Imperative mood

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The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.

The imperative mood is used to demand or require that an action be performed. It is usually found only in the present tense, second person. They are sometimes called directives, as they include a feature that encodes directive force, and another feature that encodes modality of unrealized interpretation.[1][2]

An example of a verb used in the imperative mood is the English phrase "Go." Such imperatives imply a second-person subject (you), but some other languages also have first- and third-person imperatives, with the meaning of "let's (do something)" or "let them (do something)" (the forms may alternatively be called cohortative and jussive).

Imperative mood can be denoted by the glossing abbreviation IMP. It is one of the irrealis moods.


Imperative mood is often expressed using special conjugated verb forms. Like other finite verb forms, imperatives often inflect for person and number. Second-person imperatives (used for ordering or requesting performance directly from the person being addressed) are most common, but some languages also have imperative forms for the first and third persons (alternatively called cohortative and jussive respectively).

In English, the imperative is formed using the bare infinitive form of the verb (see English verbs for more details). This is usually also the same as the second-person present indicative form, except in the case of the verb to be, where the imperative is be while the indicative is are. (The present subjunctive always has the same form as the imperative, although it is negated differently – the imperative is negated using do not, as in "Don't touch me!"; see do-support. Occasionally do is not used: Dare not touch me!) The imperative form is understood as being in the second person (the subject pronoun you is usually omitted, although it can be included for emphasis), with no explicit indication of singular or plural. First and third person imperatives are expressed periphrastically, using a construction with the imperative of the verb let:

  • Let me (Let's) see. (internal monologue equivalent to a first person singular imperative)
  • Let us (Let's) go. (equivalent to a first person plural imperative)
  • Let us be heard. (royal we in an equivalent to a first person passive imperative; also constructions like "We are to be heard")
  • Let him/her/it/them run. (equivalent to a third person imperative; constructions with may are also used)
  • Let him/her/it/them be counted. (equivalent to a third person passive imperative)

Other languages[edit]

Other languages such as Latin, French and German have a greater variety of inflected imperative forms, marked for person and number, their formation often depending on a verb's conjugation pattern. Examples can be found in the specific language sections below. In languages that make a T–V distinction (tu vs. vous, du vs. Sie, tu vs. você, vs. usted, etc.) the use of particular forms of the second person imperative may also be dependent on the degree of familiarity between the speaker and the addressee, as with other verb forms.

The second person singular imperative often consists of just the stem of the verb, without any ending – this is the case in the Slavic languages, for example.

For example, Te Reo Māori has the imperative me, which in addition to being put in front of sentences to command (e.g. Me horoi ō ringaringa; "(you must) wash your hands"), is used to assert the imperative mood in sentences that would be translated as "let's (let us)" in English. An example of this is Me haere tāua, which translates to "let us (you and me) go", but the "us" component goes last.[3]

Syntax and negation[edit]

Imperative sentences sometimes use different syntax than declarative or other types of clauses. There may also be differences of syntax between affirmative and negative imperative sentences. In some cases the imperative form of the verb is itself different when negated. A distinct negative imperative form is sometimes said to be in prohibitive or vetative mood (abbreviated PROH).

Negative imperatives tell the subject to not do something. They usually begin with the verb "don't" or the negative form of a verb. e.g., example, "Don't be like that."

Many languages, even not normally null-subject languages, omit the subject pronoun in imperative sentences, as usually occurs in English (see below). Details of the syntax of imperative sentences in certain other languages, and of differences between affirmative and negative imperatives, can be found in some of the other specific language sections below.

In writing, imperative phrases and sentences may terminate in an exclamation mark (!).


Imperatives are used principally for ordering, requesting or advising the listener to do (or not to do) something: "Put down the gun!", "Pass me the sauce", "Don't go too near the tiger." They are also often used for giving instructions as to how to perform a task: "Install the file, then restart your computer". They can sometimes be seen on signs giving orders or warnings "Stop", "Give way", "Do not enter".

The use of the imperative mood may be seen as impolite, inappropriate or even offensive in certain circumstances.[4] In polite speech, orders or requests are often phrased instead as questions or statements, rather than as imperatives:

  • Could you come here for a moment? (more polite than "Come here!")
  • It would be great if you made us a drink. (for "Make us a drink!")
  • I have to ask you to stop. (for "Stop!")

Politeness strategies (for instance, indirect speech acts) can seem more appropriate in order not to threaten a conversational partner in their needs of self-determination and territory: the partner's negative face should not appear threatened.[5] As well as the replacement of imperatives with other sentence types as discussed above, there also often exist methods of phrasing an imperative in a more polite manner, such as the addition of a word like please; or a phrase like if you could; or substituting one directive for another, as in the change from will to may e.g, "you will do that" becomes "you may / can do that".

Imperatives are also used for speech acts whose function is not primarily to make an order or request, but to give an invitation, give permission, express a wish, make an apology, et cetera:

  • Come to the party tomorrow! (invitation)
  • Eat the apple if you want. (permission)
  • Have a nice trip! (wish)
  • Pardon me. (apology)

When written, imperative sentences are often, but not always, terminated with an exclamation mark.

First person plural imperatives (cohortatives) are used mainly for suggesting an action to be performed together by the speaker and the addressee (and possibly other people): "Let's go to Barbados this year", "Let us pray". Third person imperatives (jussives) are used to suggest or order that a third party or parties be permitted or made to do something: "Let them eat cake", "Let him be executed".

There is an additional imperative form that is used for general prohibitions, consisting of the word "no" followed by the gerund form. The best known examples are "No Smoking" and "No Parking". This form does not have a positive form; that is, "Parking" by itself has no meaning unless used as a noun when it tells that parking is permitted.

The following sentences demonstrate several different forms of the imperative mood.[6]

  • In the second person without personal pronouns: "Go to your cubicle!"
  • With reflexive pronouns: "Give yourself a break."
  • With a direct object: "Hit the ball."
  • Referring to third-person objects of the main verb: "Okay. The test is over now. They win. Let them go back to the recovery annex. For their cake."
  • As an affirmative imperative (also called positive imperative form): "Go for it!"
  • As a negative imperative (also called a negative command): "Don't do that!"
  • Expressing wishes: "Let's go team-name!"
  • In future tense: "You will behave yourself."

In particular languages[edit]

For more details on imperatives in the languages listed below, and in languages that are not listed, see the articles on the grammar of the specific languages.


English usually omits the subject pronoun in imperative sentences:

  • You work hard. (indicative)
  • Work hard! (imperative; subject pronoun you omitted)

However, it is possible to include the you in imperative sentences for emphasis.

English imperatives are negated using don't (as in "Don't work!") This is a case of do-support as found in indicative clauses; however in the imperative it applies even in the case of the verb be (which does not use do-support in the indicative):

  • You are not late. (indicative)
  • Don't be late! (imperative)

It is also possible to use do-support in affirmative imperatives, for emphasis or (sometimes) politeness: "Do be quiet!", "Do help yourself!".

The subject you may be included for emphasis in negated imperatives as well, following don't: "Don't you dare do that again!"


Latin regular imperatives include:

infinitive 2nd person singular 2nd person plural
amāre (to love) amā amāte
monēre (to advise/warn) monē monēte
audīre (to hear) audī audīte

The negative imperative is formed with the infinitive of the verb, preceded by the imperative of nōlle (to not want):

negative imperative positive imperative
2nd person singular nōlī stāre (don't stand) stā (stand)
2nd person plural nōlīte stāre stāte

For third-person imperatives, the subjunctive mood is used instead.

In Latin there is a peculiar tense in the imperative, which is the future tense that is used when you want the mandate to be fulfilled in the future. This time is used mainly in laws, wills, precepts, etc. However, it is conjugated only with the third and second person singular and plural which carries as a gramme or ending -tō for the second and third person singular, -tōte for the second person plural and -ntō for the third person plural. On the other hand, in other languages of the world there is a distinctive imperative, which also has a future value, but with a previous meaning and this is the so-called past imperative that appears in the French and Greek languages as a point of reference. See Latin conjugation.

Example verb conjugations in the imperative of future tense
amare delere legere audire
singular 2nd person amatō delētō legītō audītō
3rd person amatō delētō legītō audītō
plural 2nd person amātōte delētōte legītōte audītōte
3rd person amantō delentō leguntō audiuntō

Sentence examples of the future imperative:

  • Facito voluntas patris mei. (You will do my father's will.)
  • Numquam iuranto in falso. (They will not swear falsely.)
  • Ne occidito fratrem tuum. (You will not kill your brother.)
  • Facito quae dico vobis. (You will do what I tell you.)
  • Auditote quae dico vobis. (You will listen to what I say.)

Germanic languages[edit]


A peculiar feature of Dutch is that it can form an imperative mood in the pluperfect tense. Its use is fairly common:[7]

  • Had gebeld! (You should have called!, If only you had called)
  • Was gekomen! (You should have come!, If only you had come)


German verbs have a singular and a plural imperative. The singular imperative is equivalent to the bare stem or the bare stem + -e. (In most verbs, both ways are correct.) The plural imperative is the same as the second-person plural of the present tense.

  • Sing! or: Singe! – said to one person: "Sing!"
  • Singt! – said to a group of persons: "Sing!"

In order to emphasize their addressee, German imperatives can be followed by the nominative personal pronouns du ("thou; you SG") or ihr ("you PL"), respectively. For example: "Geh weg!" – "Geh du doch weg!" ("Go away!" – "Why, you go away!").

German has T/V distinction, which means that the pronouns du and ihr are used chiefly towards persons with whom one is privately acquainted, which holds true for the corresponding imperatives. (For details see German grammar.) Otherwise, the social-distance pronoun Sie (you) is used for both singular and plural. Since there exists no actual imperative corresponding to Sie, the form is paraphrased with the third-person plural of the present subjunctive followed by the pronoun:

  • Singen Sie! – said to one or more persons: "Sing!"
  • Seien Sie still! – said to one or more persons: "Be quiet!"

Occasionally, the infinitive (Infinitiv or Infinitiv als Imperativ) may be used as a mild or polite imperative, in order to avoid directly addressing the person or to simplify the sentence's construction. Although sometimes used in spoken language, this form is most commonly used in general instructions and recipes. Examples include:

  • Nicht rauchen! – "No smoking!"
  • Pasta im Salzwasser sehr bissfest kochen und abtropfen lassen. - "Cook the pasta al dente and drain."
  • Bitte nicht berühren! - "Please do not touch!"

Like English, German features many constructions that express commands, wishes, etc. They are thus semantically related to imperatives without being imperatives grammatically:

  • Lasst uns singen! (Let's sing!)
  • Mögest du singen! (You may sing!)
  • Du sollst singen! (You should sing!)

Romance languages[edit]


Examples of regular imperatives in French are mange (2SG), mangez (2PL) and mangeons (1PL, "let's eat"), from manger (to eat) – these are similar or identical to the corresponding present indicative forms, although there are some irregular imperatives that resemble the present subjunctives, such as sois, soyez and soyons, from être (to be). A third person imperative can be formed using a subjunctive clause with the conjunction que, as in qu'ils mangent de la brioche (let them eat cake).

French uses different word order for affirmative and negative imperative sentences:

  • Donne-le-leur. (Give it to them.)
  • Ne le leur donne pas. (Don't give it to them.)

The negative imperative (prohibitive) has the same word order as the indicative. See French personal pronouns § Clitic order for detail. Like in English, imperative sentences often end with an exclamation mark, e.g. to emphasize an order.

In French there is a very distinctive imperative which is the imperative mood of preterite tense also called (past imperative or imperative of future perfect), expresses a given order with previous future value which must be executed or fulfilled in a future not immediate, as if it were an action to come, but earlier in relation to another that will also happen in the future. However, this type of imperative is peculiar to French which has only one purpose: to order that something be done before the date or time, therefore, this will always be accompanied by a circumstantial complement of time. However, this imperative is formed with the auxiliary verb of the avoir compound tenses and with the auxiliary verb être that is also used to form the tenses composed of the pronominal verbs and some of the intransitive verbs, this means that the structure of the verb imperative in its entirety is composed.

Examples of Imperative of Preterite Tense
with the auxiliary avoir
aimer finir ouvrir recevoir rendre mettre
2SG aie aimé aie fini aie ouvert aie reçu aie rendu aie mis
1PL ayons aimé ayons fini ayons ouvert ayons reçu ayons rendu ayons mis
2PL ayez aimé ayez fini ayez ouvert ayez reçu ayez rendu ayez mis
with the auxiliary être
aller partir venir mourir naître devenir
2SG sois allé sois parti sois venu sois mort sois né sois devenu
1PL soyons allés soyons partis soyons venus soyons morts soyons nés soyons devenus
2PL soyez allés soyez partis soyez venus soyez morts soyez nés soyez devenus
  • Soyez levés demain avant huit heures. (Get up tomorrow before eight o'clock.) [With the auxiliary être]
  • Ayez fini le travail avant qu'il (ne) fasse nuit. (Finish the work before it gets dark.) [With the auxiliary avoir and optional expletive ne]
  • Aie écrit le livre demain. (Write the book tomorrow.) [With the auxiliary avoir]
  • Soyez partis à midi. (Leave at noon.) [With the auxiliary être]
  • Ayons fini les devoirs à 6 h. (Let us complete homework at 6 o'clock.) [With the auxiliary avoir]

In English there is no equivalent grammatical structure to form this tense of the imperative mood; it is translated in imperative mood of present with previous value.


In Spanish, imperatives for the familiar singular second person () are usually identical to indicative forms for the singular third person. However, there are irregular verbs for which unique imperative forms for exist. vos (alternative to ) usually takes the same forms as (usually with slightly different emphasis) but unique forms exist for it as well. vosotros (plural familiar second person) also takes unique forms for the imperative.

Infinitive 3rd person
vos usted vosotros /
comer come come comé* coma comed* coman
beber bebe bebe bebé* beba bebed* beban
tener tiene ten* tené* tenga tened* tengan
decir dice di* decí* diga decid* digan
* = unique verb that only exists for this imperative form

If an imperative takes a pronoun as an object, it is appended to the verb; for example, Dime (Tell me). Pronouns can be stacked like they can in indicative clauses:

  • Me lo dices. (You tell me it or You tell it to me, can also mean You tell me as lo usually is not translated)
  • Dímelo. (Tell me it, Tell it to me, Tell me)

Imperatives can be formed for usted (singular formal second person), ustedes (plural second person), and nosotros (plural first person) from the respective present subjunctive form. Negative imperatives for these pronouns (as well as , vos, and vosotros) are also formed this way, but are negated by no (e.g. No cantes, "Don't sing").


In Portuguese, affirmative imperatives for singular and plural second person (tu / vós) derive from their respective present indicative conjugations, after having their final -s dropped.[pt 1] On the other hand, their negative imperatives are formed by their respective subjunctive forms, as well as both affirmative and negative imperatives for treatment pronouns (você(s)) and plural first person (nós).

infinitive indicative imperative
tu vós affirmative negative você vocês nós
tu vós tu vós
comer comes comeis come comei não comas não comais (não) coma (não) comam (não) comamos
beber bebes bebeis bebe bebei não bebas não bebais (não) beba (não) bebam (não) bebamos
ter tens tendes tem tende não tenhas não tenhais (não) tenha (não) tenham (não) tenhamos
dizer dizes dizeis diz(e) dizei não digas não digais (não) diga (não) digam (não) digamos
  1. ^ There are some exceptions to this rule; mainly for phonetical reasons and for vós, which hold vós's archaic conjugation paradigm, -des.

If a verb takes a pronoun, it should be appended to the verb:

  • Diz(e)-me. (Tell me) Portugal/Brazil
  • Me diz. (Tell me) Brazil (spoken)
  • Diz(e)-mo. (Tell me it, Tell it to me)

Celtic languages[edit]


In spoken Welsh most verbs can form two imperatives, both in the second person: one for singular and one for plural/polite singular. The singular imperative is formed by adding –a to the verbal-stem (gwel-gwela 'see!') while the plural/polite form takes –wch: gwelwch 'see!'. In informal writing, the plural/polite form is often used to translate 'please' as in talwch yma '(please) pay here' (talwch is the plural/polite imperative form of talu 'to pay').

In literary Welsh there are imperatives for all persons and numbers, except for the first-person singular. These must often be translated using phrases in English: gwelwn 'let us see'; gwelent 'let them see'; wele 'let him/her/it see'; gweler 'let it be seen, it is to be seen'. In the literary language the second person singular suffix –a is often not used: gwela (spoken), but gwêl (literary); tala (spoken), but tâl (literary).

The five irregular Welsh verbs (bod, mynd, dod, cael and gwneud) also have irregular imperative forms which also differ between the spoken and literary languages.

Irregular verbs
2nd person 3rd person 1st person impersonal
singular plural singular plural plural
'to be'
spoken bydd(a) byddwch
literary bydded, boed, bid byddent byddwn bydder
'to go'
dos ewch
'to come'
spoken tyrd, dere dewch, dowch
literary dere, tyrd, tyred deuwch, dewch, dowch deued, doed, deled deuent, doent, delent deuwn, down deuer, doer, deler
'to do, to make'
gwna gwnewch
'to get'
literary[a] ca cewch
  1. ^ cael has no imperative forms in the spoken language


Irish has imperative forms in all three persons and both numbers, although the first person singular is most commonly found in the negative (e.g. ná cloisim sin arís "let me not hear that again").

Indic Languages[edit]


In Hindi-Urdu (Hindustani) the imperatives are conjugated by adding suffixes to the root verb. The negative and positive imperatives are not constructed differently in Hindustani. There are three negations that be used to form negative imperatives.[8] They are:

Often to soften down the tone of the imperatives, the subjunctive and indicative negation are used to form negative imperatives. Imperatives can also be formed using subjunctives to give indirect commands to the third person and to formal second person.[9] A peculiar feature of Hindi-Urdu is that it has imperatives in two tenses; present and the future tense.[10] The present tense imperative gives command in the present and future imperative gives command for the future. Hindi-Urdu explicitly marks grammatical aspects and any verb can be put into the simple, habitual, perfective, and progressive aspects. Each aspect in turn can be conjugated into five different grammatical moods, imperative mood being one of them.

करना karnā کرنا (to do) conjugated into the imperative mood for all the four aspectual forms
2nd person pronouns Translation
Intimate Familiar Formal

Present कर
do nowǃ
Future करियो
do laterǃ
Present करता रह
kartā rêh
کرتا رہ
करते रहो
karte raho
کرتے رہو
करते रहिये
karte rahiye
کرتے رہے
keep doingǃ
करती रह
kartī rêh
کرتی رہ
करती रहो
kartī raho
کرتی رہو
करती रहिये
kartī rahiye
کرتی رہے
Future करता रहियो
kartā rahiyo
کرتا رہیو
करते रहना
karte rêhnā
کرتے رہنا
करते रहियेगा
karte rahiyegā
کرتے رہیگا
keep doing later as wellǃ
करती रहियो
kartī rahiyo
لڑتی رہیو
करती रहना
kartī rêhnā
کرتی رہنا
करती रहियेगा
kartī rahiyegā
کرتی رہیگا
Present किया रह
kiyā rêh
کیا رہ
किये रहो
kiye raho
کے رہو
किये रहिये
kiye rahiye
کے رہے
keep (it) done nowǃ
की रह
kī rêh
کی رہ
की रहो
kī raho
کی رہو
की रहिये
kī rahiye
کی رہے
Future किया रहियो
kiyā rahiyo
کیا رہیو
किये रहना
kiye rêhnā
کے رہنا
किये रहियेगा
kiye rahiyegā
کے رہیگا
keep (it) done laterǃ
की रहियो
kī rahiyo
کی رہیو
की रहना
kī rêhnā
کی رہنا
की रहियेगा
kī rahiyegā
کی رہیگا
Present कर रहा रह
kar rahā rêh
کر رہا رہ
कर रहे रहो
kar rahe raho
کر رہے رہو
कर रहे रहिये
kar rahe rahiye
کر رہے رہے
be/continue doingǃ
कर रही रह
kar rahī rêh
کر رہی رہ
कर रही रहो
kar rahī raho
کر رہی رہو
कर रही रहिये
kar rahī rahiye
کر رہی رہے
Future कर रहा रहियो
kar rahā rahiyo
کر رہا رہیو
कर रहे रहना
kar rahe rêhnā
کر رہے رہنا
कर रहे रहियेगा
kar rahe rahiyegā
کر رہے رہیگا
be/stay doingǃ
कर रही रहियो
kar rahī rahiyo
کر رہی رہیو
कर रही रहना
kar rahī rêhnā
کر رہی رہنا
कर रही रहियेगा
kar rahī rahiyegā
کر رہی رہیگا


In Sanskrit, लोट् लकार, lōṭ lakāra is used with the verb to form the imperative mood. To form the negative, , na or मा, (when the verb is in passive or active voice respectively) is placed before the verb in the imperative mood.


Standard modern Bengali uses the negative postposition /nā/ after a future imperative formed using the -iyo fusional suffix (in addition, umlaut vowel changes in the verb root might take place).

Other Indo-European languages[edit]


Ancient Greek has imperative forms for present, aorist, and perfect tenses for the active, middle, and passive voices. Within these tenses, forms exist for second and third persons, for singular, dual, and plural subjects. Subjunctive forms with μή are used for negative imperatives in the aorist.

present active imperative
singular 2nd person λεῖπε
3rd person λειπέτω
plural 2nd person λείπετε
3rd person λειπόντων

In ancient Greek, the general order (with the idea of duration or repetition) is expressed using the present imperative and the punctual order (without the idea of duration or repetition) using the aorist imperative.


The commanding form in Russian language is formed from the base of the present tense.[11] The most common form of the second person singular or plural. The form of the second person singular in the imperative mood is formed as follows:

  • A verb with a present stem ending in – j – the form of the second person singular of the imperative mood is equal to the base: читаj-у — читай, убираj-у — убирай, открываj-у — открывай, поj-у — пой.

Non-Indo-European languages[edit]


In Finnish, there are two ways of forming a first-person plural imperative. A standard version exists, but it is typically replaced colloquially by the impersonal tense.

Forms also exist for second and third person. Only first person singular does not have an imperative.

mennä (to go)
singular plural
1st person standard form menkäämme
colloquial mennään
2nd person mene menkää
3rd person menköön menkööt


In classical Hebrew, there is a form for positive imperative. It exists for singular and plural, masculine and feminine second-person. The imperative conjugations look like shortages of the future ones. However, in modern Hebrew, the future tense is often used in its place in colloquial speech, and the proper imperative form is considered formal or of higher register.

The negative imperative in those languages is more complicated. In modern Hebrew, for instance, it contains a synonym of the word "no", that is used only in negative imperative (אַל), and is followed by the future tense.

The verb 'to write' in singular, masculine
Future Indicative Imperative / Prohibitive
Affirmative tikhtovתכתוב
'You will write'
Negative lo tikhtovלא תכתוב
'You will not write'
al tikhtovאל תכתוב
'Don't write!'
The verb 'to write' in singular, feminine
Future Indicative Imperative / Prohibitive
Affirmative tikhteviתכתבי
'You will write'
Negative lo tikhteviלא תכתבי
'You will not write'
al tikhteviאל תכתבי
'Don't write!'
The verb 'to dictate' in singular, masculine
Future Indicative Imperative / Prohibitive
Affirmative takhtivתכתיב
'You will dictate'
Negative lo takhtivלא תכתיב
'You will not dictate'
al takhtivאל תכתיב
'Don't dictate!'


Japanese uses separate verb forms as shown below.

For the verb kaku ('write')
Form Indicative Imperative
/ Prohibitive
Affirmative 書く kaku 書け kake
Negative 書かない kakanai 書くな kakuna

See also the suffixes なさい (–nasai) and 下さい (–kudasai).


Korean has six levels of honorific, all of which have their own imperative endings. Auxiliary verbs 않다 anta and 말다 malda are used for negative indicative and prohibitive, respectively.

For the verb gada ('go'):
Level Indicative
Imperative Indicative
(formal) Hasipsio-style 가십니다
가지 않으십니다
gaji aneusimnida
가지 마십시오
gaji masipsio[vn 1]
Haeyo-style 가세요
가지 않으세요
gaji aneuseyo
가지 마세요
gaji maseyo[vn 1]
Hao-style 가시오
가지 않으시오
gaji aneusio
가지 마시오
gaji masio[vn 1]
Hage-style 가네
가지 않네
gaji anne
가지 말게
gaji malge

가지 않아
gaji ana
가지 마
gaji ma[vn 2]
(informal) Haera-style 간다
가지 않는다
gaji anneunda
가지 마라
gaji mara[vn 2]
  1. ^ a b c Verb and adjective stems that end in ㄹ l, including mal-, eliminate the last l before suffixes starting with l (not r), n, o, p, and s.
  2. ^ a b An imperative suffix -a(ra) contracts mal- to ma- exceptionally. The other verbs are not contracted by -a(ra).


Standard Chinese uses different words of negation for the indicative and the prohibitive moods.

For the verb zuò ('do')
Indicative Imperative
/ Prohibitive
Affirmative zuò zuò
Negative 不做 búzuò 别做 biézuò


For the imperative form, the second-person singular, Turkish uses the bare verb stem without the infinitive ending -mek/-mak. Other imperative forms use various suffixes. The second-person plural, which can also be used to express formality (See T–V distinction), uses the suffixes -in/-ın/-ün/-un. The second person double-plural, reserved for super formal contexts (usually public notifications), uses the suffixes -iniz/-ınız/-ünüz/-unuz. Third-person singular uses -sin/-sın/-sün/-sun. Third-person plural uses -sinler/-sınlar/-sünler/-sunlar (There is no third person double-plural in Turkish). First-person pronouns do not have imperative forms. All Turkish imperative suffixes change depending on the verb stem according to the rules of vowel harmony.

Imperative forms of the verb içmek (to drink, to smoke a cigarette or similar)
2nd-person singular İç (Drink)
plural İçin (Drink)
double-plural İçiniz (Drink, e.g. Soğuk içiniz "Drink cold" on soft drinks)
3rd-person singular İçsin (Let him/her drink)
plural İçsinler (Let them drink)

Turkish also has a separate optative mood. Conjugations of the optative mood for the first-person pronouns are sometimes incorrectly said to be first-person imperatives. Conjugations of the optative mood for second and third-person pronouns exist, but are rarely used in practice.

Conjugations of the optative mood for pronouns
1st-person singular içeyim
(double-)plural içelim
2nd person singular içesin
(double-)plural içesiniz
3rd person singular içe
plural içeler

Negative imperative forms are made in the same way, but using a negated verb as the base. For example, the second person singular imperative of içmemek (not to drink) is içme (don't drink). Other Turkic languages construct imperative forms similarly to Turkish.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Jary, Mark; Kissine, Mikhail (2016). "When terminology matters: The imperative as a comparative concept". Linguistics. 54. doi:10.1515/ling-2015-0039. S2CID 147583469.
  2. ^ Han, Chung-hye (January 1998). "The structure and interpretation of imperatives: Mood and force in universal grammar". pp. 1–237.
  3. ^ "Commands". Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  4. ^ Wierzbicka, Anna, "Cross-Cultural Pragmatics", Mouton de Gruyter, 1991. ISBN 3-11-012538-2
  5. ^ Brown, P., and S. Levinson. "Universals in language use", in E. N. Goody (ed.), Questions and Politeness (Cambridge and London, 1978, Cambridge University Press: 56-310)
  6. ^ "Imperative Mood Explained: 8 Examples of the Imperative Mood - 2023 - MasterClass". Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  7. ^ A.M. Duinhoven, 'Had gebeld! De irreële imperatief', in: Tijdschrift voor Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde. Jaargang 111(1995)
  8. ^ Bhatt, Rajesh; Sharma, Ghanshyam (2018). Trends in Hindi Linguistics. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. p. 315. ISBN 978-3-11-060698-0.
  9. ^ "Third Person Imperatives in Hindi". 6 August 2013.
  10. ^ "Deferred imperatives across Indo-Aryan" (PDF). Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  11. ^ Валгина Н.С., Розенталь Д.Э. Современный русский язык. 1987, Moscow, page 322—323. isbn 978-5-8112-6640-1


  • Austin, J. L. How to do things with words, Oxford, Clarendon Press 1962.
  • Schmecken, H. Orbis Romanus, Paderborn, Schöningh 1975, ISBN 3-506-10330-X.