Imperial Government (Ottoman Empire)

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The Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire was the government structure added to the Ottoman governing structure during the Second Constitutional Era. The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) was in power between 1908 and 1918. In this period, most of the ministers were also from the CUP.

The imperial government was housed in the block of buildings referred to metonymously as the Sublime Porte, and was composed of:

Education Minister[edit]

War Department[edit]

Ministers of War[edit]

  • Ömer Rüştü Pasha from July 23, 1908 to August 7, 1908
  • Recep Pasha from August 7, 1908 to March 4, 1909
  • Ali Rıza Pasha from March 4, 1909 to April 28, 1909
  • Salih Hulusi Pasha from April 28, 1909 to January 12, 1910
  • Mahmud Şevket Pasha from January 12, 1910 to July 29, 1912
  • Nazim Pasha from July 29, 1912 to January 22, 1913
  • Mahmud Shevket Pasha January 23, 1913 to June 11, 1913
  • Ahmed Izzet Pasha June 18, 1913 to October 5, 1913
  • Curuksulu Mahmud Pasha 5 October 1913 – 3 January 1914)
  • Enver Pasha from January 3, 1914 to October 4, 1918
  • Ahmed Izzet Pasha from October 14, 1918 to November 11, 1918
  • Kölemen Abdullah Pasha from November 11, 1918 to December 19, 1918
  • Cevat Çobanlı from December 19, 1918 to January 13, 1919
  • Ömer Yaver Pasha (January 13, 1919 - February 24, 1919)
  • Ali Ferid Pasha (February 24, 1919 - March 4, 1919)
  • Abuk Ahmet Pasha (March 4, 1919 - April 2, 1919)
  • Mehmet Şakir Pasha (April 2, 1919 - 19 May, 1919)
  • Şevket Turgut Pasha (May 19, 1919 - June 29, 1919)
  • Ali Ferid Pasha (29 May, 1919 - 21 July, 1919)
  • Nazım Pasha (July 21, 1919 - August 13, 1919)
  • Süleyman Şefik Pasha (August 13, 1919 - October 2, 1919)
  • Cemal Pasha (October 2, 1919 - January 21, 1920)
  • Salih Hulusi Pasha (January 21, 1920 - February 3, 1920)
  • Mustafa Fevzi Pasha (February 3, 1920 - April 5, 1920)
  • Damat Ferid Pasha (Acting) (April 5, 1920 - June 10, 1920)
  • Ahmet Hamdi Pasha (10 June, 1920 - 30 July, 1920)
  • Hüseyin Hüsnü Pasha (July 31, 1920 - October 21, 1920)
  • Çürüksulu Ziya Pasha (October 21, 1920 - November 4, 1922)

War Council[edit]

Chiefs of General Staff

British Naval Mission[edit]

The British Naval Mission was led by

[1]

French Gendarmerie Mission[edit]

French Gendarmerie Mission was led by General Moujen.

German Military Mission[edit]

The German military mission become the third most important command center (Sultan, Minister of War, Head of Mission) for the Ottoman Army.

The initial contact was established during the Balkan Wars by Grand Vizier Said Halim Pasha and Minister of War Ahmed Izzet Pasha. Kaiser Wilhelm II sent General Goltz’s mission, which served two periods in Turkey within two years (8 months total).

The German mission was accredited from 27 October 1913 to 1918. General Otto Liman von Sanders, previously commander of the 22nd Division, was assigned by the Kaiser to Constantinople.[2][3] Germany considered an Ottoman-Russian war to be imminent, and Liman von Sanders was a general with excellent knowledge of the Russian armed forces. The Ottoman Empire was undecided about which side to take in a future war involving Germany, Britain and France. The 9th article of the German Military Mission stated that in case of a war the contract would be annulled.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "The International Significance of British Naval Missions to the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1914". Retrieved 1 March 2015. 
  2. ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.7, Edited by Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 3; Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire...
  3. ^ Britannica, Istanbul:When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved to Ankara, and Constantinople was officially renamed Istanbul in 1930.