Imperial Chinese Navy

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Imperial Chinese Navy
Flag of the Qing dynasty (1889-1912).svg
Active 1132 – 1912
Country China
Allegiance Qing dynasty
Branch Navy
Garrison/HQ Shanghai
Fleets Beiyang Fleet
Fujian Fleet
Guangdong Fleet
Nanyang Fleet
Treasure fleet

The Imperial Chinese Navy (北洋艦隊) came into existence from 1132 [1] during the Song Dynasty to the end of the Qing period in 1912.

History[edit]

Prior to the 12th century, Chinese naval ships were not organized into a uniform force. After 1911, it was replaced by the Republic of China Navy and then the People's Liberation Army Navy after 1949.

Fleets[edit]

Bases[edit]

  • Dinghai - as admiralty headquarters during the 12th century
  • Canton (now Guangzhou) - fleet base of the Qing navy in the late 19th century
  • Foochow Arsenal, near Fuzhou (1866—1884) - fleet base of the Qing navy and naval yard and School of Naval Administration in the late 19th century; ancient shipbuilding centre
  • Shanghai - fleet base of the Qing navy in the late 19th century
  • Tianjin - fleet base of the Qing navy in the late 19th century and home to the Tianjin Naval Academy
  • Liugong Island (1888) - birthplace of the Qing navy and base from 1888 to 1898; later served as Royal Navy base until 1930
  • Weihaiwei - naval port; served as Royal Navy base from 1898 until 1930
  • Dalian - extensively developed as a modern naval base in late 19th century, only to be captured by the Japanese during the First Sino-Japanese War. Taken over by the Russians in 1898 under a 99-year lease, as the price of diplomatic intervention on the behalf of the Chinese, it became a Russian naval base until the Russo-Japanese War.

Personnel[edit]

Included:[3]

Ship types[edit]

Pre-19th-century ships were wood and of various sizes.

  • fu po (warship) - 19th-century ships
  • hai hu or sea hawks
  • combat junks
  • louchuan (樓船) - tower ships of the Ming dynasty
  • mengchong or covered swoopers (艨艟): leather-covered assault warship - ships of the Three Kingdoms period
  • river boats - Song Dynasty
  • wugongchuan, or centipede ship - 16th century galley based on Portuguese types
  • yu ting or patrol boats
  • zhan xian or combat junks
  • zou ge or flying barques

Following the First Opium War, the Qing improved their naval fleet with modern ships from Europe:

Flags[edit]

Flags shown are for the Imperial Chinese Navy during the period 1909 to 1911:[4]

Notes:The Commodore was not a substantive rank, but rather a captain commanding a squadron.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 3, Civil Engineering and Nautics. Taipei:. Caves Books Ltd. p. 476. 
  2. ^ Li, Guotong (Sep 8, 2016). Migrating Fujianese: Ethnic, Family, and Gender Identities in an Early Modern Maritime World. BRILL. p. 71. ISBN 9789004327214. 
  3. ^ Li, Miles. "Imperial Chinese Navy Flags (1909)". crwflags.com. CRW Flags, 24 May 2007. Retrieved 12 March 2017. 
  4. ^ Li, Miles. "Imperial Chinese Navy Flags (1909)". crwflags.com. CRW Flags, 24 May 2007. Retrieved 12 March 2017. 

Sources[edit]

  • Cole, Bernard D. The Great Wall at Sea: China's Navy in the Twenty-First Century (2nd ed., 2010)
  • Graff, David Andrew and Robin Higham (2002). A Military History of China. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Miles Li, (2007) "Fujian Arsenal" temporary exhibition at the Hong Kong Museum of Coastal Defence.
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 3, Civil Engineering and Nautics. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.

External links[edit]