronavirus. Ciudadanos leader Inés Arrimadas said that she supports the government's actions.[143]

United Kingdom[edit]

The timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK highlights both successes and failures in the government's response to containing and then controlling the disease, but will also highlight their political and social actions which have had a series of mixed results.

On 5 March, Health minister Nadine Dorries was the first parliamentarian to show COVID-19 symptoms.[144] MP Kate Osborne showed them some days later.[145] On 13 March, the 2020 United Kingdom local elections were postponed for a year,[146] the longest postponement of democratic elections in the UK since the interwar period.[147] In late March, the UK, Scottish and Welsh Parliaments scaled back their activities.[148]

On 23 March, a national lockdown is announced by Boris Johnson in an attempt to reduce the spread of COVID-19, where all non-essential businesses are told to shut down, households prevented from mixing and limited outdoor interaction.[149] A financial support package is announced on 26 March nicknamed the furlough scheme which should cover 80% of self-employed earnings over the past three years.[150]

On 27 March, both Prime Minister Boris Johnson and Secretary of State for Health and Social Care Matt Hancock announced that they had tested positive for the virus.[151] On the same day, Labour Party MP Angela Rayner, the Shadow Secretary of State for Education, confirmed she had been suffering symptoms and was self-isolating.[152] Chief Medical Officer Chris Whitty also reported suffering from symptoms and would be self-isolating, while continuing to advise the UK government.[153]

The 28 March marked the first death of a frontline NHS worker,[154] with Amged El-Hawrani, a 55-year-old consultant dying after testing positive for coronavirus.

On 30 March the Prime Minister's senior adviser Dominic Cummings was reported to be self-isolating after experiencing coronavirus symptoms. He had been at Downing Street on 27 March and was stated to have developed symptoms over 28 and 29 March.[155]

On 2 April, the world reaches 1 million confirmed cases of coronavirus,[156] according to Johns Hopkins University, with Boris Johnson coming out of self-isolation on the same day. A new Labour leader is elected on 4 April, Sir Keir Starmer replacing Jeremy Corbyn as the Labour Party's leader, amidst growing cases and deaths in the UK. Over the coming days, the Prime Minister is moved back into hospital with worsening conditions, and is placed into intensive care as a precautionary measure,[157] but later moved back onto the standard COVID wards.

On 8 April, the first major cracks in government policy appear as various medical associations speak-out about the dangerously low levels of PPE available which is endangering patients health.[158] The government is criticised later that month with a BBC report coming out suggesting ministers failed to organise PPE to be stockpiled, and that advice was ignored when they were told to fill the gap in missing equipment by their own advisers, putting at risk both patients and staff to the virus.[159] On 23 April, millions of people become eligible for a coronavirus test after a large expansion went underway for essential workers and their households,[160] and on the same day the first element of human trials in the UK for the virus vaccine begin, lead by Oxford University.[161]

The 1 May represents a victory for the government as they hit their testing target of 100,000 tests per day on 30 April,[162] and although this was prior to the death toll in the UK surpassing Italy on 5 May, becoming the highest in Europe.[163] The 7 May also brings a new, horrifying statistic regarding black men and women in England and Wales as being more than four times more likely to die from a coronavirus related death than white people,[164] according to the ONS. The 10 May is the day where the nation can finally start to breathe again, with lockdown restrictions eased slightly over the course of the next few days and some outdoor shops like Garden Center's finally reopening on 11 May for the first time since March.[165] The following day on 12 May, the Chancellor extends the furlough scheme until the end of October, but with employers picking up more of the bill as the months progress and economy opens back up.[166] The first sign of a vaccine appears on 17 May when Oxford University sign a licensing agreement with AstraZeneca to supply 100 million doses of a vaccine.[167] On 18 May, wider coronavirus testing becomes available for all those aged five or older if they are showing symptoms, also expanding to a loss of taste or smell.[168] On 22 May, Home Secretary, Priti Patel, announced on that people arriving from overseas into the UK would have to quarantine for 14 days, beginning on 8 June.[169] Over the next few days, from 23 to 25 May, Boris Johnson's senior aide, Dominic Cummings, comes under fire for allegedly breaking lockdown rules. Johnson defends him, prior to him making a public press conference to defend his innocence.[170]

On 1 June, lockdown measures are eased again, with some school children heading back into the classroom.[171] The 15 June also showed some more easing of restrictions with high-streets reopening and places of worship also allowing for private prayer.[172] However we see another government failure on 18 June, when the government abandon their own NHS track and trace app, making way for Apple and Google to take over the design.[173] This failure comes nearly a month after track and tract was launched in England on 28 May, and with no effective way of tracking infected cases after it was announced a system would be in place by 1 June. The failure in government policy and practicality shows a lack of organisation and capability when executing such pivotal tasks under high-pressure conditions. On 29 June, a local lockdown is re-imposed on Leicester due to a spike in COVID-19 cases, while the rest of the country moves to further ease restrictions for social gatherings on 4 July.[174]

The UK's travel corridor list is finally published on 3 July, with 73 countries where Britons can fly to and return without having the need to quarantine,[175] while the Health Secretary announced a partial easing of restrictions in Leicester on 16 July.[176] Although restrictions have eased, from 24 July, shoppers are told that face masks are mandatory in England, with fines of £100 if the laws aren't respected, and only for Spain to be removed off the quarantine exemption list on 26 July, suggests that cases may be on the rise. The end of July also reflects this with Matt Hancock warning of a second wave beginning to "roll across Europe" on 30 July, and halting the further easing of restrictions supposed to be taking place on 1 August.

On 3 August, the 'Eat Out to Help Out' scheme is launched by Rishi Sunak, with half price meals in all participating restaurants from Monday to Friday throughout August.[177] Whilst the scheme received significant praise[178] research has since shown that the government initiative drove new COVID-19 infections up by between 8 and 17%.[179] Between 10 August and 20 September, Public Health England said that among people who tested positive for COVID-19 eating out was the most commonly reported activity in the two to seven days prior to the onset of symptoms.[180]

On 13 August, A-Level students in the United Kingdom received their exam results, designated using a grades standardisation algorithm. Whilst the algorithm was designed to combat grade inflation nearly 36% of students were one grade lower than teachers' predictions and 3% were down two grades.[181] This resulted in public outcry.[182] One of the main criticisms made against grade standardisation was the apparent downgrading of results for those who attended state schools, and upgrading of results for pupils at private schools, disproportionately disadvantaging poorer students.[183][184] In response to the outcry, on 15 August, Gavin Williamson said that the grading system is here to stay, and there will be "no U-turn, no change". Two days later on 17 August, Ofqual and Gavin Williamson agreed to a u-turn and grades would now be reissued using unmoderated teacher predictions.[185] Despite amendments to the system many students missed out on university placements.[186]

On 8 September the government published new social distancing guidelines to come in to effect on 14 September, whereby household gatherings were limited to six people, termed the 'rule of six'.[187] On 22 September tightening of COVID-19 restrictions were announced by the UK government for England as well as the devolved administrations in the rest of the UK. These restrictions included 10pm curfews for pubs and restaurants across the UK.[188]

On 12 October the government introduced its three-tier restriction framework across England, with legal restrictions varying according to the government-defined tiers. The three-tier system came into effect on 14 October with Liverpool becoming the first region under Tier 3 restrictions which ordered the closure of pubs, gyms and betting shops.[189] On 31 October, Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced that England would enter a four-week 'circuit-breaker' national lockdown on 5 November, with pubs, restaurants, leisure centres and non-essential shops closing.[190]

On 11 November, total COVID-19 deaths in the UK passed 50,000, the first European country to pass the number.[191] On 23 November, trials showed that the Oxford/AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine was 70% effective, which could be as high as 90% by tweaking the dosage.[192] However, the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine was reported to be 25% less effective than the vaccines developed by Pfizer and Moderna.[193]

On 2 December the circuit breaker lockdown ended and the three-tier system was re-implemented in England under the The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Restrictions) (All Tiers) (England) Regulations 2020. On the same day the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine was approved by the MHRA for use in the United Kingdom, making the UK the first country in the world to approve a COVID–19 vaccine.[194] On 8 December, the government began its immunisation campaign, dubbed 'V-Day' by media outlets.[195]

On 14 December it was announced that at least 60 different local authorities in the UK had recorded Covid infections caused by the a new variant, Variant of Concern 202012/01.[196] On 19 December, it was announced that a new "tier four" measure would be applied to London, Kent, Essex, Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, to try to control the spread of the new variant. Under tier four restrictions people were not permitted to interact with others from outside of their own household, even on Christmas Day.[197] Johnson announced that the relaxation of restrictions outside the new tier 4 over Christmas would now only be for Christmas Day instead of the five days originally declared.[198] On 30 December the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine was approved for use in the United Kingdom by the MHRA for deployment the following week.[199]

On 5 January 2021 the Prime Minister announced that England would enter its third lockdown from 5 January, with similar restrictions to the first lockdown in March 2020. On 8 January the MHRA approved the Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine, the third COVID-19 vaccine approved for use in the UK.[200] On 15 January it was announced that all 'travel corridors' would be closed from 18 January all arrivals to the UK will need to quarantine for up to 10 days, unless they test negative after five days.[201]

United States[edit]

Owing to the stock market crash, high unemployment claims, and reduced economic activity caused by the coronavirus pandemic the United States Congress convened to create legislation to address the economic effects of the pandemic and passed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act). Representative Thomas Massie attempted to maneuver for a roll-call vote, but there was insufficient demand among the quorum present and the House passed the bill by voice vote on 27 March.[202]

The outbreak prompted calls for the United States to adopt social policies common in other wealthy countries, including universal health care, universal child care, paid sick leave, and higher levels of funding for public health.[203][204][205] Trump was also criticized for embracing medical populism, giving medical advice on Twitter and at press conferences.[206] Political analysts anticipated it may negatively affect Donald Trump's chances of re-election in the 2020 presidential election.[207][208] Some state emergency orders have waived open meeting laws that require the public have physical access to the meeting location, allowing meetings to be held by public teleconference.[209][210]

On 19 March, ProPublica published an article showing that Senator Richard Burr has sold between $628,000 and $1.7 million worth of stocks before the stock market crash using insider knowledge from a closed Senate meeting where Senators were briefed on how coronavirus could affect the United States. Stock transactions committed by Senators Dianne Feinstein, Kelly Loeffler, and Jim Inhofe were also placed under scrutiny for insider trading.[211] On 30 March, the Department of Justice imitated a probe into the stock transactions with the Securities and Exchange Commission.[212]

Captain Brett Crozier wrote a four-page memo requesting help for his crew, as a viral outbreak had occurred on board his ship, the USS Theodore Roosevelt.[213][214] However, he was soon relieved of his command over the ship, because the memo was leaked to the public.[213][214] The Acting Navy Secretary Thomas Modly initially justified his actions to fire Crozier, saying that the captain was "too naive or too stupid" to be a commanding officer if he did not think that the information would get out to the public in this information age, but later issued an apology in which he acknowledged that Crozier intended to draw public attention to the circumstances on his ship.[213][214] Several members of Congress called for Modly's resignation for his handling of the situation,[213] which he did on 7 April.[214]

State[edit]

Several hundred anti-lockdown protesters rallied at the Ohio Statehouse 20 April.[215]

Multiple U.S. states suspended legislative activity including Colorado, Kentucky, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, New Hampshire, and Vermont.[216][217][218][219]

On 11 March 2020, New Mexico Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham vetoed $150 million worth on infrastructure projects due to the state losing $22 million in its general fund for every $1 decrease in the price of a barrel of oil as a result of the Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war. The Alaska Department of Revenue delayed its release of its budget forecast due to Alaska's dependence on oil prices.[220]

On 10 March, Georgia state senator Brandon Beach started showing symptoms of COVID-19 and was tested on 14 March. However, he attended a special session of the legislature on 16 March before his test results arrived on 18 March showing that he had tested positive. The entire Georgia state senate, their staffs, and Lieutenant Governor Geoff Duncan went into quarantine until 30 March.[221]

Coronavirus restrictions also disrupted thousands of political campaigns across America, limiting the canvassing and in-person fundraising candidates have long-relied on to win office. Political insiders believe that could give incumbents a bigger advantage than normal.[222]

Venezuela[edit]

Reuters reported that during the pandemic, allies of both Nicolás Maduro and Juan Guaidó had secretly begun exploratory talks, according to sources on both sides.[223] Guaidó and U.S. Special Representative for Venezuela Elliott Abrams have denied that negotiations have taken place.[224][225]

Impact on elections[edit]

Bolivia[edit]

On 21 March 2020, President Jeanine Áñez announced the interim government's decision to postpone the snap election. Other presidential candidates had suggested postponing the election to prevent the spread of coronavirus through the congregation of large groups of people.[226][227]

Chile[edit]

A plebiscite on a new constitution and the convention that would write it was scheduled on 25 April, but on 19 March, political parties reached an agreement on postponing the plebiscite to 25 October.[228] This agreement also postponed municipal and regional elections, from 25 October to 4 April 2021, with the primaries and second rounds of elections being postponed too.[citation needed]

Dominican Republic[edit]

On 13 April 2020, the electoral body of Dominican Republic decided to postpone the presidential and legislative elections which were originally scheduled for 17 May of the same year. The new selected date was 5 July 2020, and, in case none of the presidential candidates reached the absolute majority (50% + 1 vote), the second round will be held on 26 July.[229]

The general election to elect the President and members of the Dominican Republic Congress, which was postponed from the scheduled 17 May 2020 date due to the COVID-19 pandemic, was later held on 5 July 2020.[230][231]

Ethiopia[edit]

On 31 March, the National Electoral Board of Ethiopia delayed the House of Representatives elections that were originally scheduled for 29 August, due to the outbreak of coronavirus in Ethiopia.[232]

France[edit]

President Emmanuel Macron declared coronavirus as the "biggest health crisis in a century". On 12 March he stated that the first round of local elections would not be rescheduled.[233] The choice to maintain the elections, which took place on 15 March, generated significant controversy.[234] On 16 March, he stated that the second round, originally scheduled for 22 March, would be delayed until 21 June.[235]

Hong Kong[edit]

The 2020 Hong Kong Legislative Council election was originally scheduled on 6 September 2020 until it was postponed by the government for a whole year to 5 September 2021. On 31 July 2020, Chief Executive Carrie Lam announced that she was invoking the Emergency Regulations Ordinance to postpone the election under its emergency powers, citing the recent resurgence of the COVID-19 cases, adding that the move was supported by Beijing.[236]

Indonesia[edit]

The 2020 Indonesian local elections were scheduled to be held on 23 September was postponed, and the Indonesian General Elections Commission proposed postponement to 9 December at the earliest, which was then approved by the People's Representative Council and then signed into law by President Joko Widodo on 5 May. The election's previous budget of around US$550 million was reallocated towards pandemic management and control.[237][238]

Italy[edit]

A referendum on a constitutional amendment to decrease the number of members of parliament from 630 to 400 in the Chamber and from 315 to 200 in the Senate was initially scheduled to be held on 29 March, but was postponed to 20 and 21 September following the outbreak of the virus in Italy.[239] [240]

Kiribati[edit]

The first round of the parliamentary elections was originally planned to be held on 7 April 2020, but was later moved to 15 April, with the second round planned for the next week due to the coronavirus pandemic although there were no cases in the country at the time.[241][242]

Latvia[edit]

On 6 April 2020, Prime Minister Krišjānis Kariņš announced the government's decision to postpone the snap Riga City Council elections. Originally, the snap elections were scheduled for 25 April, and election posters had already started appearing, but as the COVID-19 crisis broke out, the elections were rescheduled for 6 June, without ruling out a possibility to move the election date closer to the fall, reported the LETA newswire. Krišjānis Kariņš said: "Considering the uncertainty regarding the COVID-19 crisis, most probably, we will move the elections to the beginning of September."[243] The elections were eventually held on 29 August 2020.[244]

New Zealand[edit]

On 17 August 2020, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern announced that the upcoming election would be delayed by almost 4 weeks from 19 September to 17 October. The country's biggest city, Auckland, had seen a recent rise in cases of COVID-19 and was placed on a restrictive 3 week lockdown. Due to safety concerns and an inability for political parties to campaign properly, Ardern agreed to a call from opposition and government parties to delay the election.

Philippines[edit]

On 10 March 2020, the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) suspended nationwide voter registration until the end of the month due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The registration period began 20 January and is scheduled to run until 30 September 2021.[245] The suspension was later extended to last until the end of April. The issuance of voter's certification is also suspended until further notice. The next nationwide elections scheduled in the Philippines is in May 2022.[246]

The plebiscite to ratify legislation which proposes the partition of Palawan into three smaller provinces scheduled for May 2020 may be delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The province provincial legislature has called for a special session and is expected to pass a resolution allowing their governor to ask the COMELEC to postpone the plebiscite.[247]

Poland[edit]

Initially the Polish government chose to not delay the presidential election, a decision which caused controversy.[248] Polling has shown 78% of the population to prefer postponing the election.[248] The opposition to the ruling party Law and Justice has argued that the pandemic conditions prevent effective campaigning, and hence reduce the competitiveness of the election.[248] On 27 March, some candidates for the presidential election failed to collect 100,000 signatures due to the coronavirus pandemic with only twelve presidential candidates having successfully collected over 100,000 signatures. Seven candidates submitted petitions with less than 100,000 signatures, but plan to appeal the central election commission's refusal to register them in the presidential election citing the coronavirus pandemic hampering the signature collection process.[249]

A change to Poland's election laws was proposed to allow postal voting for those over 60 and those under quarantine but not abroad, which was criticized as favoring the incumbent Law and Justice Party.[250] Laws under discussion by parliament in mid-April define the entire vote to be postal and weaken the role of the electoral commission, despite postal workers unions saying this would be impossible.[248]

On 6 May, the Polish governing coalition announced the presidential election would be postponed due to the pandemic.[251] On 3 June 2020 Marshal of the Sejm Elżbieta Witek announced that first round of the delayed election would occur on 28 June 2020, with 12 July 2020 scheduled for the runoff, if it is necessary.[252]

Russia[edit]

On 25 March, President Vladimir Putin announced the postponement of the constitutional referendum scheduled for 22 April to a later date. At the moment, a new date for the referendum has not yet been determined.[253]

Also, the Central Election Commission postponed about a hundred local elections scheduled for the period from 29 March to 21 June.[254]

Regional elections in more than 20 regions are due to be held on a "single election day" on 13 September. However, the campaign must start no later than 15 June. According to media reports, depending on the epidemiological situation, the Federal government allows the postponement of a single election day to December 2020 or the holding of these regional elections on a 2021 single election day.[255]

Serbia[edit]

On 16 March 2020, the electoral commission postponed the parliamentary election that was initially planned for 26 April.[256]

Singapore[edit]

The 2020 Singaporean general election was held on 10 July 2020. The Elections Department had rolled out a series of measures in response to the pandemic to ensure that the elections can be held. No rallies and TV screenings pertaining to the election are to be held. Nomination centres will not admit members of the public and walkabouts, though allowed, should have safe distancing and minimal physical contact. Candidates are also not be allowed to make speeches, including during the campaigning, from campaigning vehicles, meaning that there will be no parades by the candidates held post-election.[257]

Spain[edit]

The 2020 Basque regional election, scheduled for 5 April, were delayed, after an agreement between all the political parties represented in the Basque parliament; the Galician elections were also suspended.[258][259]

Sri Lanka[edit]

On 19 March, Election Commissioner Mahinda Deshapriya announced that the 2020 Sri Lankan parliamentary election will be postponed indefinitely until further notice due to the coronavirus pandemic.[260][261] Sri Lankan President Gotabaya Rajapaksa initially insisted that scheduled forthcoming the election would proceed as planned on 25 April despite the coronavirus pandemic, and the authorities banned election rallies and meetings.[262]

Syria[edit]

The parliamentary elections originally scheduled for 13 April were delayed to 20 May to protect Syria from coronavirus.[263]

Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

The general election originally scheduled for September might be delayed but "will be held when constitutionally due" despite the coronavirus.[264] Pre-campaigning was partially suspended on 13 March following news of the first reported case of COVID-19 in Trinidad and Tobago.[265][266]

United Kingdom[edit]

On 13 March 2020, the United Kingdom local elections that were meant to be held on 7 May were rescheduled by Prime Minister Boris Johnson to 6 May 2021 following the advice of the Electoral Commission and in agreement with Labour and the Liberal Democrats.[267]

On 27 March, the Liberal Democrats postponed their leadership election, at first to May 2021, before moving it back to July 2020.[268]

United States[edit]

Presidential[edit]

States with at least one local, state, or federal primary election date or method of voting altered as of 5 August 2020.
Campaign[edit]

Political campaigns switched to online and virtual activities in mid-March to either avoid the spreading of coronavirus or to be in compliance with statewide social distancing rules.[269] Former Vice President Joe Biden and Senator Bernie Sanders started giving online town halls and virtual fundraisers.[270] President Donald Trump's presidential campaign also shifted from in-person to virtual campaigning due to stay-at-home orders and social distancing rules made after his 2 March rally and both his and other Republican leadership offices based in Virginia were closed due to stay-at-home orders issued by Governor Ralph Northam.[271]

On 15 March, the first one-on-one debate of the 2020 Democratic presidential primaries took place between Joe Biden and Bernie Sanders in CNN's Washington, D.C. studios and without an audience, as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The debate was moved from Arizona, which is under a state of emergency and had 12 confirmed cases of COVID-19 on that date.[272][273]

On 2 April, the Democratic National Convention, which was originally scheduled to be held from 13 to 16 July, was delayed to the week of 17 August after the Democratic National Committee communicated with the presidential campaigns of Joe Biden and Bernie Sanders.[274] On 5 April Biden suggested "a virtual convention" may be necessary;[275] Trump told Fox News' Sean Hannity there was "no way" he would cancel the Republican National convention, scheduled to begin on 24 August in Charlotte, NC.[276]

House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) and Senators Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) and Ron Wyden (D-OR) expressed concern in early April that the pandemic might lower voter turnout in November. Closings of churches, universities, and driver's license centers will make it more difficult for voters to register and the Democracy Project at the Brennan Center for Justice expect turnout to be low, as it was during the 17 March Illinois Democratic primary. Georgia state House Speaker David Ralston (R), predicted that mailing absentee ballot request forms to all voters in the state during the coronavirus crisis would be "devastating" for GOP candidates, and President Trump said that some of the election reforms would make it harder for Republicans to win office.[277]

There have been calls to postpone the 2020 U.S. presidential election to 2021, but many constitutional scholars, lawmakers have said it would be very difficult to do without amending the Constitution.[278][279][280]

Primaries[edit]

On 12 March 2020, the North Dakota Democratic-NPL cancelled its state convention that was meant to be held from 19 to 22 March where statewide candidates would have been nominated and delegates to the Democratic National Convention would have been selected.[281] On 13 March, the presidential primary in Louisiana was postponed to 20 June by Secretary of State Kyle Ardoin and Wyoming had its in-person portion of its caucus and all county conventions suspended and replaced with mail-in ballots.[282][283]

On 14 March, the presidential primary in Georgia was moved from 24 March to 19 May;[284] on 9 April, the entire primary was again moved to 9 June.[285] On 16 March, Secretary of State Michael Adams announced that the Kentucky primaries would be moved from 19 May to 23 June and Governor Mike DeWine postponed the Ohio primaries despite legal challenges.[286][287] On 19 March, Governor Ned Lamont moved the Connecticut Democratic primary from 28 April to 2 June.[288] On 20 March, Indiana Governor Eric Holcomb, Secretary of State Connie Lawson, Republican state chairman Kyle Hupfer, and Democratic state chairman John Zody announced that Indiana's primaries were rescheduled from 5 May to 2 June.[289]

On 21 March, Governor Wanda Vázquez Garced postponed the Puerto Rico presidential primary from 29 March to 26 April. The Alaska Democratic Party canceled in-person voting for its presidential primary and extended its mail-in voting time to 10 April. Governor John Carney postponed the Delaware presidential primary from 28 April to 2 June. The Democratic Party of Hawaii canceled in-person voting for its presidential primary and delayed it from 4 April to sometime in May. Governor Gina Raimondo postponed the Rhode Island presidential primary at the request of the board of elections from 28 April to 2 June.[290] On 27 March, Governor Tom Wolf signed into law legislation passed by the state legislature to postpone Pennsylvania's primaries from 28 April to 2 June.[291] On 28 March, Governor Andrew Cuomo announced at a news conference that New York's presidential primary would be postponed from 28 April to 23 June.[292] On 8 April, Governor Phil Murphy signed an executive order to reschedule the primary election scheduled to be held on 2 June to 7 July.[293]

On 30 March, the Kansas Democratic Party announced that its presidential primary would be conducted only through mail-in ballots, and Governor Brad Little and Secretary of State Lawerence Denney also announced that Idaho's primary elections would also be conducted entirety through mail-in ballots.[294][295] On 1 April, Governor Jim Justice signed an executive order to postpone West Virginia's primaries from 12 May to 9 June.[296]

Polling places in Florida, Ohio, Illinois and Arizona that were located in senior living facilities were moved and other health precautions were enacted.[297] Local election directors in Maryland asked for the state's primary to be changed to only use mail-in ballots and former Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Mary J. Miller asked for Governor Larry Hogan to switch to mail-in ballots.[298]

State Original date New date
Puerto Rico 29 March 2020 26 April 2020
Georgia 24 March 2020 9 June 2020
Connecticut 28 April 2020 2 June 2020
Delaware 28 April 2020 2 June 2020
Ohio 17 March 2020 2 June 2020
Pennsylvania 28 April 2020 2 June 2020
Rhode Island 28 April 2020 2 June 2020
Indiana 5 May 2020 2 June 2020
West Virginia 12 May 2020 9 June 2020
Louisiana 4 April 2020 20 June 2020
Kentucky 19 May 2020 23 June 2020
New York 28 April 2020 23 June 2020
New Jersey 2 June 2020 7 July 2020
General elections[edit]

In October 2020, the editors of the New England Journal of Medicine unanimously published an unprecedented editorial calling for the current American leadership to be voted out in the November election, writing "countries were forced to make hard choices about how to respond. Here in the United States, our leaders have failed that test. They have taken a crisis and turned it into a tragedy."[299] Science Advances also published a research study that revealed "states with more COVID-19 fatalities were less likely to support Republican candidates."[300]

In November 2020, Donald Trump lost his bid for reelection to former Vice President Joe Biden, in an election dominated by COVID-19's impact on all aspects of American life.[301]

State[edit]

Campaign[edit]

Thirty-four Democratic and Republican candidates in New York signed a petition asking Governor Andrew Cuomo for the primary petition signature amounts to be decreased or eliminated for the primaries to prevent spreading or contracting the virus during signature collection.[302] On 14 March, Cuomo reduced the signature requirement to 30% of the normal limit and moved the deadline from 2 April to 17 March.[303]

On 26 March, the Green Party said the pandemic would prevent third party candidates from appearing on the ballot unless petitioning requirements were reduced.[304]

Elections[edit]
A masked voter casts a ballot at Roosevelt High School in Des Moines, Iowa

On 11 March 2020, the Michigan Democratic Party cancelled its state convention which was scheduled for 21 March.[305] The Utah Republican, and Democratic parties cancelled their in-person state conventions and the United Utah replaced their caucuses and conventions with virtual meetings.[306]

On 16 March, Texas Governor Greg Abbott announced the postponement of the Texas state Senate District 14 special election from 2 May to 14 July.[307] On 20 March, the North Carolina State Board of Elections announced that the Republican primary runoff for North Carolina's 11th Congressional district would be delayed to 23 June and Mississippi Governor Tate Reeves announced that the Republican primary runoff for the 2nd congressional district would be postponed to 23 June.[308][309] On 23 March, special elections for the Massachusetts House of Representatives and Senate were postponed.[310]

On 15 March, South Carolina Governor Henry McMaster delayed all county and municipal elections in March and April to after 1 May.[311] On 18 March, Alabama Governor Kay Ivey delayed the state's primary runoffs from 31 March to 14 July, Missouri Governor Mike Parson delayed local elections from 7 April to 2 June, and Secretary of State Paul Ziriax announced that municipalities could reschedule elections from 7 April to a late date.[312][313][314] On 24 March, Secretary of State Barbara Cegavske and Nevada's seventeen county election officials announced that Nevada's June primaries would be conducted entirely through mail-in ballots.[315] Secretary of State Paul Pate increased the absentee voting period for Iowa's June primaries and also postponed special elections in three counties.[316][317]

Wisconsin[edit]

In Wisconsin, a swing state with a Democratic governor and a Republican legislature, an 7 April election for a state Supreme Court seat, the federal presidential primaries for both the Democratic and Republican parties, and several other judicial and local elections went ahead as scheduled. Due to the pandemic, at least fifteen other U.S. states cancelled or postponed scheduled elections or primaries at the time of Wisconsin's election.[318] With Wisconsin grappling with their own pandemic, state Democratic lawmakers made several attempts to postpone their election, but were prevented by other Republican legislators. Governor Tony Evers called the Wisconsin legislature into a 4 April special session, but the Republican-controlled Assembly and Senate graveled their sessions in and out within seventeen seconds.[319] In a joint statement afterwards, Wisconsin's state Assembly Speaker Robin Vos and Senate Majority Leader Scott Fitzgerald criticized Evers for attempting to postpone the election, for not calling a special session earlier, and for reversing his previous position on keeping the election date intact.[320]

On 6 April, Evers attempted to move the election by an executive order, but was blocked by the Wisconsin Supreme Court. On the same day, a separate effort to extend the deadline for mailing absentee ballots was blocked by the Supreme Court of the United States. The only major concession achieved was that absentee ballots postmarked by 7 April at 8 p.m. would be accepted until 13 April.[321] However, local media outlets reported that many voters had not received their requested absentee ballots by election day or, due to social distancing, were unable to satisfy a legal requirement that they obtain a witness' signature.[322][323]

Lawmakers' decision to not delay the election was sharply criticized by the editorial board of the local Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, which had previously endorsed the Republican former governor Scott Walker.[324] They called the election "the most undemocratic in the state's history."[325] The New York Times characterized the election as "almost certain to be tarred as illegitimate," adding that the inability of the state's lawmakers to come to an agreement on moving the election was "an epic and predictable failure." The newspaper placed the political maneuvering as part of another chapter in "a decade of bitter partisan wrangling that saw [state Republicans] clinically attack and defang the state's Democratic institutions, starting with organized labor and continuing with voting laws making it far harder for poor and black residents of urban areas to vote."[326] Republicans believed that holding the election on 7 April, when Democratic-leaning urban areas were hard-hit by the pandemic, would help secure them political advantages like a continued 5–2 conservative majority on the Wisconsin Supreme Court (through the elected seat of Daniel Kelly).[324][327]

When the election went ahead on 7 April, access to easy in-person voting heavily depended on where voters were located. In smaller or more rural communities, which tend to be whiter and vote Republican, few issues were reported.[327][328] In more urbanized areas, the pandemic forced the closure and consolidation of many polling places around the state despite the use of 2,500 National Guard members to combat a severe shortage in poll workers.[329][330] The effects were felt most heavily in Milwaukee, the state's largest city with the largest minority population and the center of the state's ongoing pandemic.[327] The city's government was only able to open 5 of 180 polling stations after being short by nearly 1,000 poll workers.[330] As a result, lengthy lines were reported, with some voters waiting for up to 2.5 hours and through rain showers.[329][331] The lines disproportionately affected Milwaukee's large Hispanic and African-American population; the latter had already been disproportionately afflicted with the pandemic, forming nearly half of Wisconsin's documented cases and over half its deaths at the time the vote was conducted.[326][328] However, by the time the election concluded, Milwaukee Election Commissioner Neil Albrecht said that despite some of the problems, the in-person voting ran smoothly.[332]

Similar problems with poll station closures and long lines were reported in Waukesha, where only one polling station was opened for a city of 70,000, and Green Bay, where only 17 poll workers out of 270 were able to work.[326] Other cities were able to keep lines much shorter, including the state capital of Madison, which opened about two-thirds of its usual polling locations, and Appleton, which opened all of its usual 15.[329][333]

Voters across the state were advised to maintain social distancing, wear face masks, and bring their own pens.[334] Vos, the state Assembly Speaker, served as an election inspector for in-person voting on 7 April. While wearing medical-like personal protective equipment, he told reporters that it was "incredibly safe to go out" and vote, adding that voters faced "minimal exposure."[327][335]

Venezuela[edit]

The Committee of Electoral Candidacies, in charge of appointing a new National Electoral Council of Venezuela (CNE), announced that it would suspend its meetings until further notice because of the pandemic.[336]

Impact on politicians and public figures[edit]

Political leaders including Santiago Abascal, the president of Vox in Spain, and Nicola Zingaretti, the Secretary of the Democratic Party in Italy, have stated that they tested positive for COVID-19.

Armenia[edit]

On 1 June 2020, Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinian and his family were infected with COVID-19.[337]

On 20 November 2020, former first lady Rita Sargsyan died from COVID-19 at the age of 58.[338]

Australia[edit]

On 13 March 2020, Peter Dutton, the Minister for Home Affairs, stated that he was infected with COVID-19 and went into isolation in a hospital after having attended a Five Eyes security pact in Washington, D.C. where he met with United States President Donald Trump, United States Attorney General William Barr, and Ivanka Trump.[339]

Austria[edit]

On 17 October 2020, the Foreign Minister Alexander Schallenberg tested positive for the coronavirus.[340] On 29 November 2020, the Defense Minister Klaudia Tanner tested positive for the coronavirus.[341]

Belgium[edit]

On 17 October 2020, the Foreign Minister Sophie Wilmès tested positive for the coronavirus.[340]

Bulgaria[edit]

On 25 October 2020, the Prime Minister Boyko Borisov, stated that he was infected with COVID-19.[342] Krasen Kralev, the country's Minister of Youth and Sports, had previously tested positive for the virus on 23 August.[343]

Burundi[edit]

President of Burundi Pierre Nkurunziza died on 8 June 2020 of a heart attack at age 55 and was later reported to have tested positive for COVID-19.[344] He is the first world leader to have died with the disease.[345] The country's former President Pierre Buyoya also died on 17 December in Paris, where he had been flown for medical treatment after testing positive for the virus.[346]

Canada[edit]

On 12 March 2020, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and his wife Sophie Grégoire Trudeau went into isolation while Sophie underwent testing that later showed that she tested positive for COVID-19.[347]

On 25 March, the liberal MP from Brampton West, Kamal Khera, announced that she has tested positive for COVID-19 and would be self-isolating. She was the first federal politician to test positive.[348]

Croatia[edit]

On 30 November 2020, Andrej Plenković, the Prime Minister, stated that he was infected with COVID-19.[349]

Several other government ministers have also tested positive for the virus during the course of the pandemic, including Justice Minister Ivan Malenica on 21 July, Tourism Minister Nikolina Brnjac on 26 October and Health Minister Vili Beroš on 19 November.[350][351][352]

Czech Republic[edit]

On 18 October 2020, Miroslav Toman, the Minister of Agriculture, stated that he was infected with COVID-19, after a meeting where he met with Czech President Milos Zeman.[353] On 19 October 2020, Martin Nejedlý, the Advisor to the President, stated that he was infected with COVID-19.[354]

France[edit]

In March 2020 it was reported that 4 MPs had tested positive; Jean-Luc Reitzer, Sylvie Tolmont, Élisabeth Toutut-Picard and Guillaume Vuilletet.[355]

On 17 December, President Emmanuel Macron tested positive for COVID-19.[356]

Georgia[edit]

On 2 November 2020, Giorgi Gakharia, the Prime Minister, stated that he was infected with COVID-19.[357]

Germany[edit]

On 28 March 2020, Hesse Finance Minister Thomas Schäfer committed suicide as he believed that he could not meet the financial aid expectations to combat the coronavirus pandemic.[358] On 21 October 2020, Jens Spahn, the Health Minister, stated that he was infected with COVID-19[359]

Honduras[edit]

President Juan Orlando Hernandez and his wife Ana Garcia test positive. [360]

Hungary[edit]

On 20 October 2020, Judit Varga, the Justice Minister, stated that he was infected with COVID-19.[361] On 4 November, the Foreign Minister Péter Szijjártó tested positive for the virus during an official visit to Thailand and was flown home.[362]

Ireland[edit]

President of Sinn Féin Mary Lou McDonald was the first high-profile Irish politician affected by the spread of COVID-19, with her party cancelling events and her family entering self-isolation for a period, after McDonald confirmed on 2 March that her children attended the same school as the student with the first recorded case of COVID-19 in Ireland.[363] On 16 March, Thomas Pringle, an independent TD representing the Donegal constituency, entered isolation due to previous contact with someone in Dublin and the high risk to his own personal health.[364][365]

On 18 March, Luke 'Ming' Flanagan, the independent MEP representing the Midlands–North-West constituency, announced that he and his family would begin self-isolating after his daughter exhibited symptoms of COVID-19.[366]

On 21 August, it was announced that Minister for Agriculture, Food and the Marine Dara Calleary and Seanad Leas-Chathaoirleach Jerry Buttimer resigned after they attended an Oireachtas Golf Society event which contravened regulations under the Health Act.[367][368] The resulting scandal became known as Golfgate. European Commissioner for Trade Phil Hogan who also attended the dinner, resigned on 26 August 2020.

Leo Varadkar, the Tánaiste, re-registered as a doctor in 2020 to assist with the COVID effort.[369]

Italy[edit]

On 7 March 2020, Nicola Zingaretti, the Secretary of the Democratic Party and President of Lazio, announced that he was infected with COVID-19 and Anna Ascani, vice minister of Education, also stated that she was infected by the virus on 14 March.[370][371]

On 4 September 2020, Italy's former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi was hospitalized after positive coronavirus.[372] "It has been the most dangerous test of my life," Berlusconi told reporters after leaving the hospital, adding that he "dodged a bullet once again."[373]

On 5 October 2020, former Health Minister Beatrice Lorenzin announced that she was infected with COVID-19.[374]

On 16 October 2020, Mariastella Gelmini, a prominent member of Forza Italia, announced that she was infected with COVID-19.[375]

Other positives includes: Alberto Cirio, governor of Piemonte; Pier Paolo Sileri, vice minister of Health; Andrea Orlando, vice secretary of Partito Democratico; Stefano Bonaccini, governor of Emilia Romagna; Rocco Casalino, spokesman of the prime minister Giuseppe Conte; Virginia Raggi, mayor of Rome.[376][377][378]

Libya[edit]

On 24 March 2020, Mahmoud Jibril, the leader of the National Forces Alliance who had served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Prime Minister of Libya in 2011, tested positive for coronavirus and later died on 5 April.[379]

Mexico[edit]

On 24 January President Andrés Manuel López Obrador said he has tested positive for COVID-19.[380]

Monaco[edit]

On 15 March 2020, Albert II, Prince of Monaco tested positive for coronavirus becoming the first head of state to test positive, but later recovered.[381][382][383]

Netherlands[edit]

During a debate in the House of Representatives on the COVID-19 pandemic on 18 March 2020, Minister for Medical Care Bruno Bruins suffered from a fainting, which was attributed to overtiredness. One day later, the king honorably discharged him at his own request. Minister Hugo de Jonge took over the tasks relating to the fight against the corona pandemic.[384]

Philippines[edit]

Several Filipino politicians and their relatives have tested for COVID-19 causing public backlash since some of them allegedly bypassed the Department of Health's protocol to only test symptomatic individuals or expedited the conduct and releasing of their COVID-19 testing results during a shortage on testing kits in the Philippines.[385][386][387]

Two members of President Rodrigo Duterte's Cabinet tested positive for COVID-19; Interior Secretary Eduardo Año[388] and Education Secretary Leonor Briones.[389]

Members of both the lower and upper chambers of the Congress of the Philippines have been confirmed to have contracted COVID-19. In the Senate, four out of 24 Senators have contracted the disease. On 18 March 2020, Senate Majority Leader Juan Miguel Zubiri tested positive for COVID-19 after attending a meeting with a resource person at the Senate, who later tested positive as well. He and his family went into self-isolation.[390] Senators Koko Pimentel[391] and Sonny Angara[392] tested positive for the virus on 25 and 26 March respectively. On 9 August, Senator Bong Revilla announced that he had contracted COVID-19 as well.[393]

The House of Representatives has eight members who have contracted COVID-19.[394] The first member confirmed oto have contracted the disease was Bulacan 4th District representative Henry Villarica on 26 March.[395] Other members who tested COVID-19 positive are Deputy Speaker and Surigao del Sur 2nd District representative Johnny Pimentel, Deputy Speaker and Basilan lone district representative Mujiv Hataman, Sulu 1st District representative Samier Tan and Northern Samar 1st District representative Paul Ruiz Daza.[394] At least two legislators died from the disease; Sorsogon 2nd District representative Bernardita Ramos and Senior Citizens Partylist representative Francisco Datol Jr.[396]

ACT-CIS Partylist representative Eric Go Yap was initially reported to have tested positive for the virus, but later announced that he had actually tested negative, with the initial erroneous result attributed to an encoding error by the testing laboratory.[397][398]

In the provincial level, Rebecca Ynares, the Governor of Rizal, announced on 26 March to have tested positive for the virus.[399] In the municipal level, Ferdinand Estrella, Mayor of Baliuag, announced on 17 March that he had tested positive for COVID-19.[400] On 20 March, Caba, La Union Mayor Philip Crispin announced that both he and Donna Crispino, his wife and a councilor of the town, had contracted the virus.[401] Batangas City Council Julian Pedro Pastor died from COVID-19 on 4 April.[402] Lapu-Lapu City Mayor Junard Chan tested positive for COVID-19 on 11 June although he is asymptomatic at the time of confirmation.[403]

At least two members of the regional Bangsamoro Parliament tested positive for COVID-19; Bangsamoro regional health minister Saffrullah Dipatuan[404] and Marjanie Mimbantas-Macasalong[405]

Poland[edit]

On 24 October 2020, the president Andrzej Duda tested positive for coronavirus.[406] Several other ministers have also tested positive during the course of the pandemic, including Environment Minister Michał Kurtyka on 20 August, former Health Minister Łukasz Szumowski on 29 September, Education Minister Przemysław Czarnek on 5 October (which delayed Czarnek's swearing-in as minister) and Defence Minister Mariusz Błaszczak on 25 October.[407][408][409][410]

Russia[edit]

On 30 April 2020, Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin told President Vladimir Putin that he had tested positive for coronavirus. He temporarily left his position to recover and asked for First Deputy Prime Minister Andrey Belousov to serve as acting prime minister.[411] The next day, the Construction Minister Vladimir Yakushev also tested positive for the coronavirus.[412] On 6 May, the Culture Minister Olga Lyubimova tested positive for the coronavirus.[413]

Slovakia[edit]

On 12 October, the Deputy Speaker of the National Council Gábor Grendel tested positive for the coronavirus.[414] Prime Minister Igor Matovič tested positive for the virus on 18 December.[415]

South Africa[edit]

Kenneth Meshoe, leader of the African Christian Democratic Party, had been tested for COVID-19 on 22 March 2020 after he participated in a religious gathering in the Free State where five international guests also tested positive for the virus.[416] The ACDP deputy leader Wayne Thring announced on 27 March that Meshoe and fellow ACDP MP Steven Swart had tested positive for the virus.[417][418]

Gladys Bakubaku-Vos, Member of the Western Cape Provincial Parliament for African National Congress, tested positive for the virus on 5 May.[419] Mlungisi Mvoko, Eastern Cape Finance MEC, and his wife both tested positive for the virus on 19 June.[420] On 1 July, it was revealed that the Limpopo MEC for Health, Phophi Ramathuba had tested positive for coronavirus.[421] On 6 July, it was announced that the North West MEC for Cooperative Governance, Human Settlement and Traditional Affairs Gordon Kegakilwe died from COVID-19.[422] On the same day, the Gauteng government announced that the provincial MEC for Infrastructure Development Tasneem Motara had tested positive.[423] On 7 July, Job Mokgoro, Premier of North West, and Oageng Molapisi, North West MEC for Public Works, tested positive for COVID-19.[424][425] Henry Jansen, Mayor of the Langeberg Local Municipality, died on the same day.[426]

On 8 July, Alan Winde, Premier of the Western Cape tested positive for the virus,[427] while Ricardo Mthembu, Member of the KwaZulu-Natal Legislature and ANC provincial spokesperson died.[428] On 10 July, David Makhura, Premier of Gauteng tested positive for the virus, becoming the third premier in one week to contract the virus.[429] Speaker of the Buffalo City Council Alfred Mtsi died from the disease on 12 July.[430] Mpumalanga MEC for Public Works Gillion Mashego tested positive on 13 July.[431] Democratic Alliance leadership candidate and KwaZulu-Natal MPL Mbali Ntuli announced that she had tested positive on 14 July.[432] ANC Delegate of the National Council of Provinces Martha Mmola died from the virus on 18 July.[433]

On 20 July, House Chairperson Cedric Frolick announced that he had the virus.[434] Other MPs who have tested positive, include Zamuxolo Peter, Simphiwe Mbatha, and Collen Malatji.[435] On 24 July, Eastern Cape MEC for Rural Development and Agrarian Reform Nomakhosazana Meth announced that she had tested positive.[436] On 26 July, Free State premier Sisi Ntombela announced that both the provincial MEC for Education Tate Makgoe and the provincial MEC for COGTA Thembeni Nxangisa had contracted the virus.[437] On 31 July, Zamuxolo Peter died from the virus.[438] On 8 August, Mangosuthu Buthelezi, leader of the Inkatha Freedom Party, tested positive for COVID-19.[439] Northern Cape MEC for Education Mac Jack died from the virus on 12 August.[440]

In early-October, Mpumalanga premier Refilwe Mtsweni-Tsipane and Mpumalanga MEC for Community Safety, Security and Liaison Gabsile Shabalala tested positive.[441] Free State premier Sisi Ntombela, Free State MEC for Health Montseng Tsiu and director-general of the Free State provincial government Kopung Ralikontsane all tested positive in mid-October.[442] Eastern Cape Premier Oscar Mabuyane tested positive on 12 November.[443] On 22 November, Eastern Cape MPL Mncedisi Filtane died from it.[444] Siphokazi Mani-Lusithi, Eastern Cape MEC for Social Development, tested positive for COVID-19 on 24 November. Western Cape Minister of Community Safety Albert Fritz announced on 27 November that he had contracted the disease.[445] Sindiswa Gomba, the Eastern Cape MEC for Health, announced on 13 December that she was infected with COVID-19.[446]

To date, eight cabinet ministers have tested positive for the virus, they are: Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula,[447] Gwede Mantashe,[448][449] Hendrietta Bogopane-Zulu,[450] Inkosi Holomisa,[451] Thulas Nxesi ,[452] Ebrahim Patel,[453] Zweli Mkhize,[454] and Jackson Mthembu (died on 21 January 2021).[455]

Spain[edit]

On 8 March 2020, Vox held a political rally that was attended by over 9,000 people and later apologised after Santiago Abascal, its president, Javier Ortega Smith, its secretary general, and multiple members of its party in the Congress of Deputies tested positive for COVID-19.[142] On 12 March, Minister of Equality Irene Montero and Minister of Territorial Policy Carolina Darias tested positive for COVID-19. On 14 March, the wife of Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez tested positive, therefore leading to place a quarantine in the Prime Minister. On 16 March, President of the Community of Madrid Isabel Díaz Ayuso and President of Catalonia Quim Torra tested positive.

Turkey[edit]

On 24 October 2020, the Mayor of Istanbul Ekrem Imamoglu, stated that he was infected with COVID-19.[456]

Ukraine[edit]

On 12 June 2020, the First Lady Olena Zelenska tested positive for the coronavirus.[457]

On 23 August 2020, the Former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko tested positive for coronavirus.[458]

On 30 September 2020, the Former President Petro Poroshenko tested positive for coronavirus.[459]

On 9 November 2020, the president Volodymyr Zelensky tested positive for coronavirus.[460][461]

United Kingdom[edit]

On 5 March 2020, Under-Secretary of State for Mental Health, Suicide Prevention and Patient Safety and parliamentarian Nadine Dorries showed symptoms of COVID-19 after meeting with Prime Minister Boris Johnson and later tested positive. Shadow Secretary of State for Work and Pensions and parliamentarian Rachael Maskell went into isolation due to coming in contact with Dorries.[462] Kate Osborne, a Labour MP, was the second MP to test positive for COVID-19.[463] Lloyd Russell-Moyle was the third MP to test positive.

On 25 March, Charles, Prince of Wales became the first member of the British royal family to test positive for coronavirus.[464]

Boris Johnson went into isolation in 10 Downing Street and on 27 March, he announced that he had tested positive for coronavirus.[465] The Secretary of State for Health and Social Care Matt Hancock announced he had also tested positive hours later.[466] On 5 April, Johnson was admitted to St Thomas' Hospital in Westminster and was later moved to the intensive care unit the following day.[467]

United States[edit]

The Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) was held from 26 to 29 February 2020, and it was later discovered that one of the attendants with a gold-level VIP ticket had met with multiple high level politicians. These included Senators Ted Cruz, Rick Scott, and Lindsey Graham; and Representatives Mark Meadows, Paul Gosar, Doug Collins, and Matt Gaetz all of whom later went into self-quarantine along with other members of the Republican Party.[468][469]

On 20 June, President Trump held a rally in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and afterwards multiple attendees tested positive for COVID-19 and Oklahoma saw its second highest single-day increase in COVID-19 cases.[470] On 15 July, Oklahoma Governor Kevin Stitt announced that he had tested positive, becoming the first governor in the United States to do so.[471] On 29 June, former Republican presidential candidate Herman Cain tested positive for COVID-19 and was hospitalized for treatment on 1 July. On 30 July, Cain died of complications of COVID-19.[472][473]

On 1 October, President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump tested positive for COVID-19.[474] On 2 October, Donald was admitted to Walter Reed National Military Medical Center.[475][476]

On 9 November 2020, Ben Carson, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, tested positive for COVID-19.[477][478]

U.S. House of Representatives[edit]

Mario Díaz-Balart and Ben McAdams were the first members of the United States House of Representatives to test positive for COVID-19

On 18 March, Representatives Mario Díaz-Balart (R-FL-25) and Ben McAdams (D-UT-4) became the first members of Congress to test positive for the virus.[479][480] On 22 March, Senator Rand Paul (R-KY) became the first member of the Senate to test positive for coronavirus, but despite having taken the test he did not go into isolation causing Senators Mitt Romney and Mike Lee to go into isolation after having made contact with Paul.[481][482] On 19 March, Joe Cunningham (D-SC-1) went into isolation after coming into contact with another member of Congress who tested positive and on 27 March he announced that he tested positive for the virus.[483][484] On 27 March, Representative Mike Kelly (R-PA-16) tested positive for COVID-19, but later tested negative on 6 May.[485] On 6 April, Representative Neal Dunn (R-FL-2) announced that he had tested positive for COVID-19 after going to the emergency room due to him not feeling well and went into quarantine.[486] On 15 June, Representative Tom Rice (R-SC-7) announced that he, his wife, and his son had tested positive for COVID-19.[487] On 14 July, Morgan Griffith (R-VA-9) announced that he had tested positive for COVID-19 and went into isolation.[488]

On 25 March, Representative Seth Moulton (D-MA-6) announced that he was going into quarantine after suffering from mild symptoms of COVID-19.[489] On 30 March, Representative Nydia Velázquez (D-NY-7) announced that she had the common symptoms of COVID-19 and that her doctor stated that she had the virus.[490]

On 29 July, Louie Gohmert (R-TX-1) announced that he had tested positive for COVID-19.[491] Prior to testing positive Gohmert had his office be full of people and allegedly criticized staffers who wore masks.[492] On 31 July, Representative Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ-3) announced that he had tested positive for COVID-19. Grijalva had went into quarantine after Representative Gohmert tested positive due to Gohmert refusal to wear a mask at public meetings.[493]

On 12 November, Don Young (R-AK-at-large) tested positive for COVID-19.[494]

Congressman-elect Luke Letlow (R-LA-5) died of COVID-19 on 30 December, less than a week before he was to take office.[495]

On 6 January 2021, the U.S. Capitol Building was stormed by Trump Supporters in an attempt to overturn his defeat in the 2020 presidential election. After the lockdown was lifted, Jake LaTurner (R-KS-2) was tested positive for COVID-19 and was absent in the House floor as the electoral college certification resumed.[496][497]

On 11 January 2021, Bonnie Watson Coleman (D-NJ-12), Pramila Jayapal (D-WA-7), and Brad Schneider (D-IL-10) were tested positive for COVID-19 from a rapid antigen test after being exposed to people who were not wearing a mask while sheltering during the storming of the U.S. Capitol Building. Coleman, who also received the first dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine went into isolation while awaiting PCR testing results, as did Jayapal.[498][499][500]

On 21 January 2021, Ron Wright (R-TX-06) was tested positive from COVID-19 and later died on 7 February 2021, becoming the first U.S. politician to die from the virus.[501][502][503]

United States Senate[edit]

On 7 April, Sen. Rand Paul announced that he had recovered from the coronavirus and would start volunteering at a local hospital.[504] In March, Senators Tim Kaine (D-VA) and Bob Casey Jr. (D-PA) announced that both of them had tested positive for coronavirus antibodies.[505] On 1 October, Sen. Mike Lee of (R-UT) tested positive for the virus after meeting with President Trump's Supreme Court nominee, Amy Coney Barrett.[506] A day later, on 2 October, Sen. Thom Tillis announced he had tested positive for COVID-19.[507]

Venezuela[edit]

Diosdado Cabello, vice-president of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela and president of the pro-government Constituent National Assembly, announced he tested positive for COVID-19 on 9 July 2020.[508]

Tareck El Aissami, the Minister of Petroleum and Omar Prieto, the Governor of Zulia also tested positive on 10 July.[509]

A member of the National Constituent Assembly and the Governor of the Capital District, Darío Vivas tested positive for COVID-19 on 19 July.[510] Venezuela Minister of Communication and Information Jorge Rodríguez tested positive for COVID-19 on 13 August.[511] On the same day, Darío Vivas died of COVID-19 at the age of 70.[510]

On 27 March 2021, Juan Guaidó announced he had tested positive for COVID-19, that he was experiencing "mild symptoms" and that he had gone into voluntary isolation.[512][513]

At least three pro-government deputies of the newly elected National Assembly have died of COVID-19.[514]

Summary of politicians and public figures infected with COVID-19[edit]

Legislatures[edit]

  Denotes infected   Denotes deaths   Same person denoted with asterisks

Country Upper house Lower house Sub-national legislatures
 Australia Senate
[candidates 1]
House of Representatives
[candidates 2]
 Brazil Federal senate
[candidates 3][515]
[candidates 4][516]
Chamber of Deputies
[candidates 5][516]
 Burkina Faso National Assembly
 Canada Senate
House of Commons
[candidates 6]
 Chile Senate
[candidates 7]
Chamber of Deputies
[candidates 8]
 Costa Rica Legislative Assembly
[candidates 9]
 Czech Republic Senate
[candidates 10]
Chamber of Deputies
[candidates 11]
 France Senate
National Assembly
[candidates 12]
 Germany Bundestag
[candidates 13]
 Indonesia Regional Representative Council
People's Representative Council
 Iran Assembly of Experts

Expediency Discernment Council
Islamic Consultative Assembly
[candidates 14]
[candidates 15]
 Israel Knesset
[candidates 16]
 Italy Senate of the Republic
[candidates 17]
Chamber of Deputies
[candidates 18]
 Mexico Senate of the Republic
Chamber of Deputies
 Morocco House of Councillors
House of Representatives
[candidates 19]
 Malaysia Dewan Negara
Dewan Rakyat
[candidates 20]
Sarawak State Legislative Assembly
[candidates 21]
 Monaco National Council
 Nigeria Senate
House of Representatives
 Norway Storting
 Philippines Senate
[candidates 22]
House of Representatives
[candidates 23]
[candidates 24]
Bangsamoro Parliament
[candidates 25]
 Poland Senate
Sejm
[candidates 26]
 Russia Federation Council
State Duma
[candidates 27]
Moscow City Duma
[candidates 28]
Moscow Oblast Duma
[candidates 29]
Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast
[candidates 30]
 Slovakia National Council
[candidates 31]
 Slovenia National Assembly
 Spain Congress of Deputies
[candidates 32]
Parliament of Navarre
 South Africa National Council of Provinces
[candidates 33]
National Assembly
[candidates 34]
Eastern Cape Provincial Legislature [candidates 35]
Free State Provincial Legislature [candidates 36]
Gauteng Provincial Legislature [candidates 37]
KwaZulu-Natal Legislature [candidates 38]
Limpopo Provincial Legislature [candidates 39]
Mpumalanga Provincial Legislature [candidates 40]
Northern Cape Provincial Legislature [candidates 41]
North West Provincial Legislature [candidates 42]
Western Cape Provincial Parliament [candidates 43]
 Ukraine Verkhovna Rada
[candidates 44]
 United States Senate
[candidates 45]
House of Representatives
[candidates 46]
[candidates 47]
New York State Assembly [candidates 48]
Georgia House of Representatives [candidates 49]
Georgia State Senate [candidates 50]
Wisconsin State Assembly [candidates 51]
Connecticut House of Representatives [candidates 52]
Colorado State Senate [candidates 53]
Colorado House of Representatives [candidates 54]
Hawaii State Senate [candidates 55]
Louisiana House of Representatives [candidates 56]
New Jersey General Assembly [candidates 57]
Oklahoma State Senate [candidates 58]
Oklahoma House of Representatives [candidates 59]
Missouri House of Representatives [candidates 60]
Michigan House of Representatives [candidates 61]
[candidates 62]
South Dakota House of Representatives [candidates 63]
Massachusetts House of Representatives [candidates 64]
New Hampshire House of Representatives [candidates 65]
 United Kingdom House of Lords
[candidates 66]
House of Commons
|House of Commons
[candidates 67]
 Venezuela National Assembly[candidates 68] Lara Legislative CouncilZulia Legislative Council
 United Nations
 EU European Parliament
Source:[514][517][518][519][520][521][522][523][524][525][526][527][528][529][530][531]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Susan McDonald, Senator for Queensland
    Andrew Bragg, Senator for New South Wales
    Rex Patrick, Senator for South Australia
  2. ^ Peter Dutton, MP for Dickson
  3. ^ Arolde de Oliveira, Senator for Rio de Janeiro
  4. ^ At least, until 10 November 2020
  5. ^ At least, until 10 November 2020
  6. ^ Kamal Khera, MP for Brampton West
  7. ^ Manuel José Ossandón
    Jorge Pizarro
    José García Ruminot
  8. ^ Marcela Sabat
  9. ^ Harllan Hoepelman Páez, Deputy for San José
  10. ^ Pavel Fischer
    Pavel Karpíšek
  11. ^ Lukáš Bartoň
    Jan Birke
    Jiří Dolejš
    Klára Dostálová
    Jan Hamáček
    Pavel Jelínek
    Jiří Mihola
    Patrik Nacher
    František Navrkal
    Zdeněk Ondráček
    Michal Ratiborský
    Miroslava Rutová
    Karla Šlechtová
    Jiří Valenta
    Jiří Ventruba
    Radek Vondráček
    Marek Výborný
  12. ^ Jean-Luc Reitzer
    Elisabeth Toutut-Picard
    Guillaume Vuilletet
    Sylvie Tolmont
  13. ^ Jens Spahn
  14. ^ Ali Larijani, Speaker
    Mahmoud Sadeghi
    Mojtaba Zonnour
    Masoumeh Aghapour Alishahi
    Zohreh Elahian
  15. ^ Fatemeh Rahbar
    Mohammad Ali Ramazani Dastak
  16. ^ Yaakov Litzman
    Sami Abu Shehadeh
    Rafi Peretz
    Pnina Tamano-Shata
    Gadi Yevarkan
    Yinon Azulai
    Moshe Arbel
    Gila Gamliel
    Ayman Odeh
    Moshe Abutbul
    Ofir Akunis
    Matan Kahana
    David Bitan
    Ya'akov Asher
    Hila Vazan
    Yisrael Eichler
  17. ^ Pierpaolo Sileri
  18. ^ Anna Ascani
    Diego Binelli
    Edmondo Cirielli
    Chiara Gribaudo
    Luca Lotti
    Claudio Pedrazzini
  19. ^ Abdelkader Aamara, MP for Salé
  20. ^ Wong Ling Biu
    Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen
    Rubiah Wang
  21. ^ Jerip Susil (Mabong)
  22. ^ Juan Miguel Zubiri
    Koko Pimentel
    Sonny Angara
    Bong Revilla
  23. ^ Henry Villarica
    Johnny Pimentel
    Mujiv Hataman
    Samier Tan
    Paul Ruiz Daza
  24. ^ Maria Bernardita Ramos
    Francisco Datol Jr.
  25. ^ Saffrullah Dipatuan
    Marjanie Macasalong
  26. ^ Piotr Zgorzelski
  27. ^ Leonid Kalashnikov, Dmitry Novikov, Svetlana Maximova, Oksana Pushkina and two unnamed MPs
  28. ^ Lyudmila Stebenkova and Yevgeny Stupin
  29. ^ Ivan N. Zhukov
  30. ^ Sergey Bebenin
  31. ^ Gábor Grendel
    Marian Kotleba
    Martin Beluský
    Milan Potocký
    Peter Pellegrini
  32. ^ Javier Ortega Smith
    Santiago Abascal
    Macarena Olona
    Beatriz Jiménez
  33. ^ Martha Mmola
  34. ^ Hendrietta Bogopane-Zulu
    Mangosuthu Buthelezi
    Cedric Frolick
    Inkosi Holomisa
    Collen Malatji
    Gwede Mantashe
    Simphiwe Mbatha
    Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula
    Kenneth Meshoe
    Thulas Nxesi
    Ebrahim Patel
    Zamuxolo Peter
    Steven Swart
  35. ^ Mlungisi Mvoko
    Nomakhosazana Meth
    Mncedisi Filtane
    Oscar Mabuyane
    Siphokazi Mani-Luisithi
    Sindiswa Gomba
  36. ^ Tate Makgoe
    Sisi Ntombela
    Thembeni Nxangisa
    Montseng Tsiu
  37. ^ David Makhura
    Tasneem Motara
  38. ^ Ricardo Mthembu
    Mbali Ntuli
  39. ^ Phophi Ramathuba
  40. ^ Gillion Mashego
    Refilwe Mtsweni-Tsipane
    Gabsile Shabalala
  41. ^ Mac Jack
  42. ^ Gordon Kegakilwe
    Job Mokgoro
    Oageneg Molapisi
  43. ^ Gladys Bakubaku-Vos
    Alan Winde
    Albert Fritz
  44. ^ Serhii Shakhov
    Yulia Tymoshenko
  45. ^ Rand Paul, Senator from Kentucky
    Mike Lee, Senator from Utah
    Thom Tillis, Senator from North Carolina
    Ron Johnson, Senator from Wisconsin
  46. ^ Mario Díaz-Balart, Florida 25
    Joe Cunningham, South Carolina 1
    Neal Dunn, Florida 2
    Morgan Griffith, Virginia 9
    Louie Gohmert, Texas 1
    Mike Kelly, Pennsylvania 16
    Ben McAdams, Utah 4
    Tom Rice, South Carolina 7
    Don Young, Alaska at-large
    Bonnie Watson Coleman, New Jersey 12
    Pramila Jayapal, Washington 7
    Brad Schneider, Illinois 10
    Jake LaTurner, Kansas 2
    Ron Wright, Texas 6
  47. ^ Ron Wright, Texas 6
  48. ^ Kimberly Jean-Pierre, District 11
    Helene Weinstein, District 41
    Charles Barron, District 60
  49. ^ Matthew Gambill, District 15
  50. ^ Brandon Beach, District 21
    Kay Kirkpatrick, District 32
    Nikema Williams, District 39
    Lester Jackson, District 2
    Bruce Thompson, District 14
  51. ^ David Bowen, District 10
  52. ^ Jane Garibay, District 60
  53. ^ Jim Smallwood, District 4
  54. ^ Dafna Michaelson Jenet, District 30
  55. ^ Clarence Nishihara, District 17
  56. ^ Reggie Bagala, District 54
  57. ^ Clinton Calabrese, District 36
  58. ^ Paul Rosino, District 45
  59. ^ Jason Lowe, District 97
  60. ^ Joe Runions, District 37
  61. ^ Tyrone Carter, District 6
    Karen Whitsett, District 9
  62. ^ Isaac Robinson, District 4
  63. ^ Bob Glanzer, District 22
  64. ^ Michael Day, District 31
  65. ^ Speaker of the House Dick Hinch, District 21
  66. ^ Lord Gordon of Strathblane
  67. ^ Nadine Dorries, MP for Mid Bedfordshire
    Kate Osborne, MP for Jarrow
    Lloyd Russell-Moyle, MP for Brighton Kemptown,
    Boris Johnson, MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip
    Matt Hancock, MP for West Suffolk
    Alister Jack, MP for Dumfries and Galloway
    Tony Lloyd, MP for Rochdale
  68. ^ Patricia Pérez
    Jean Carlos Martínez
    Rito Jiménez

Executive offices and others[edit]

Country Executive power, cabinet, and public figures Regional and other positions
 Albania Belinda Balluku, Minister of Infrastructure and Energy[532]
Anila Denaj, Minister of Finance and Economy[533]
Blendi Klosi, Minister of Tourism and Environment[534]
Evis Kushi [sq], Minister of Education, Sports and Youth[535]
Niko Peleshi, Minister of Defence[536]
 Algeria Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria[537]
 Andorra Èric Jover, Minister of Finance[538]
 Argentina Daniel Arroyo, Minister of Social Development[539]
Juan Cabandié, Minister of the Environment and Sustainable Development[540]
Alberto Fernández, President of Argentina[541]
Carla Vizzotti, Minister of Health[542]
 Armenia Nikol Pashinyan, Prime Minister of Armenia
Armen Sarksyan, President of Armenia[543]
 Austria Alexander Schallenberg, Minister of Foreign Affairs
Klaudia Tanner, Minister of Defence
 Australia Peter Dutton, Minister for Home Affairs
 Belgium Sophie Wilmès, Minister of Foreign Affairs; Deputy Prime Minister of Belgium[544] Rudi Vervoort, Minister-President of Brussels[545]
 Brazil Jair Bolsonaro, President of Brazil[546]
Hamilton Mourão, Vice President of Brazil[547]
Augusto Heleno, Secretary of Institutional Security[548]
André Mendonça, Minister of Justice and Public Security[548]
Braga Netto, Chief of Staff of the Presidency[548]
Bento Albuquerque, Minister of Mines and Energy[548]
Eduardo Pazuello, Minister of Health[548]
Fábio Faria, Minister of Communications[548]
Jorge Oliveira, Secretary-General of the Presidency[548]
Luiz Ramos, Secretary of Government[548]
Marcelo Álvaro Antônio, Minister of Tourism[548]
Marcos Pontes, Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation[548]
Milton Ribeiro, Minister of Education[548]
Onyx Lorenzoni, Minister of Citizenship[548]
Ricardo Salles, Ministry of the Environment[549]
Wagner Rosário, Comptroller General of the Union[548]
Nestor Forster, Ambassador of Brazil to the United States
João Doria, Governor of São Paulo
 Bolivia Jeanine Áñez, Interim President of Bolivia
Eva Copa, President of the Senate[550]
Karen Longaric, Minister of Foreign Affairs[551]
Rogelio Mayta, Minister of Foreign Affairs[552]
Edgar Montaño, Minister of Public Works, Services, and Housing[553]
Edmundo Novillo, Minister of Defence[552]
Yerko Núñez, Minister of the Presidency[554]
Édgar Pozo, Minister of Health[555]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Salko Bukvarević, Minister for Veterans and Disabled Veterans[556]
Selmo Cikotić, Minister of Security[557]
Milorad Dodik, Chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina[558]
Ankica Gudeljević, Minister of Civil Affairs[559]
Staša Košarac, Minister of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations[560]
Fadil Novalić, Prime Minister of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina[561]
Sifet Podžić, Minister of Defence[562]
Zoran Tegeltija, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina[563]
 Bulgaria Kiril Ananiev [bg], Minister of Finance[564]
Boyko Borisov, Prime Minister of Bulgaria[565]
Tomislav Donchev, Deputy Prime Minister of Bulgaria[566]
Krasen Kralev, Minister of Youth and Sports[567]
Ekaterina Zakharieva, Minister of Foreign Affairs[568]
 Burkina Faso Oumarou Idani, Minister of Mines and Quarries
Stanislas Ouaro, Minister of National Education, Literacy and Promotion of National Languages
Siméon Sawadogo, Minister of State, Territorial Administration, Decentralization and Social Cohesion
Alpha Barry, Minister of Foreign Affairs
 Burundi Pierre Nkurunziza, President of Burundi
 Canada Sophie Grégoire Trudeau, Spouse of the Prime Minister of Canada[569]
 Chile Rodrigo Delgado [es], Minister of the Interior and Public Security[570]
Juan Carlos Jobet, Minister of Energy[571]
Cristián Monckeberg [es], Minister of Social Affairs and Family[572]
Alfredo Moreno Charme, Minister of Public Works
Víctor Manoli [es], Intendant of Araucanía Region
 Colombia Claudia Blum, Minister of Foreign Affairs[573]
Marta Lucía Ramírez, Vice President of Colombia[574]
Carlos Holmes Trujillo, Minister of Defense[575]
 Croatia Vili Beroš, Minister of Health[576]
Nikolina Brnjac, Minister of Tourism and Sports[577]
Oleg Butković, Minister of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure[578]
Gordan Jandroković, Speaker of the Croatian Parliament[579]
Ivan Malenica, Minister of Justice and Public Administration[580]
Andrej Plenković, Prime Minister of Croatia[581]
Nataša Tramišak, Minister of Regional Development and EU Funds[582]
 Czech Republic Klára Dostálová [cs], Minister of Regional Development
Jan Hamáček, Deputy Prime Minister of the Czech Republic; Minister of the Interior
Jana Maláčová, Minister of Labour and Social Affairs
Lubomír Metnar [cs], Minister of Defence
Martin Nejedlý [cs], Advisor to the President
Tomáš Petříček, Minister of Foreign Affairs[583]
Miroslav Toman [cs], Minister of Agriculture
Radek Vondráček, Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies
Josef Bernard [cs], Governor of Plzeň Region[584]
Petr Hejma [cs], Mayor of Prague 1[585]
Petr Hlubuček [cs], Deputy Mayor of Prague[586]
Jiří Štěpán [cs], Governor of Hradec Králové Region[587]
Markéta Vaňková [cs], Mayor of Brno[588]
 Denmark Nick Hækkerup, Minister of Justice[589]
 Estonia Kaja Kallas, Prime Minister of Estonia[590]
 Eswatini Ambrose Mandvulo Dlamini, Prime Minister of Eswatini[591]
 France Roselyne Bachelot, Minister of Culture[592]
Élisabeth Borne, Minister of Labour, Employment and Economic Inclusion[593]
Emmanuel Macron, President of France
Franck Riester, Minister of Culture
Brune Poirson, Secretary of State for the Ecological and Inclusive Transition
Bruno Le Maire, Minister of the Economy and Finance[594]
Christian Estrosi, Mayor of Nice[595]
Édouard Philippe, Mayor of Le Havre[596]
Anne Hidalgo, Mayor of Paris
 Gambia Amie Fabureh, Minister of Agriculture
Mambury Njie, Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs
Fafa Sanyang, Minister of Energy and Petroleum[597]
Fatou Sanyang Kinteh, Minister of Women, Children and Social Welfare[598]
Isatou Touray, Vice-President of the Gambia; Minister of Health and Social Welfare[599]
 Germany Jens Spahn, Federal Minister of Health[600] Dietmar Woidke, Minister-President of Brandenburg[601]
 Georgia Levan Davitashvili [ka], Minister of Environmental Protection and Agriculture[602]
Giorgi Gakharia, Prime Minister of Georgia[603]
Irakli Garibashvili, Prime Minister of Georgia[604]
Ivane Machavariani, Minister of Finance[605]
Natela Turnava, Minister of Economy and Sustainable Development[606]
David Zalkaliani, Minister of Foreign Affairs[607]
 Ghana Kwaku Agyemang-Manu, Minister of Health[608]
Yaw Osafo-Maafo, Senior Minister[609]
 Greece Niki Kerameus, Minister of Education and Religious Affairs[610]
Ioannis Plakiotakis, Minister for Shipping and Island Policy[611]
 Guatemala Alejandro Giammattei, President of Guatemala[612]
 Guinea-Bissau Botche Candé, Minister of the Interior
Mario Fambe, Secretary of State for Public Order
Monica Boiro, Secretary of State for Regional Integration
Nuno Gomes Nabiam, Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau[613]
 Hungary Judit Varga, Minister of Justice
Péter Szijjártó, Minister of Foreign Affairs
 Honduras Juan Orlando Hernández, President of Honduras[614]
Marco Midence [es], Minister of Finance[615]
 India Suresh Angadi, Minister of State for Railways[616]
Ramdas Athawale, Minister of State for Social Justice and Empowerment[617]
Nitin Gadkari, Minister of Road Transport and Highways; Minister of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises [618]
Smriti Irani, Minister of Women and Child Development; Minister of Textiles [619]
Pralhad Joshi, Minister of Parliamentary Affairs; Minister of Coal; Minister of Mines [620]
Niranjan Jyoti, Minister of State for Rural Development[621]
Venkaiah Naidu, Vice President of India[622]
Dharmendra Pradhan, Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas; Minister of Steel[623]
Amit Shah, Minister of Home Affairs[624]
Gajendra Singh Shekhawat, Minister of Jal Shakti[625]
 Indonesia Ida Fauziyah, Minister of Manpower[626]
Edhy Prabowo, Minister of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries[627]
Fachrul Razi, Minister of Religious Affairs[628]
Budi Karya Sumadi, Minister of Transportation[629]
Isdianto, Governor of Riau Islands
Sutarmidji, Governor of West Kalimantan
Sugianto Sabran, Governor of Central Kalimantan
Syamsuar, Governor of Riau
Khofifah Indar Parawansa, Governor of East Java
Longki Djanggola, Governor of Central Sulawesi
Viktor Laiskodat, Governor of East Nusa Tenggara
Anies Baswedan, Governor of Jakarta
Oded Muhammad Danial, Mayor of Bandung
Bima Arya Sugiarto, Mayor of Bogor
Syarif Fasha, Mayor of Jambi
Akhyar Nasution, Mayor of Medan
Ida Bagus Rai Mantra, Mayor of Denpasar
Benhur Tommy Mano, Mayor of Jayapura
 Iran Masoumeh Ebtekar, Vice President for Women and Family Affairs[630]
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, Speaker of the Islamic Consultative Assembly[631]
Eshaq Jahangiri, Vice President of Iran
Ali Larijani, Speaker of the Islamic Consultative Assembly[632]
Ali Asghar Mounesan, Minister of Cultural Heritage
Reza Rahmani, Minister of Industry, Mine and Trade[633]
 Ireland Charlie McConalogue, Minister for Agriculture, Food and the Marine[634]
Helen McEntee, Minister for Justice[635]
 Israel Yaakov Litzman, Minister of Health
Rafi Peretz, Minister of Jerusalem Affairs
Pnina Tamano-Shata, Minister of Immigrant Absorption
Gila Gamliel, Minister for Social Equality
Ofir Akunis, Minister of Regional Cooperation
Gadi Yevarkan, Deputy Minister of Public Security
Aiman Saif, Commissioner of Coronavirus Affairs for the Arab sector
Yossi Dagan, Head of the Shomron Regional Council
Shay Hajaj, Head of the Merhavim Regional Council
Eran Doron, Head of the Ramat HaNegev Regional Council
Shai Alon, Head of the Beit El Local Council
Nisan Ben-Hamo, Mayor of Arad
Eliyahu Zohar, Mayor of Kiryat Malakhi
Zvika Cohen, Deputy Mayor of Jerusalem
Ofer Karadi, Deputy Mayor of Beersheba
Col. Y., Commander of Sayeret Matkal
Jeremy Issacharoff, Ambassador of Israel to Germany
 Italy Francesco Boccia, Minister of Regional Affairs and Autonomies[636]
Marta Cartabia, President of the Constitutional Court of Italy
Federico D'Incà, Minister for Parliamentary Relations[637]
Nicola Zingaretti, President of Lazio
Alberto Cirio, President of Piedmont
Stefano Bonaccini, President of Emilia-Romagna
Erik Lavévaz, President of Aosta Valley
Fulvio Centoz, Mayor of Aosta
Gianluca Galimberti, Mayor of Cremona
Alessandro Tambellini, Mayor of Lucca
Patrizia Barbieri, Mayor of Piacenza
Virginia Raggi, Mayor of Rome
 Ivory Coast Jeannot Ahoussou-Kouadio, President of the Senate[638]
François Amichia, Minister of Cities and Urban Development[638]
Hamed Bakayoko, Prime Minister of Ivory Coast[639]
 Jordan Nayef Al-Fayez, Minister of Tourism and Antiquities[640]
Mahmoud Kharabsheh, Minister of State[641]
 Kazakhstan Eljan Birtanov, Minister of Healthcare[642]
Eraly Togjanov, Deputy Prime Minister of Kazakhstan[643]
 Kosovo Avdullah Hoti, Prime Minister of Kosovo[644]
Vjosa Osmani, Acting President of Kosovo[645]
 Kyrgyzstan Chingiz Aidarbekov, Minister of Foreign Affairs[646]
Kanybek Isakov, Minister of Education and Science[647]
 Lebanon Hamad Hasan, Minister of Health[648]
Michel Najjar, Minister of Public Works and Transport[649]
Vartine Ohanian, Minister of Youth and Sports[650]
Charbel Wehbe, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Emigrants[651]
 Lithuania Viktorija Čmilytė-Nielsen, Speaker of the Seimas
Raimundas Karoblis, Minister of Defence[652]
 Luxembourg Claude Turmes, Minister of Energy and Spatial Planning[653]
 Malaysia Zulkifli Mohamad Al-Bakri, Minister in the Prime Minister's Department for Religious Affairs[654]
Rina Harun, Minister of Women, Family and Community Development[655]
Mustapa Mohamed, Minister in the Prime Minister's Department for Economy[656]
Halimah Mohamed Sadique, Minister of National Unity[657]
Hamzah Zainudin, Minister of Home Affairs[658]
 Mexico Jorge Arganis Díaz Leal, Secretary of Communications and Transportation[659]
Arturo Herrera Gutiérrez, Secretary of Finance and Public Credit[660]
Andrés Manuel López Obrador, President of Mexico[661]
Luis Cresencio Sandoval, Secretary of National Defense[662]
Irma Sandoval Ballesteros, Secretary of Civil Service[663]
Omar Fayad, Governor of Hidalgo
Francisco Domínguez Servién, Governor of Querétaro
Adán Augusto López Hernández, Governor of Tabasco
Héctor Astudillo Flores, Governor of Guerrero
Francisco Javier García Cabeza de Vaca, Governor of Tamaulipas
Carlos Joaquín González, Governor of Quintana Roo
Silvano Aureoles Conejo, Governor of Michoacán
Mauricio Vila Dosal, Governor of Yucatán
Jaime Bonilla Valdez, Governor of Baja California
Carlos Mendoza Davis, Governor of Baja California Sur
José Rosas Aispuro, Governor of Durango
Claudia Pavlovich Arellano, Governor of Sonora
Alejandro Murat Hinojosa, Governor of Oaxaca
Diego Sinhué Rodríguez Vallejo, Governor of Guanajuato
Alejandro Tello Cristerna, Governor of Zacatecas
Claudia Sheinbaum, Head of Government of Mexico City
Silvia Guillermina Roldán Fernández, Secretary of Health, State of Tabasco
 Moldova Ion Chicu, Prime Minister of Moldova[664]
Viorica Dumbrăveanu, Minister of Health, Labour and Social Protection[665]
Zinaida Greceanîi, President of the Moldovan Parliament[666]
Pavel Voicu, Minister of Internal Affairs[667]
 Morocco Abdelkader Aamara, Minister of Equipment, Transport and Logistics[668]
Aziz Rabbah, Minister of Energy, Mines and Environment[669]
 Monaco Albert II, Prince of Monaco
Patrice Cellario, Minister of the Interior[670]
Serge Telle, Minister of State of Monaco[671]
 Mozambique Armindo Tiago [pt], Minister of Health[672]
 Netherlands Mona Keijzer, State Secretary for Economic Affairs and Climate Policy[673]
Kajsa Ollongren, Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations; Second Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands[674]
Barbara Visser, State Secretary for Defence[675]
 Nigeria Abba Kyari, Chief of Staff to the President
Geoffrey Onyeama, Minister of Foreign Affairs[676]
Pauline Tallen, Minister of Women Affairs and Social Development[677]
 Norway Torbjørn Røe Isaksen, Minister of Labour and Social Inclusion
 Pakistan Shehryar Khan Afridi, Minister of State for Narcotics Control; Minister of States and Frontier Region[678]
Sheikh Rasheed Ahmad, Minister of Railways[679]
Arif Alvi, President of Pakistan[680]
Bushra Bibi, First Lady of Pakistan[681]
Imran Khan, Prime Minister of Pakistan[682]
Pervez Khattak, Minister of Defence[680]
Farogh Naseem, Federal Minister of Law and Justice[683]
Asad Qaiser, Speaker of the National Assembly[684]
Asad Umar, Federal Minister of Planning, Development, Reforms and Special Initiatives[685]
 Portugal João Gomes Cravinho, Minister of National Defence[686]
Manuel Heitor, Minister of Science, Technology and Higher Education[687]
João Leão, Minister of Finance[688]
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, President of Portugal[689]
Pedro Siza Vieira, Minister of Economy and Digital Transition[690]
 Philippines Eduardo Año, Secretary of the Interior and Local Government
Leonor Briones, Secretary of Education
Mark Villar, Secretary of Public Works and Highways[691]
Delfin Lorenzana, Secretary of National Defense
Ramon Lopez, Secretary of Trade and Industry
Isidro Lapeña, Director General of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
Harry Roque, Presidential Spokesperson
Martin Andanar, Secretary of the Presidential Communications Operations Office
Michael Dino, Presidential Assistant for the Visayas
Debold Sinas, Chief of the Philippine National Police
Felimon Santos Jr., Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
Gerald Bantag, Director-General of the Bureau of Corrections
Danilo Lim, Chairperson of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority
Rebecca Ynares, Governor of Rizal
Daniel Fernando, Governor of Bulacan
Maria Jocelyn Bernos, Governor of Abra
Ferdinand Tubban, Governor of Kalinga
Carlos Padilla (politician), Governor of Nueva Vizcaya
Aurelio Umali, Governor of Nueva Ecija
Hermogenes Ebdane, Governor of Zambales
Joseph Cua, Governor of Catanduanes
Esteban Evan Contreras, Governor of Capiz
Rogelio Espina, Governor of Biliran
Alexander Pimentel, Governor of Surigao del Sur
Reynaldo Tamayo Jr., Governor of South Cotabato
Mamintal Alonto Adiong Jr., Governor of Lanao del Sur
Benjamin Magalong, Mayor of Baguio
Antolin Oreta, Mayor of Malabon
Francis Zamora, Mayor of San Juan, Metro Manila
Imelda Calixto-Rubiano, Mayor of Pasay
Ferdinand Estrella, Mayor of Baliuag
Philip Caesar Crispino, Mayor of Caba
Jefferson Soriano, Mayor of Tuguegarao
Josemarie Diaz, Mayor of Ilagan
Crisostomo Garbo, Mayor of Mabalacat
Jennifer Barzaga, Mayor of Dasmariñas
Rogelio Raymund Tiongson Jr., Mayor of Himamaylan
Francis Frederick Palanca, Mayor of Victorias
Dexter Uy, Mayor of Catbalogan
Alfred Romualdez, Mayor of Tacloban
Majul Gandamra, Mayor of Marawi
Jonas Cortes, Mayor of Mandaue
Junard Chan, Mayor of Lapu Lapu[403]
Bernardita Catalla, Ambassador of the Philippines to Lebanon[692]
Joy Belmonte, Mayor of Quezon City[693]
Saffrullah Dipatuan, Health Minister of Bangsamoro
 Poland Mariusz Błaszczak, Minister of National Defence[694]
Przemysław Czarnek, Minister of National Education; Minister of Science and Higher Education[695]
Andrzej Duda, President of Poland
Michał Dworczyk, Chief of the Chancellery; Minister without portfolio[696]
Jarosław Gowin, Minister of Economic Development, Labour and Technology; Deputy Prime Minister of Poland[697]
Michał Kurtyka, Minister of Climate and Environment[698]
Jarosław Mika, General Commander of the Polish Armed Forces
Michał Woś [pl], Minister of Environment
Jacek Sasin, Minister of State Assets; Deputy Prime Minister of Poland[699]
Michał Wójcik, Minister without portfolio[700]
Piotr Zgorzelski, Deputy Marshal of the Sejm
 Romania Violeta Alexandru, Minister of Labour and Social Protection[701]
Lucian Bode, Minister of Transport and Infrastructure[702]
Nechita-Adrian Oros, Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development[703]
Virgil-Daniel Popescu, Minister of Economy, Entrepreneurship and Tourism[704]
 Russia Mikhail Mishustin, Prime Minister of Russia
Yury Trutnev, Deputy Prime Minister of Russia
Vladimir Yakushev, Minister of Construction and Housing
Olga Lyubimova, Minister of Culture
Valery Falkov, Minister of Science and Higher Education
Alexander Novak, Minister of Energy
Dmitry Peskov, Kremlin Press Secretary
Viktor Tomenko, Governor of Altai Krai[705]
Alexander Drozdenko, Governor of Leningrad Oblast[706]
Sholban Kara-ool, Head of the Republic of Tuva (twice)[707][708]
Dmitry Artyukhov, Governor of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug[709]
Alexander Brechalov [ru], Head of Udmurtia[710]
Ulfat Mustafin, Mayor of Ufa
Yevgeny Nikora, Mayor of Murmansk
 Serbia Marko Đurić, Director of the Office for Kosovo and Metohija
Maja Gojković, President of the National Assembly[711]
Branko Ružić, Minister of Education, Science and Technological Development; First Deputy Prime Minister of Serbia[712]
Aleksandar Vulin, Minister of Defence[713]
 Slovakia Gábor Grendel [sk], Deputy Speaker of the National Council[714]
Eduard Heger, Minister of Finance; Deputy Prime Minister of Slovakia[715]
Igor Matovič, Prime Minister of Slovakia
Ján Mičovský [sk], Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development
Jaroslav Naď, Minister of Defence
Veronika Remišová, Minister of Investments and Regional Development; Deputy Prime Minister of Slovakia[716]
 Slovenia Boštjan Koritnik, Minister of Public Administration[717]
Anže Logar, Minister of Foreign Affairs
Vasko Simoniti, Minister of Culture[718]
Andrej Vizjak, Minister of the Environment and Spatial Planning[719]
 South Africa Hendrietta Bogopane-Zulu, Deputy Minister of Social Development
Inkosi Holomisa, Deputy Minister of Justice and Correctional Services
Gwede Mantashe, Minister of Mineral Resources and Energy
Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula, Minister of Defence and Military Veterans
Thulas Nxesi, Minister of Employment and Labour
Ebrahim Patel, Minister of Trade and Industry
Zweli Mkhize, Minister of Health
Jackson Mthembu, Minister in the Presidency
Job Mokgoro, Premier of North West
Alan Winde, Premier of Western Cape
David Makhura, Premier of Gauteng
Tasneem Motara, Gauteng MEC for Infrastructure Development
Mlungisi Mvoko, Eastern Cape MEC for Finance, Economic Development and Environmental Affairs
Phophi Ramathuba, Limpopo MEC for Health
Gordon Kegakilwe, North West MEC for Cooperative Governance, Human Settlement and Traditional Affairs
Alfred Mtsi, Speaker of the Buffalo City council and former mayor
Gillion Mashego, Mpumalanga MEC for Public Works
Nomakhosazana Meth, Eastern Cape MEC for Rural Development and Agrarian Reform
Thembeni Nxangisa, Free State MEC for Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs
Tate Makgoe, Free State MEC for Education
Mac Jack, Northern Cape MEC for Education
Refilwe Mtsweni-Tsipane, Premier of Mpumalanga
Gabsile Shabalala, Mpumalanga MEC for Community Safety, Security and Liaison
Sisi Ntombela, Premier of the Free State
Montseng Tsiu, Free State MEC for Health
Oscar Mabuyane, Premier of the Eastern Cape
Siphokazi Mani-Lusithi, Eastern Cape MEC for Social Development
Albert Fritz, Western Cape Minister of Community Safety
Sindiswa Gomba, Eastern Cape MEC for Health
 Spain Carmen Calvo, First Deputy Prime Minister of Spain
Irene Montero, Minister of Equality
Carolina Darias, Minister for Territorial Administrations
Quim Torra, President of Catalonia
Pere Aragonès, Vice President of Catalonia
Isabel Díaz Ayuso, President of the Community of Madrid
 Sweden Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland[720]
Prince Daniel, Duke of Västergötland[721]
Princess Sofia, Duchess of Värmland[720]
Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden[721]
 Syria Asma al-Assad, First Lady of Syria
Bashar al-Assad, President of Syria[722]
Ahmed al-Qadri, Minister of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform[723]
 Thailand Saksayam Chidchob, Minister of Transport[724]
 Trinidad and Tobago Keith Rowley, Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago[725]
 Tunisia Othman Jerandi, Minister of Foreign Affairs[726]
René Trabelsi, Minister of Tourism and Handicrafts[727]
 Turkey Mehmet Kasapoğlu, Minister of Youth and Sports[728]
Zehra Zümrüt Selçuk, Minister of Family, Labour and Social Services[729]
Süleyman Soylu, Minister of the Interior[730]
Ekrem Imamoglu, Mayor of Istanbul
Muhittin Böcek, Mayor of Antalya
Mehmet Fatih Maçoğlu, Mayor of Tunceli
 United States David Bernhardt, Secretary of the Interior[731]
Ben Carson, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development[732]
Donald Trump, President of the United States
Melania Trump, First Lady of the United States[733]
Brenda Jones, President of the Detroit City Council
Mike Parson, 56th Governor of Missouri[734]
Kevin Stitt, 28th Governor of Oklahoma
Mike Dunleavy (politician), 12th Governor of Alaska
Jared Polis, 43rd Governor of Colorado
Greg Gianforte, 25th Governor of Montana
Steve Sisolak, 30th Governor of Nevada
Mike DeWine, 70th Governor of Ohio
Tom Wolf, 47th Governor of Pennsylvania
Henry McMaster, 117th Governor of South Carolina
Ralph Northam, 73rd Governor of Virginia
Mark Gordon, 33rd Governor of Wyoming
Lou Leon Guerrero, 9th Governor of Guam
Francis X. Suarez, Mayor of Miami
Keisha Lance Bottoms, Mayor of Atlanta
 United Kingdom Charles, Prince of Wales[735]
Nadine Dorries, Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State[736]
Matt Hancock, Secretary of State for Health and Social Care[737]
Boris Johnson, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom[738]
Kit Malthouse, Minister of State for Crime and Policing[739]
 Ukraine Oleksiy Chernyshov, Minister of Communities and Territories Development[740]
Serhiy Marchenko, Minister of Finance[741]
Dmytro Razumkov, Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada[742]
Maksym Stepanov, Minister of Healthcare[743]
Andriy Taran, Minister of Defence[744]
Volodymyr Zelensky, President of Ukraine
Olena Zelenska, First Lady of Ukraine[457]
Vitali Klitschko, Mayor of Kiev
Hennadiy Kernes, Mayor of Kharkiv
 Uzbekistan Uktam Barnoev, Deputy Prime Minister of Uzbekistan[745]
 Venezuela Diosdado Cabello, President of the Constituent Assembly[508]
Tareck El Aissami, Minister of Petroleum[509]
Juan Guaidó, disputed Acting President[512]
Jorge Rodríguez, Minister of Communication and Information[511]
Omar Prieto, Governor of Zulia
Darío Vivas, Governor of the Capital District.[510]
 United Nations David Beasley, Executive Director of the World Food Programme
 EU Michel Barnier, Head of the UK Task Force
Mariya Gabriel, European Commissioner for Innovation, Research, Culture, Education and Youth[746]
Margaritis Schinas, Vice-President of the European Commission; European Commissioner for Promoting the European Way of Life [747]
Source:[339][748][749][750][751][752][753][754][755][756][757][758][759][760][464][465][761][762][763][524][764][765][766][767][768][769][770]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ang, Yuen Yuen (2020). "When COVID-19 meets centralized, personalized power". Nature Human Behavior. 4 (5): 445–447. doi:10.1038/s41562-020-0872-3. PMID 32273583. S2CID 215532797.
  2. ^ Stasavage, David (2020). "Democracy, Autocracy, and Emergency Threats: Lessons for COVID-19 From the Last Thousand Years". International Organization. 74: E1–E17. doi:10.1017/S0020818320000338.
  3. ^ Lipscy, Phillip (2020). "COVID-19 and the Politics of Crisis". International Organization. 74: E98–E127. doi:10.1017/S0020818320000375. S2CID 225135699.
  4. ^ Druckman, James; Klar, Samara (2020). "How Affective Polarization Shapes Americans' Political Beliefs: A Study of Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic". Journal of Experimental Political Science: 1–12. doi:10.1017/XPS.2020.28. S2CID 222312130.
  5. ^ Fazal, Tanisha (2020). "Health Diplomacy in Pandemical Times". International Organization. 74: E78–E97. doi:10.1017/S0020818320000326. S2CID 229265358.
  6. ^ a b "Democracy under Lockdown". Freedom House. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  7. ^ The Economist, 28 March 2020, page 7.
  8. ^ Schminke, Tobias Gerhard (2 April 2020). "EU Parliament Projection: Corona Rallies Europeans Around the Flag". Europe Elects. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  9. ^ a b Yglesias, Matthew (31 March 2020). "Trump's coronavirus poll bump, explained". Vox. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  10. ^ Bol, Damien Giani, Marco, Blais, André, Loewen, Peter John (7 May 2020). "COVID-19 lockdowns have increased support for incumbents, trust in government, and satisfaction with democracy". VoxEU. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  11. ^ McCarthy, Justin (16 April 2020). "Trump's Job rating slides; U.S. satisfaction tumbles". Gallup. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  12. ^ a b "Would-be autocrats are using covid-19 as an excuse to grab more power". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  13. ^ "Autocrats see opportunity in disaster". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  14. ^ Feldstein, Steven. "Beware the Implications of Coronavirus Surveillance". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  15. ^ "Killings in Philippines Up 50 Percent During Pandemic". Human Rights Watch. 8 September 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  16. ^ "Police fire water cannon at anti-lockdown protesters in Germany". The Independent. 18 November 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  17. ^ a b "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". www.un.org. 6 October 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  18. ^ "Ecuador: Privacy at Risk with Covid-19 Surveillance". Human Rights Watch. 1 July 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  19. ^ Staff, The Petrie-Flom Center (9 June 2020). "COVID-19 in South Korea: Privacy and Discrimination Concerns". Bill of Health. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  20. ^ "Global overview of COVID-19: Impact on elections | International IDEA". www.idea.int. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  21. ^ "The importance of democracy : Unifrog Blog". www.unifrog.org. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  22. ^ IPI-Admin. "COVID-19 Media Freedom Monitoring". International Press Institute. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  23. ^ "Information Isolation: Censoring the COVID-19 Outbreak". Freedom House. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  24. ^ "2016 Violations of press freedom barometer | Reporters without borders". RSF. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  25. ^ "EU will lose its 'raison d'etre' if it fails to help during COVID-19 crisis, Italy's PM warns". 28 March 2020.
  26. ^ "Germany bans export of medical protection gear due to coronavirus". Reuters. 4 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  27. ^ "Germany lifts export ban on medical equipment over coronavirus". Reuters. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  28. ^ Tsang, Amie (7 March 2020). "E.U. Seeks Solidarity as Nations Restrict Medical Exports". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  29. ^ "Coronavirus Is a Critical Test for the European Union". Time. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  30. ^ Johnson, Keith. "Fighting Pandemic, Europe Divides Again Along North and South Lines". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  31. ^ Amaro, Silvia (25 March 2020). "Nine European countries say it is time for 'corona bonds' as virus death toll rises". CNBC. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  32. ^ "The EU can't agree on how to help Italy and Spain pay for coronavirus relief". CNN. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  33. ^ a b "Italy's future is in German hands". POLITICO. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  34. ^ a b Bayer, Lili (1 April 2020). "EU response to corona crisis 'poor,' says senior Greek official". POLITICO. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  35. ^ "Virtual summit, real acrimony: EU leaders clash over 'corona bonds'". POLITICO. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  36. ^ a b "What are 'corona bonds' and how can they help revive the EU's economy?". euronews. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  37. ^ "Statement by Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden". 1 April 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020.
  38. ^ "Trolldiplomácia a maximumon: A magyar kormány is csatlakozott a jogállamiságot védő európai nyilatkozathoz". 2 April 2020.
  39. ^ "A magyar kormány is csatlakozott ahhoz a kiálláshoz, ami kimondatlanul ugyan, de ellene szól". 2 April 2020.
  40. ^ "Megvolt a kétharmad, a kormánypárti többség megszavazta a felhatalmazási törvényt". 30 March 2020.
  41. ^ "A Fidesz-kétharmad elfogadta a felhatalmazási törvényt". 30 March 2020.
  42. ^ "Megszavazta az Országgyűlés a koronavírus-törvényt, Áder pedig ki is hirdette". 30 March 2020.
  43. ^ "Áder János már alá is írta a felhatalmazási törvényt". 30 March 2020.
  44. ^ "EU executive chief concerned Hungary emergency measures go too far". 2 April 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020.
  45. ^ "EU sanctions over Hungary's virus measures should be considered, German official says". 3 April 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020.
  46. ^ "Orbán a Néppártnak: Most nincs időm erre!". 3 April 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020.
  47. ^ "Szijjártó looked virtually into the eyes of his critics". 3 April 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020.
  48. ^ Gibson, Jenna. "COVID-19 Aggravates an Already Tense Korea-Japan Relationship". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  49. ^ Farrer, Justin McCurry Martin (6 March 2020). "Coronavirus quarantine plans ignite row between South Korea and Japan". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  50. ^ "Face mask aid to Japan". The Korea Times. 21 April 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  51. ^ "[단독] 일본 지자체도 "한국 마스크 구입 도와달라"". SBS news (in Korean). 24 April 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  52. ^ "한국의 마스크 지원 검토에 일본 누리꾼들 "공짜보다 비싼 건 없다"" (in Korean). Hankook Ilbo. 20 April 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  53. ^ "Korea-Japan ties getting worse in pandemic". The Korea Times. 29 April 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  54. ^ "日 칼럼 "한국이 일본에 익명으로 마스크 지원해줄 수는 없을까?"" (in Korean). Segye Ilbo. 7 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  55. ^ "Relations between China and America are infected with coronavirus". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  56. ^ "Bolsonaro's son enrages Beijing by blaming China for coronavirus crisis". The Guardian. 19 March 2020.
  57. ^ "China is winning the coronavirus propaganda war". Politico. 18 March 2020.
  58. ^ a b "China Is Fighting the Coronavirus Propaganda War to Win". Foreign Policy. 20 March 2020.
  59. ^ a b "Coronavirus: China showers Europe with virus aid while sparring with Trump". The Straits Times. 19 March 2020.
  60. ^ a b "Governments reject Chinese-made equipment". BBC News. 30 March 2020.
  61. ^ a b c "Coronavirus investigation call has made Australia a target, but we're not alone in feeling China's wrath – ABC News". abc.net.au. 29 April 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  62. ^ "Germany says China sought to encourage positive COVID-19 comments". Reuters. 27 April 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  63. ^ Conklin, Melanie (10 April 2020). "Chinese government asks Wisconsin Senate for a commendation". Wisconsin Examiner. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  64. ^ Walsh, Michael; Walden, Max; Zhao, Iris (25 March 2020). "'A white jade for friendship': China's push to save countries from COVID-19". ABC News. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  65. ^ "Faults in China-supplied coronavirus equipment reported in Europe". The Irish Times. 30 March 2020.
  66. ^ a b "As the U.S. Blames China for the Coronavirus Pandemic, the Rest of the World Asks China for Help". The Intercept. 18 March 2020.
  67. ^ Eilperin, Juliet; Stein, Jeff; Butler, Desmond; Hamburger, Tom (18 April 2020). "U.S. sent millions of face masks to China early this year, ignoring pandemic warning signs". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  68. ^ Ferek, Katy Stech; Zumbrun, Josh (12 April 2020). "U.S. Tariffs Hamper Imports of Sanitizer, Disinfectants, Some Companies Say". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  69. ^ "EU condemns Trump travel ban from Europe as virus spreads". Associated Press. 12 March 2020.
  70. ^ Toosi, Nahal (3 April 2020). "'Lord of the Flies: PPE Edition': U.S. cast as culprit in global scrum over coronavirus supplies". POLITICO.
  71. ^ a b Jerusalem, Kim Willsher Oliver Holmes in; Istanbul, Bethan McKernan in; Palermo, Lorenzo Tondo in (3 April 2020). "US hijacking mask shipments in rush for coronavirus protection". The Guardian.
  72. ^ "Face masks from China intended for France 'hijacked' by US at the last minute". 2 April 2020. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020.
  73. ^ "Trudeau worried supplies meant for Canada have been diverted to US". 3 April 2020. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020.
  74. ^ "US accused of 'modern piracy' after diversion of masks meant for Europe". 3 April 2020. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020.
  75. ^ "Berlin backtracks after accusing U.S. of 'piracy' when 200,000 masks went missing". 5 April 2020.
  76. ^ "Maryland's Governor, a Republican, Is Willing to Spar With Trump for Supplies". 3 April 2020. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020.
  77. ^ a b Forrest, Maura (3 April 2020). "Trudeau warns U.S. against denying exports of medical supplies to Canada". POLITICO.
  78. ^ Blatchford, Andy (4 April 2020). "Trump's moves to hold medical supplies tip Trudeau to China". POLITICO.
  79. ^ "Government official, politician, and candidate deaths, diagnoses, and quarantines due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, 2020". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  80. ^ a b "Taiwan protests WHO leader's accusations of Taipei-led racist campaign". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 April 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  81. ^ Shear, Michael D. (7 April 2020). "Trump Attacks W.H.O. Over Criticisms of U.S. Approach to Coronavirus". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  82. ^ Hinshaw, Drew; Armour, Stephanie (7 July 2020). "Trump Moves to Pull U.S. Out of World Health Organization in Midst of Covid-19 Pandemic". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  83. ^ https://eu.usatoday.com/story/news/health/2021/01/22/scientists-applaud-biden-decision-rejoin-world-health-organization/4243377001/
  84. ^ "OECD Secretary-General: coronavirus "war" demands joint action – OECD". oecd.org. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  85. ^ "OECD". read.oecd-ilibrary.org. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  86. ^ "Latest developments | Maritime Delimitation in the Indian Ocean (Somalia v. Kenya) | International Court of Justice". www.icj-cij.org. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  87. ^ "Guyana: Hearing of border controversy matter postponed". St. Lucia News Online. 17 March 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  88. ^ "Maritime Delimitation in the Indian Ocean (Somalia v. Kenya) Public hearings postponed until March 2021" (PDF). International Court of Justice. 22 May 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  89. ^ Mustasilta, Katariina (2020). "FROM BAD TO WORSE?: The impact(s) of Covid-19 on conflict dynamics". Conflict Series. European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS). Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  90. ^ "Transcript of the Secretary-General's virtual press encounter on the appeal for global ceasefire". United Nations Secretary-General. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  91. ^ "COVID-19: UN chief calls for global ceasefire to focus on 'the true fight of our lives'". UN News. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  92. ^ "170 signatories endorse UN ceasefire appeal during COVID crisis". UN News. 24 June 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  93. ^ "Sophie Wilmès legt eed af als premier" (in Dutch). Het Laatste Nieuws. 17 March 2020.
  94. ^ Dias, Isabela (20 March 2020). "Could the Coronavirus Topple Jair Bolsonaro?". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  95. ^ "Bolsonaro diz que 'pequena crise' do coronavírus é 'mais fantasia' e não 'isso tudo' que mídia propaga". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  96. ^ "Gestão de Bolsonaro do coronavírus é reprovada por 64%, e 45% se dizem a favor de impeachment". El País. 19 March 2020.
  97. ^ "Brazil coronavirus protesters urge 'Bolsonaro out'". BBC News. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  98. ^ Phillips, Tom. "Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro denounced for joining pro-dictatorship rally | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  99. ^ "Parliament suspends for five weeks over COVID-19 concerns". CP 24. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 15 March 2020.
  100. ^ Aiello, Rachel (31 March 2020). "House health committee holding first virtual briefing on COVID-19 efforts". CTV News. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  101. ^ Canadian Press, The (26 March 2020). "Conservatives suspend party's leadership race in face of COVID-19 crisis". National Newswatch. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  102. ^ Rothbauer, Kevin (27 March 2020). "B.C. Greens suspend leadership race due to COVID-19". Alberni Valley News. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  103. ^ "Quebec Liberal Party suspends its leadership contest due to COVID-19 pandemic". CTV News. Canadian Press. 20 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  104. ^ "COVID-19: Le Parti Québécois met sa course à la direction en pause". Le journal de Montreal. 29 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  105. ^ "Canada unveils largest economic relief package since WW2". BBC News. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  106. ^ "COVID-19: Travel, quarantine and borders". Government Of Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  107. ^ "Canada: Coronavirus movement restrictions and quarantine" (PDF). European Parliament. European Parliament. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  108. ^ Bostock, Bill (13 February 2020). "China sacked a brace of top officials in Hubei province, likely in a move to protect Xi Jinping from people's anger over the coronavirus outbreak". Business Insider. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  109. ^ "Taiwan hits out at China virus travel bans". medicalxpress.com. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  110. ^ Wilson, Audrey. "Hun Sen Is More Worried About Beijing Than the Coronavirus". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  111. ^ "Peering around the corner: The geopolitics of the coronavirus". Atlantic Council. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  112. ^ "China is winning the coronavirus propaganda war". Politico. 18 March 2020.
  113. ^ "Hong Kong protesters torch planned Wuhan virus quarantine building". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  114. ^ a b c d e f Zoltán, Kovács (30 March 2020). "Hungarian Coronavirus Act passes, granting Viktor Orbán unprecedented emergency powers". index.hu. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  115. ^ Liu, Abraham. "Hungary's Viktor Orbán wins vote to rule by decree". Politico. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  116. ^ "Hungary's Authoritarian Takeover Puts European Union at Risk". 1 April 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020.
  117. ^ "Victor Orban's power grab in Hungary heightens fears of dictatorship in EU". 2 April 2020.
  118. ^ "HUNGARY 'NO LONGER A DEMOCRACY' AFTER CORONAVIRUS LAW". 31 March 2020.
  119. ^ "How coronavirus legislation could create the EU's first dictatorship". 1 April 2020.
  120. ^ "Coronavirus: Hungary government gets sweeping powers". 30 March 2020. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020.
  121. ^ "Szijjártó: "Fake news and lies" spread on Hungary". 10 April 2020.
  122. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TDp24_MCC-8
  123. ^ "[Ticker] Jourova: Hungary decree law does not break EU rules yet". EUobserver.
  124. ^ Cunningham, Erin. "Coronavirus pummels Iran leadership as data show spread is far worse than reported". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  125. ^ "Will Iran's Regime Survive Coronavirus?". National Review. 12 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  126. ^ "U.S. sanctions 'severely hamper' Iran coronavirus fight, Rouhani says". Reuters. 14 March 2020.
  127. ^ Haltiwanger J (3 March 2020). "8% of Iran's parliament has the coronavirus, and it released 54,000 prisoners as the country descends into chaos". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 4 March 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  128. ^ "COVID-19: UN envoy hails strong Israel-Palestine cooperation". UN News. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  129. ^ "Kosovo's Crisis-Hit Govt Threatened with No-Confidence Vote". 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020.
  130. ^ "Kosovo govt toppled by no-confidence vote amid coronavirus". 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  131. ^ "1. redna seja Vlade Republike Slovenije | GOV.SI". Portal GOV.SI (in Slovenian). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  132. ^ "Spremenjeno diagnosticiranje za realnejše načrtovanje ukrepov za obvladovanje epidemije | GOV.SI". Portal GOV.SI (in Slovenian). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  133. ^ "Govorec kriznega štaba Kacin: V nedeljo sestanek direktorjev bolnišnic". 24ur.com (in Slovenian). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  134. ^ "6. redna seja Vlade Republike Slovenije | GOV.SI". Portal GOV.SI (in Slovenian). Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  135. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia". Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia. 11 April 2020.
  136. ^ "Poslanci podprli spremembe referendumskega zakona, naklonjeni tudi sejam na daljavo". RTVSLO.si (in Slovenian). Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  137. ^ "Coronavirus quarantine plans ignite row between South Korea and Japan". The Guardian. 6 March 2020. Archived from the original on 8 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  138. ^ "South Korea's President Tried to Help China Contain the Coronavirus. Now People Want Him Impeached". Foreign Policy. 9 March 2020. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  139. ^ "데일리 오피니언 제392호(2020년 3월 2주) – 총선 기대, 차기 정치 지도자, 코로나19, 마스크 관련 인식" (PDF). 한국갤럽. 13 March 2020.
  140. ^ "Moon's Democrats win South Korea general election in landslide". Nikkei Asian Review. 16 April 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  141. ^ "Ruling party sweeps to landslide victory in South Korean elections". United Press Agency. 16 April 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  142. ^ a b "More Spanish politicians confirm they have been infected with the coronavirus". El Pais. 9 March 2020. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  143. ^ a b "Government counting on opposition support for coronavirus measures despite lack of dialogue". EL PAÍS. 31 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  144. ^ "Health minister tests positive for coronavirus". 11 March 2020 – via www.bbc.com.
  145. ^ "Second MP diagnosed with coronavirus". BBC News. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  146. ^ "English local elections postponed over coronavirus". BBC News. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  147. ^ "StackPath". www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  148. ^ Syal, Rajeev (1 April 2020). "UK to set up virtual parliament during coronavirus shutdown". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  149. ^ "Prime Minister's statement on coronavirus (COVID-19): 23 March 2020". GOV.UK. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  150. ^ "Coronavirus: UK government unveils aid for self-employed". BBC News. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  151. ^ "Coronavirus strikes heart of Government as PM and health secretary test positive". Metro. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  152. ^ "North West MP Angela Rayner says she is self-isolating". ITV News. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  153. ^ "Coronavirus: Chief medical officer Chris Whitty self-isolates with symptoms". Sky News. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  154. ^ "NHS consultant dies from Covid-19". the Guardian. 29 March 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  155. ^ Syal, Rajeev (30 March 2020). "Dominic Cummings self-isolates after experiencing coronavirus symptoms". The Guardian.
  156. ^ Feuer, Will (2 April 2020). "Worldwide coronavirus cases reach 1 million, doubling in a week as death toll tops 50,000". CNBC. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  157. ^ "Coronavirus: Boris Johnson moved to intensive care as symptoms worsen". BBC News. 7 April 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  158. ^ Bateman, Matthew. "Doctors forced into impossible situations as NHS staff report dangerously low levels of PPE". The British Medical Association is the trade union and professional body for doctors in the UK. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  159. ^ "Coronavirus: UK failed to stockpile crucial PPE". BBC News. 28 April 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  160. ^ "Coronavirus testing extended to all essential workers in England who have symptoms". GOV.UK. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  161. ^ "Coronavirus: First patients injected in UK vaccine trial". BBC News. 23 April 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  162. ^ Stewart, Heather; Campbell, Denis (1 May 2020). "Hancock says UK hit 100,000 tests amid claims tally is artificially boosted". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  163. ^ "Coronavirus: UK death toll passes Italy to be highest in Europe". BBC News. 5 May 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  164. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19) related deaths by ethnic group, England and Wales - Office for National Statistics". www.ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  165. ^ "Coronavirus: Some return to work as lockdown eases slightly in England". BBC News. 13 May 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  166. ^ "Chancellor extends furlough scheme until October". GOV.UK. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  167. ^ "Plans in place to potentially make 30m virus vaccines for public by September". ITV News. 17 May 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  168. ^ "Everyone over the age of five with coronavirus symptoms can now be tested". The Independent. 18 May 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  169. ^ Topping, Sarah Marsh (now); Alexandra; Weaver(earlier), Matthew; Marsh, Sarah; Marsh, Sarah (22 May 2020). "UK coronavirus: travellers arriving from 8 June must self-isolate for 14 days – as it happened". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  170. ^ Weaver, Matthew (22 May 2020). "Pressure on Dominic Cummings to quit over lockdown breach". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  171. ^ "All the coronavirus measures easing in England on 1 June". inews.co.uk. 29 May 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  172. ^ "What are the lockdown rules now and what can you do from today?". The Independent. 15 June 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  173. ^ Murphy, Simon; Sabbagh, Dan; Hern, Alex (18 June 2020). "Piloted in May, ditched in June: the failure of England's Covid-19 app". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  174. ^ "Leicester is first city to go back into lockdown as coronavirus surges". www.expressandstar.com. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  175. ^ Dickinson, Greg; Frainier, Lizzie; Smith, Oliver; Morris, Hugh (3 July 2020). "Travel news: Greece in, Portugal out, as quarantine exemption list revealed". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  176. ^ "Leicester lockdown: Measures eased after coronavirus cases drop". BBC News. 16 July 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  177. ^ "Eat Out to Help Out launches today – with government paying half on restaurant bills". GOV.UK. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  178. ^ Ng, Kate. "Eat Out to Help Out: Extend scheme to continue 'overwhelming success', businesses urge". The Independent.
  179. ^ Fetzer, Thiemo. "Subsidizing the spread of COVID19: Evidence from the UK's Eat-Out to-Help-Out scheme" (PDF). CAGE Working Paper No. 517. no. 517.
  180. ^ Goodfellow, Maddie. "Rishi Sunak: Eat Out to Help Out criticism 'doesn't quite stack up'". LBC.
  181. ^ "A-levels and GCSEs: How did the exam algorithm work?". BBC News.
  182. ^ "A-levels: Anger over 'unfair' results this year". BBC News.
  183. ^ Cowburn, Ashley. "A-level results: Gavin Williamson facing backlash over grading system as private schools see biggest increase in top grades". The Independent.
  184. ^ "Did England exam system favour private schools?". Channel 4.
  185. ^ "A-levels and GCSEs: U-turn as teacher estimates to be used for exam results". BBC News.
  186. ^ McIntyre, Fiona. "1,500 students still missing out on courses after A-levels crisis". Research Professional News.
  187. ^ "Coronavirus: What are the social distancing rules?". BBC News.
  188. ^ "Covid: Pubs and restaurants in England to have 10pm closing times". BBC News.
  189. ^ Lawless, Jill. "UK unveils 3-level lockdown plan; Liverpool at highest risk". Associated Press.
  190. ^ "Covid-19: PM announces four-week England lockdown". BBC News.
  191. ^ "Covid: UK first country in Europe to pass 50,000 deaths". BBC News.
  192. ^ "Covid-19: Oxford University vaccine is highly effective". BBC News.
  193. ^ Nuki, Paul. "Head to head: The Oxford and Pfizer coronavirus vaccines compared". The Telegraph.
  194. ^ Boseley, Sarah. "UK approves Pfizer/BioNTech Covid vaccine for rollout next week". The Guardian.
  195. ^ "UK readies for 'V-Day,' its 1st shots in war on coronavirus". ABC News.
  196. ^ "'New variant' of coronavirus identified in England". BBC News.
  197. ^ "Covid-19: Millions more to enter tier 4, and new virus variant in UK". BBC News.
  198. ^ "Covid: Boris Johnson 'to tighten rules' in London and south-east England". BBC News.
  199. ^ "Covid-19: Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine approved for use in UK". BBC News.
  200. ^ "Moderna becomes third Covid vaccine approved in the UK". BBC News.
  201. ^ "Covid: UK to close all travel corridors from Monday". BBC News.
  202. ^ Hughes, Siobhan; Andrews, Natalie (27 March 2020). "House Passes $2 Trillion Coronavirus Stimulus Package". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  203. ^ Miller, Claire Cain (10 April 2020). "Could the Pandemic Wind Up Fixing What's Broken About Work in America?". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  204. ^ Swanson, Ian (2 May 2020). "Five ways the coronavirus could change American politics". TheHill. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  205. ^ "America's botched response to the coronavirus is a problem bigger than Donald Trump". Boston Globe.
  206. ^ "Populism and COVID-19: Where Two Pandemics Meet". Crossfire KM. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  207. ^ Haberman M, Martin J (12 March 2020). "Trump's Re-election Chances Suddenly Look Shakier". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  208. ^ Lowrey, Annie (3 April 2020). "The Economy Is Collapsing. So Are Trump's Reelection Chances". The Atlantic. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  209. ^ "Local governments take the lead, collaborate, and improvise to manage crisis". The Boston Globe.
  210. ^ Kemble, William J. "State waives some provisions of Open Meetings Law amid pandemic concerns". Daily Freeman.
  211. ^ "Intelligence Chairman Raised Virus Alarms Weeks Ago, Secret Recording Shows". NPR. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020.
  212. ^ "Exclusive: Justice Department reviews stock trades by lawmakers after coronavirus briefings". The Hill. 30 March 2020. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020.
  213. ^ a b c d Borger, Julian (7 April 2020). "US navy official apologises for calling captain behind coronavirus memo 'naive or stupid'". The Guardian.
  214. ^ a b c d Macias, Amanda (7 April 2020). "Acting Navy secretary quits after he ripped captain pleading for help over coronavirus". CNBC.
  215. ^ Rouan, Rick (20 April 2020). "Protesters at Statehouse demand state reopen as DeWine announces schools to remain closed". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  216. ^ "Coronavirus and State Legislatures in the News". NCSL. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020.
  217. ^ "Legislature to temporarily adjourn due to coronavirus concerns". NCSL. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020.
  218. ^ "7th Case of Coronavirus in NH as State House Suspends Legislative Activities for a Week". NBC. 14 March 2020. Archived from the original on 15 March 2020.
  219. ^ "Beshear rips into Senate budget proposal as Kentucky lawmakers hit pause on session". Courier Journal. 19 March 2020.
  220. ^ "States expecting big revenue hit as COVID-19 slows the economy". Roll Call. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020.
  221. ^ "Entire Georgia state legislature urged to self-quarantine after positive coronavirus test". Hill. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020.
  222. ^ Pransky, Noah (19 August 2020). "Politicking in a Pandemic". NBCLX. NBCLX. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  223. ^ "Exclusive: Venezuela Socialists, opposition leaders begin secret talks amid pandemic – sources". Reuters. 21 April 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  224. ^ "Guaidó: No hay ningún tipo de negociación o mediación con régimen de Maduro". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). 23 April 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  225. ^ Batiz, César (22 April 2020). "Elliott Abrams: No existe negociación entre oposición y el oficialismo". El Pitazo (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  226. ^ "Bolivia delays presidential elections, mandates 14-day quarantine against virus". 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 5 April 2020.
  227. ^ "Electoral court postpones Bolivia general election over virus". 22 March 2020. Archived from the original on 5 April 2020.
  228. ^ "Acuerdo político por elecciones del 2020: Plebiscito se postergará para el 25 de octubre". Cooperativa. 23 March 2020.
  229. ^ "Resolución 042-2020 sobre posposición a causa de fuerza mayor por emergencia sanitaria de las elecciones ordinarias generales presidenciales y legislativas del 17 de mayo".
  230. ^ "Dominicans vote in election postponed over virus". 5 July 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2020 – via www.bbc.com.
  231. ^ "Polls open in Dominican Republic presidential election". France 24. 5 July 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  232. ^ "NEBE Says Impossible To Hold Election As Per Scheduled Due To COVID-19". fanabc.com. 31 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 May 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  233. ^ "France's Macron defies coronavirus lockdown with elections". BBC. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020.
  234. ^ "Le maintien des municipales fait de plus en plus polémique". Libération. 14 March 2020.
  235. ^ "Coronavirus : le second tour des municipales reporté". Le Parisien. 16 March 2020.
  236. ^ "LegCo General Election postponed for a year". Hong Kong Government. 31 July 2020.
  237. ^ "Govt, House agree to reschedule 2020 regional elections' voting day to Dec. 9". The Jakarta Post. 15 April 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  238. ^ Prasetia, Andhika (5 May 2020). "Jokowi Resmi Terbitkan Perppu, Pilkada 2020 Digeser ke Desember". detiknews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  239. ^ "inviato il referendum del 29 marzo sul taglio dei parlamentari". Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  240. ^ "Decreto di indizione del referendum per la riduzione dei parlamentari". Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  241. ^ "Kiribati to go to polls for elections in April". Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  242. ^ "Delayed start for Kiribati elections". Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  243. ^ "Rīga municipal elections postponed until September". eng.lsm.lv.
  244. ^ "Rīga elections take place today". Public Broadcasting of Latvia. 29 August 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2020.
  245. ^ Patinio, Ferdinand (9 March 2020). "Comelec suspends voter registration amid Covid-19 threat". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  246. ^ "COMELEC extends suspension of voter registration to April 30". CNN Philippines. 27 April 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  247. ^ Magdayao, Aira Genesa (26 March 2020). "Postponement of Palawan division plebiscite sought". Palawan News Online. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  248. ^ a b c d "A postal vote in Poland could entrench populists". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  249. ^ "Most Polish Presidential Candidates Fail To Collect Signatures Due To COVID-19 – Reports". 27 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020.
  250. ^ "Poland's coronavirus-crisis election unleashes political warfare". POLITICO. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  251. ^ "Polish ruling coalition postpones Sunday presidential vote". AP NEWS. 6 May 2020.
  252. ^ "Poland's postponed presidential election to be held June 28". AP NEWS. 3 June 2020. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  253. ^ "Путин перенес голосование по Конституции из-за коронавируса". Коммерсантъ (in Russian). 25 March 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  254. ^ "Коронавирус перенес выборы". Коммерсантъ (in Russian). 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  255. ^ "В ЦИК назвали допустимые сроки кампании по единому дню голосования". Ведомости (in Russian). 5 May 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  256. ^ "Serbia Delays Elections After Virus Triggers Emergency". Bloomberg.com. 16 March 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  257. ^ "Rules out: A Phase 2 general election will have no physical rallies, no screenings at coffee shops". mothership.sg. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  258. ^ Gorospe, Pedro (16 March 2020). "Urkullu aplaza las elecciones vascas hasta superar la crisis del coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  259. ^ Vizoso, Pedro Gorospe, Sonia (16 March 2020). "Galicia y País Vasco aplazan las elecciones hasta superar la crisis del coronavirus". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  260. ^ "Sri Lanka's General Election postponed till country is freed from COVID-19". NewsIn.Asia. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  261. ^ "Sri Lanka's General Election postponed: Until the polls Country comes under Election Commission | Asian Tribune". asiantribune.com. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  262. ^ "President tells SAARC leaders April election will go ahead". Colombo Gazette. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  263. ^ "Syria elections postponed over coronavirus". Yahoo News. 14 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  264. ^ "PM: General election must adhere to COVID-19 rules". Loop News. 28 May 2020. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  265. ^ "Political parties halt activities over covid19". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. 14 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  266. ^ "Two major parties put election campaigning on hold". Trinidad Express Newspapers. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  267. ^ "Coronavirus: English local elections postponed for a year". BBC. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020.
  268. ^ "Lib Dems suspend leadership contest until 2021". BBC News. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  269. ^ "2020 presidential campaigns go digital during coronavirus outbreak". 20 March 2020. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020.
  270. ^ "A Grounded Biden Campaign Is Trying To Reach Voters In The Cloud". 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020.
  271. ^ "His Signature Rallies Are Off, So Here's How Trump's Campaign Has Moved Online". 2 April 2020. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020.
  272. ^ Results or revolution? Biden, Sanders present dueling visions while blasting Trump's coronavirus response Reuters, 16 March 2020
  273. ^ Arizona: Latest updates on coronavirus Live Science, 15 March 2020
  274. ^ "Democratic National Convention pushed back to August". 2 April 2020. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020.
  275. ^ Biden suggests Democrats may hold 'virtual convention' amid coronavirus crisis NBC News, 5 April 2020
  276. ^ Trump, Biden trade barbs over possible virtual Democratic convention By Adam Edelman, NBC News, 6 April 2020
  277. ^ Democrats fear coronavirus impact on November turnout The Hill, 3 April 2020
  278. ^ "Can the president cancel the 2020 election over coronavirus? – The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com.
  279. ^ "Can Trump cancel the November election because of coronavirus?". Vox. 7 April 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  280. ^ "Trump can't cancel the 2020 election, even in a coronavirus pandemic". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  281. ^ "ND Dem-NPL cancels state convention due to virus concerns; Republicans going ahead for now". Inforum. 12 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020.
  282. ^ "Louisiana postpones Democratic primary over coronavirus, the first state to do so". CNBC. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020.
  283. ^ "WYOMING DEMOCRATIC PARTY SUSPENDS IN-PERSON CAUCUS, CONVENTIONS". K2 Radio. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020.
  284. ^ "Georgia Moves Presidential Primary from March 24 to May 19". Ballot Access News. 14 March 2020. Archived from the original on 15 March 2020.
  285. ^ Niesse, Mark; Journal-Constitution, The Atlanta. "Georgia primary delayed again to June 9 during coronavirus emergency". ajc.
  286. ^ "Kentucky Moves Primary for All Office from May 19 to June 23". Ballot Access News. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020.
  287. ^ "Ohio to postpone Democratic primary over coronavirus pandemic". New York Post. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020.
  288. ^ "Connecticut Postpones Presidential Primary from April 28 to June 2". Ballot Access News. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020.
  289. ^ "Governor announces Indiana primary moved from May 5 to June 2". 20 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020.
  290. ^ "Which states are changing their primaries over coronavirus". 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020.
  291. ^ "Pennsylvania primary postponed to June amid COVID-19 outbreak". 27 March 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020.
  292. ^ "New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo moves state's presidential primary". 28 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020.
  293. ^ Johnson, Brent (8 April 2020). "Murphy officially postpones N.J.'s primary elections to July due to coronavirus outbreak". NJ.com. Advance Local Media LLC.
  294. ^ "Kansas Democratic presidential primaries move to mail-in only, cancel in-person voting". 30 March 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020.
  295. ^ "Idaho primary will be conducted completely by mail". 1 April 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020.
  296. ^ "COVID-19 UPDATE: Gov. Justice signs executive order to move Primary Election to June 9 after consultation with Attorney General, Secretary of State". 1 April 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020.
  297. ^ "Polling places moved from nursing homes; other changes amid coronavirus concerns". The Baltimore Sun. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020.
  298. ^ "Officials urge Maryland to hold mail-in only primary because of coronavirus". The Baltimore Sun. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020.
  299. ^ Jacqueline Howard. "Prestigious medical journal calls for US leadership to be voted out over Covid-19 failure". CNN.
  300. ^ Warshaw, Christopher; Vavreck, Lynn; Baxter-King, Ryan (1 October 2020). "Fatalities from COVID-19 are reducing Americans' support for Republicans at every level of federal office". Science Advances. 6 (44): eabd8564. Bibcode:2020SciA....6.8564W. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abd8564. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 7608793. PMID 33127688.
  301. ^ Bennett AND, Brain; Bernenson, Tessa (7 November 2020). "How Donald Trump Lost The Election". time.com. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  302. ^ "State, Congressional Candidates Sign Petition to Stop Petitioning During Coronavirus". Bklyner. 11 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020.
  303. ^ "New York Primary Petitions Cut to 30% of Normal, but Petitioning Deadline Arrives Sooner". Ballot Access News. 14 March 2020. Archived from the original on 15 March 2020.
  304. ^ "Coronavirus may keep 3rd-party presidential candidates off the ballot". 26 March 2020. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020.
  305. ^ "MDP Chair Lavora Barnes Statement on Party Legacy Dinner Fundraiser and Endorsement Convention". 11 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020.
  306. ^ "Utah Democrats, GOP cancel in-person state conventions, postpone caucus night". 12 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020.
  307. ^ "Governor Abbott Issues Proclamation Postponing Special Election For Texas Senate District 14". 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020.
  308. ^ "Nine states postpone presidential or congressional primary elections". 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020.
  309. ^ "Mississippi delays a GOP primary runoff amid pandemic". 20 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020.
  310. ^ "2nd Hampden and Hampshire special election postponed to May". 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020.
  311. ^ "March & April Elections Postponed Due to Coronavirus". South Carolina Votes. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020.
  312. ^ "State Election Board Secretary Declares Election Emergency: Authorizes Local Entities to Reschedule April 7 Elections". 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020.
  313. ^ "Alabama Postpones Run-Off Primaries from March 31 to July 14". Ballot Access News. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020.
  314. ^ "Missouri Governor Postpones Local Elections from April 7 to June 2". Ballot Access News. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020.
  315. ^ "Primary Election to be done by mail due to COVID-19 concerns". 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020.
  316. ^ "Iowa secretary of state extends absentee voting period for June primary due to coronavirus". 23 March 2020.
  317. ^ "MEDIA RELEASE: Secretary Pate reschedules three special elections for July 7". 20 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020.
  318. ^ Corasaniti, Nick; Saul, Stephanie (7 April 2020). "15 States Have Postponed Their Primaries Because of Coronavirus. Here's a List". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  319. ^ Glauber, Bill; Marley, Patrick (4 April 2020). "In matter of seconds, Republicans stall Gov. Tony Evers' move to postpone Tuesday election". Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  320. ^ Beck, Molly (3 April 2020). "Wisconsin Gov. Tony Evers calls special session to stop in-person voting, but Republican leaders say it should go forward". Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  321. ^ Herndon, Astead W.; Rutenberg, Jim (6 April 2020). "Wisconsin Election Fight Heralds a National Battle Over Virus-Era Voting". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  322. ^ Molly, Beck (7 April 2020). "As election day arrives, voters hoping to avoid coronavirus say they are still waiting for absentee ballots". Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  323. ^ Jannene, Jeramey (6 April 2020). "Where Are the Missing Ballots?". Urban Milwaukee. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  324. ^ a b Epstein, Reid J. (7 April 2020). "Why Wisconsin Republicans Insisted on an Election in a Pandemic". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  325. ^ "Editorial: Evers' ban on in-person voting was the right call to ensure a safe, fair election during coronavirus pandemic". Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel. 6 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  326. ^ a b c "Wisconsin Election: Voters Forced to Choose Between Protecting Their Health and Their Civic Duty". The New York Times. 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  327. ^ a b c d Herndon, Astead W.; Burns, Alexander (7 April 2020). "Voting in Wisconsin During a Pandemic: Lines, Masks and Plenty of Fear". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  328. ^ a b Herndon, Astead W. "They Turned Out to Vote in Wisconsin During a Health Crisis. Here's Why". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  329. ^ a b c "Election day live blog". Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel. 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  330. ^ a b Jannene, Jeramey (7 April 2020). "Why Does Madison Have More Voting Sites Than Milwaukee?". Urban Milwaukee. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  331. ^ Jannene, Jeramey (7 April 2020). "Long Lines at Milwaukee's Polling Places". Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  332. ^ Mikkelson, Marti. "Milwaukee Election Chief: Despite Some Issues, In-Person Voting Went Smoothly". wuwm.com.
  333. ^ Bill, Ruthhart (7 April 2020). "In battleground Wisconsin, long voter lines, no election results and a missed opportunity to build toward November". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  334. ^ Shabad, Rebecca; Egan, Lauren (7 April 2020). "Wisconsin voters face long waits, lines amid coronavirus outbreak". NBC News. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  335. ^ Kate, Sullivan (7 April 2020). "Republican Wisconsin assembly speaker wears protective gear while telling voters they are 'incredibly safe to go out'". CNN. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  336. ^ Murillo, Yuskerli (16 March 2020). "Comité para designar nuevo CNE suspenderá reuniones". El Universal (Caracas) (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  337. ^ "Armenian Prime Minister, his family test COVID-19 positive". 1 June 2020.
  338. ^ "Մահացել է Ռիտա Սարգսյանը". Armenia Today (in Armenian). 20 November 2020.
  339. ^ a b "Australian politician who met Ivanka Trump, Attorney General William Barr infected with coronavirus". USA Today. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020.
  340. ^ a b "Two foreign ministers test positive for COVID-19 after EU meeting". Reuters. 17 October 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  341. ^ "Austria's Defense Minister Contracts Coronavirus". 30 November 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  342. ^ "Bulgarian Premier Tests Positive for Covid, Recovering at Home". Bloomberg.com. 25 October 2020. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  343. ^ "Minister of Sports Krasen Kralev tests positive for Covid-19". Radio Bulgaria. 23 August 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  344. ^ "Burundi leader Nkurunziza died of Covid-19 — diplomats". The Star. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  345. ^ Salo, Jackie (10 June 2020). "Burundi's President Pierre Nkurunziza may be first world leader to die of COVID-19". New York Post. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  346. ^ "Burundi's Pierre Buyoya dies from Covid-19". IOL. 18 December 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  347. ^ "Canadian PM Trudeau's wife tests positive for coronavirus". BBC. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020.
  348. ^ "Liberal MP tests positive for COVID-19 after developing flu-like symptoms". Toronto. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  349. ^ "Croatia's PM Plenkovic tested positive on COVID-19 - government spokesman". Reuters. 30 November 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  350. ^ "Ministar Ivan Malenica pozitivan na koronavirus". N1 Hrvatska. 21 July 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  351. ^ "Tourism Minister Positive for Coronavirus, Two Ministers Self-isolating". Total Croatia News. 26 October 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  352. ^ "Croatian health minister positive for coronavirus". Croatia Week. 19 November 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  353. ^ "Ministr zemědělství Toman je covid pozitivní, ve středu se setkal se Zemanem". iDNES.cz. 18 October 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  354. ^ "Prezidentův poradce Nejedlý má koronavirus. Je v izolaci, příznaky nemá". iDNES.cz. 19 October 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  355. ^ McGuinness, Romina (9 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Four French MPs test positive for deadly virus as cases soar to over 1,200". Express.co.uk. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  356. ^ https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-12-17/french-president-macron-tests-positive-for-covid-19
  357. ^ "Georgian PM tested positive for coronavirus: press office". Reuters. 2 November 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  358. ^ "German state finance minister Thomas Schäfer found dead". 28 March 2020. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020.
  359. ^ "German health minister tests positive for coronavirus". Reuters. 21 October 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  360. ^ "Honduran President And Wife Test Positive For Coronavirus". 17 June 2020.
  361. ^ "Hungarian justice minister tests positive for coronavirus". Reuters. 20 October 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  362. ^ "Hungary's foreign minister tests positive for coronavirus while on state visit to Thailand". Euronews. 4 November 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  363. ^ "Mary Lou McDonald cancels meetings as children attend coronavirus-hit Dublin school". Newstalk. 2 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  364. ^ Burke, Ceimin (17 March 2020). "TD Thomas Pringle in isolation after potentially coming into contact with coronavirus". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  365. ^ Maguire, Stephen (17 March 2020). "Donegal TD in isolation amid coronavirus fears". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  366. ^ "Luke 'Ming' Flanagan". 18 March 2020.
  367. ^ Regan, Mary (21 August 2020). "Calleary, Buttimer resign over attending Clifden event". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  368. ^ Murray, Sean; Ryan, Órla; Dwyer, Orla (21 August 2020). "Government plunged into turmoil as Calleary resigns in wake of golf dinner controversy". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  369. ^ Carroll, Rory (5 April 2020). "Irish taoiseach Leo Varadkar to work a day a week as a doctor". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 April 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  370. ^ "Leader of Italian Democratic party has coronavirus". The Guardian. 7 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020.
  371. ^ "Coronavirus, positiva il viceministro Pd Anna Ascani. Era da giorni in isolamento". La Nazione. 14 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  372. ^ Leali, Giorgio (4 September 2020). "Silvio Berlusconi in hospital after positive coronavirus test". POLITICO. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
  373. ^ Leali, Giorgio (14 September 2020). "Silvio Berlusconi leaves hospital after coronavirus treatment". POLITICO. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
  374. ^ "Covid, positivi l'ex ministra della Salute Lorenzin e il sottosegretario agli Esteri Merlo". la Repubblica (in Italian). 5 October 2020. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
  375. ^ "Camera, tre capigruppo positivi: Gelmini, Crippa, Lollobrigida. Ceccanti: "Serve il voto a distanza"". la Repubblica. 16 October 2020.
  376. ^ "Roma, la sindaca Virginia Raggi positiva al coronavirus". la Repubblica. 4 November 2020.
  377. ^ "Silvio Berlusconi e gli altri: la lunga lista di politici trovati positivi al Coronavirus". Open. 3 September 2020.
  378. ^ Desando, Concetta (16 October 2020). "Coronavirus, tutte le star e i politici contagiati".
  379. ^ "Libyan revolution premier Jibril dies from coronavirus". 5 April 2020. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020.
  380. ^ https://apnews.com/article/pandemics-marcelo-ebrard-mexico-coronavirus-pandemic-vladimir-putin-7cf4feae9e363d519d5c336202be0ae6
  381. ^ "Prince Albert of Monaco tests positive for coronavirus". 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020.
  382. ^ "Prince Albert of Monaco first head of state to test positive for coronavirus". 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020.
  383. ^ "Prince Albert of Monaco recovers from coronavirus". 31 March 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020.
  384. ^ "Minister Bruins treedt af, De Jonge neemt coronadossier over". NU. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  385. ^ Malasig, Jeline (18 March 2020). "Politicians and their families get tested for COVID-19, but some people are not having it". Interaksyon.
  386. ^ Rita, Joviland (23 March 2020). "Duque clarifies RITM director was not replaced amid alleged VIP testing for COVID-19". GMA News Online.
  387. ^ Robles, Alan (25 March 2020). "Coronavirus: in Philippines, leak shows politicians and relatives received 'VIP' testing". South China Morning Post.
  388. ^ "DILG chief Año positive for COVID-19". GMA News. 31 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  389. ^ Hallare, Katrina (9 April 2020). "DepEd's Briones tests positive for COVID-19". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  390. ^ "Senator Zubiri tests positive for COVID-19". CNN Philippines. 16 March 2020.
  391. ^ Rey, Aika (25 March 2020). "Pimentel tests positive for coronavirus". Rappler. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  392. ^ "Sonny Angara tests positive for coronavirus". Rappler. 26 March 2020.
  393. ^ "Senator Bong Revilla tests positive for COVID-19". CNN Philippines. 9 August 2020. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  394. ^ a b Luci-Atienza, Charissa (26 August 2020). "Rep. Daza is 55th COVID-19 case at House of Representatives". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  395. ^ "Bulacan congressman tests positive for COVID-19". CNN Philippines. 26 March 2020.
  396. ^ Rosario, Ben (8 September 2020). "Sorsogon representative dies from COVID-19". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved