Impedance threshold device

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An inspiratory impedance threshold device is a valve used in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to decrease intrathoracic pressure and improve venous return to the heart. The valve is a part of a mask or other breathing device such as an endotracheal tube, and may open at high or low pressures (called "cracking pressures.")

ITDs are still in the early phases of clinical use, but preliminary investigational studies have suggested a potential benefit in achieving return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and early improvement after cardiopulmonary arrest in humans.[1] More recently, the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Prehospital Resuscitation Impedance Valve and Early Versus Delayed Analysis (PRIMED) study (n=8718) failed to demonstrate improved outcomes with the use of an impedance threshold device (ITD) as an adjunct to conventional CPR when compared with use of a sham device. This negative high-quality study prompted a Class III: No Benefit recommendation regarding routine use of the ITD.


  1. ^ Cabrini L, Beccaria P, Landoni G, et al. (May 2008). "Impact of impedance threshold devices on cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies". Crit. Care Med. 36 (5): 1625–32. PMID 18434910. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e318170ba80. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Seekins MB, Reiss AJ (June 2011). "Application of impedance threshold devices during cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation". J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 21 (3): 187–92. PMID 21631704. doi:10.1111/j.1476-4431.2011.00640.x. 
  • Pirracchio R, Payen D, Plaisance P (June 2007). "The impedance threshold valve for adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a review of the literature". Curr Opin Crit Care. 13 (3): 280–6. PMID 17468559. doi:10.1097/MCC.0b013e3281532b64.