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Impalefection is a method of gene delivery using nanomaterials, such as carbon nanofibers, carbon nanotubes, nanowires. Needle-like nanostructures are synthesized perpendicular to the surface of a substrate. Plasmid DNA containing the gene, intended for intracellular delivery, is attached to the nanostructure surface. A chip with arrays of these needles is then pressed against cells or tissue. Cells that are impaled by nanostructures can express the delivered gene(s).
Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays prepared by photolithography and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition are one of the suitable types of material. Silicon nanowires is another choice of nanoneedles that have been utilized for impalefection.
- McKnight, T.E., A.V. Melechko, D.K. Hensley, D.G.J. Mann, G.D. Griffin, and M.L. Simpson (2004). "Tracking gene expression after DNA delivery using spatially indexed nanofiber arrays". Nano Letters. 4 (7): 1213–1219. doi:10.1021/nl049504b.
- Bonadio J. (2000). "Local gene delivery for tissue regeneration". J Regener Med. 1: 25–29. doi:10.1089/152489000414552.
- "Intracellular integration of synthetic nanostructures with viable cells for controlled biochemical manipulation"
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