Imphal

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Imphal
ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ

Yumphal (ꯌꯨꯝꯐꯥꯜ)
Capital City
Skyline of Imphal
Skyline of Imphal
Imphal ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ is located in Manipur
Imphal ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ
Imphal
ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ
Location of Imphal in Manipur
Imphal ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ is located in India
Imphal ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ
Imphal
ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ
Imphal
ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ (India)
Coordinates: 24°48′27″N 93°56′18″E / 24.8074°N 93.9384°E / 24.8074; 93.9384Coordinates: 24°48′27″N 93°56′18″E / 24.8074°N 93.9384°E / 24.8074; 93.9384
CountryIndia India
State Manipur
DistrictImphal East, Imphal West
Government
 • BodyImphal Municipal Corporation
 • MayorL. Lokeshwor Singh
Elevation
786 m (2,579 ft)
Population
 (2016 census)
 • Total268,243
Languages
 • OfficialMeeteilon (Manipuri) and English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
795001
Telephone code3852
Vehicle registrationMN-01
Websitewww.imphalwest.nic.in

Imphal (Meitei: ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ) ([ɪmˈfɑl] (About this soundlisten)) is the capital city of the Indian state of Manipur. The metropolitan centre of the city contains the ruins of Kangla Palace (also known as Kangla Fort), the royal seat of the former Kingdom of Manipur, surrounded by a moat.

History[edit]

Initially ruled by Kin Khaba, Imphal was later ruled by the Pakhangba leaders. The clan of the Ningthouja tribe originated then. The Ningthouja tribe quickly expanded and dominated the region in politics and war. Kangla Palace was built by King Khagemba and his son Khunjaoba. The palace was later destroyed by the British during the Anglo-Manipur War. During the reign of Maharaja Bhagyachandra, there were a number of Burmese invasions. However, the kingdom survived with the help of Maharaj Gambhir Singh.

Imphal remained peaceful until 1891 when the British arrived to intervene in internal differences between the royal family. The British sent J.W. Quinton to help but the situation only grew worse and Senapati Tikendrajit was banished. The autocratic British behavior made people angry. This resulted in the 1891 Anglo-Manipur War, which the British won.[1]

The Battle of Imphal took place between March and July 1944, during World War II. The Japanese invaded Imphal to capture British Colonies. However, they were defeated and had to retreat. This attack made the British realise the militarily strategic position of Imphal.[2]

Demographics[edit]

As of 2016 the population within Imphal's city limits was 268,243. The average literacy rate in the town was over 90%, with a male literacy rate of 95% and female literacy rate of 87%. Nearly 70% of the inhabitants were Hindu, 10% were Christian, 3.8℅ Sanamahist, 3.7% Muslim, 0.54% Buddhist, 0.45% Jain, and 0.18% Sikh.[3]

The Imphal East and Imphal West districts together have a population of 918,739, which includes Imphal Municipality and the towns and suburbs of Bijoy Govinda, Chingangbam Leikai, Khongman, Khurai Sajor Leikai, Kiyamgei, Kongkham Leikai (portion), Laipham Siphai, Lairikyengbam Leikai, Lamjaotongba, Lamshang, Langjing, Langthabal Kunja, Langthabal Mantrikhong (portion), Lilong (Imphal West), Lilong (Thoubal), Naorem Leikai, Naoria Pakhanglakpa, Oinam Thingel, Porompat, Porompat Plan Area, Pangei, Sagolband (portion), Takyel Mapal, Thongju, and Torban (Khetri Leikai).[3]

Geography and climate[edit]

Imphal
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
12
 
 
21
4
 
 
31
 
 
23
7
 
 
92
 
 
27
11
 
 
133
 
 
28
15
 
 
159
 
 
29
18
 
 
225
 
 
29
21
 
 
223
 
 
29
22
 
 
195
 
 
29
21
 
 
147
 
 
29
20
 
 
112
 
 
28
16
 
 
46
 
 
25
11
 
 
15
 
 
22
5
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: IMD[4]

Imphal is located at 24°48′27″N 93°56′18″E / 24.8074°N 93.9384°E / 24.8074; 93.9384 in extreme eastern India,[5] with an average elevation of 786 metres (2,579 ft). It has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa)[6] with mild, dry winters and a hot monsoon season. Temperatures in July average about 29 °C (84 °F); January is the coldest month, with average lows near 4 °C (39 °F). The city receives about 1,320 mm (52 in) of rain, with June the wettest month. The highest recorded temperature was 35.6 °C (96.1 °F), on 22 May 2009, and the lowest temperature was −2.7 °C (27.1 °F) on 10 January 1970.[4][7]

Climate data for Imphal (1981–2010, extremes 1953–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.8
(82.0)
32.0
(89.6)
35.0
(95.0)
34.5
(94.1)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
35.7
(96.3)
34.0
(93.2)
34.5
(94.1)
34.2
(93.6)
30.7
(87.3)
28.9
(84.0)
35.7
(96.3)
Average high °C (°F) 21.2
(70.2)
23.3
(73.9)
26.9
(80.4)
28.3
(82.9)
29.1
(84.4)
29.6
(85.3)
29.4
(84.9)
29.0
(84.2)
28.9
(84.0)
28.7
(83.7)
25.9
(78.6)
22.3
(72.1)
26.9
(80.4)
Average low °C (°F) 4.3
(39.7)
7.2
(45.0)
11.2
(52.2)
15.3
(59.5)
18.2
(64.8)
21.1
(70.0)
21.2
(70.2)
21.3
(70.3)
20.1
(68.2)
16.1
(61.0)
10.8
(51.4)
5.3
(41.5)
14.2
(57.6)
Record low °C (°F) −2.7
(27.1)
−1.4
(29.5)
2.4
(36.3)
6.2
(43.2)
11.1
(52.0)
14.7
(58.5)
15.4
(59.7)
14.6
(58.3)
14.3
(57.7)
7.8
(46.0)
1.5
(34.7)
−1.7
(28.9)
−2.7
(27.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 11.5
(0.45)
43.4
(1.71)
81.2
(3.20)
154.6
(6.09)
174.3
(6.86)
221.6
(8.72)
231.4
(9.11)
186.8
(7.35)
157.2
(6.19)
122.3
(4.81)
34.7
(1.37)
17.8
(0.70)
1,436.7
(56.56)
Average rainy days 1.1 3.3 6.1 10.3 11.8 15.4 16.1 12.9 10.2 7.3 2.4 1.0 97.9
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 60 54 53 62 69 77 79 79 80 78 74 70 70
Source: India Meteorological Department[8][9][10]

Tourist attractions[edit]

Kangla Palace[edit]

Kangla Palace (also known as Kangla Fort) is on the banks of the Imphal River. Kangla means "dry land" in the Meitei language. It was the palace of King Pakhangba, and also has religious significance. There are a number of temples, and it is surrounded on three sides by a lake.[citation needed]

Bihu Loukon[edit]

Bihu Loukon is an ancient star-shaped fort made of mud. It is situated in Maklang, Imphal West District.

Hiyangthang Lairembi Temple Complex[edit]

A religious site and a tourist attraction, the Hiyangthang Lairembi Temple Complex is noted for its annual Durga Puja festival in September or October.

India Peace Memorial (Red Hill)[edit]

The Red Hill is 17 km south of Imphal City on Tiddim Road. The place was the scene of action and the theater of the battle that took place between Allied Forces and Japanese Forces fighting alongside the Indian National Army (INA) in World War II. Red Hill has now become a tourist attraction since the Japanese war veterans constructed a monument at the foot of this hill.

Imphal War Cemetery[edit]

This cemetery remembers British and Indian soldiers who fought and died in 1944 during World War II.

Women's Market (Ima Keithel)[edit]

The market stalls are all run by women, and it is reportedly the only such market in the world.[11]

Three Mothers Art Gallery is an art museum located at Thangapat Road, Palace Compound, 4.3 km from Imphal.

Transport[edit]

Air[edit]

Green buildings with pyramid-shaped roofs
Bir Tikendrajit International Airport

Tulihal International Airport is 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the city and has direct flights to major Indian cities.[12]

Road[edit]

Dark highway, with oncoming headlights
National Highway 150 in Imphal

Imphal is connected by the National Highway to major cities like Guwahati, Kohima, Agartala, Shillong, Dimapur, Aizawl, and Silchar.

Railway[edit]

In October 2012, India's Cabinet Committee on Infrastructure approved an extension of the Jiribam–Silchar railway to Imphal. The extension was expected to reach the city by 2019.[13][14] The total length of the railway line is 110.62 km. The revised estimated cost of construction for the railway line sits at Rs 9658 crore, with Rs 4927.54 crore being spent as of 2019.

Sports[edit]

Khuman Lampak Main Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Imphal. It is used mostly for football and athletics. The stadium holds 30,000 people and was built in 1999. This stadium lies inside the Khuman Lampak Sports Complex. The professional football club NEROCA FC of I League uses the stadium as their home ground.

Education[edit]

Universities[edit]

Yellow-and-green buildings forming a narrow archway
Manipur University main gate

Technical colleges[edit]

Medical colleges[edit]

Rectangular pink building with glass front
City Convention Centre

Schools[edit]

There are many schools in Imphal affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education and Indian Certificate of Secondary Education Board, as well as state government schools.

  • Areca School, Ragailong
  • Comet School, Changangei
  • Dav Public School, Chingmeirong
  • Don Bosco School Imphal, Chingmeirong
  • Guru Nanak Public School
  • Herbert School
  • Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya including Khumbong (Imphal west), Imphal east, Bishnupur, CCpur, Ukrul, Thoubal, Tamenglong and Senapati
  • Johnstone Higher Secondary Public School
  • Maria International Montessori School, Koirengei
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya No 1 Imphal, Lamphelpat
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya No 2 Imphal, Langjing
  • Little Flower School
  • Lodestar Public School
  • Manipur Public School
  • Sainik International School & College Imphal
  • St. Anthony's English School & College Imphal
  • St. John English High School, Nambol, Bishnupur District
  • St. Joseph School
  • St. Paul's English School
  • Sanfort International School & College Imphal
  • Sangai Higher Secondary Public School

Healthcare[edit]

Imphal has many private and government hospitals that are open 24 hours.

Notable people[edit]

  • M. K. Binodini Devi, novelist, short story writer, playwright and a member of the royal family of Manipur
  • Yumlembam Gambhini Devi, recipient of the 1988 Sangeet Natak Akademi Award and the 2005 fourth highest civilian honour, the Padma Shri, for her contributions to Manipuri dance and music
  • Ngairangbam Bijoy Singh, doctor and politician
  • Ratan Thiyam, theatre director and chairman of the Chorus Theatre Imphal, former chairman at National School of Drama
  • Neelamani Devi, craftswoman and master potter who was awarded the Padma Shri in 2007 for her contributions to the art of pottery making
  • Mary Kom, boxer and national representative at world sport events
  • Dingko Singh, boxer who won a gold medal at the 1998 Asian Games in Bangkok and was awarded the Padma Shri in 2013
  • Binalakshmi Nepram, humanitarian, author, and female activist for gender rights and women-led disarmament movements in Manipur and northeast India
  • Irom Chanu Sharmila, also known as the "Iron Lady" or "Mengoubi" ("the fair one"), a civil rights activist, political activist, and poet
  • Robert Naorem, designer representative of indigenous designs of Manipur and involved in the Hindi film industry
  • Dheeraj Singh Moirangthem, footballer
  • Bombayla Devi Laishram, archer who was awarded the Arjuna Award in 2012 and the Padma Shri in 2019 by the Government of India for her contributions to sports
  • Armstrong Pame, Indian Administrative Service officer from Tamenglong

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "History Of Imphal - Imphal History". www.iloveindia.com. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  2. ^ "Imphal and Kohima". Britain's Greatest Battles. National Army Museum. Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  3. ^ a b "Imphal City Population, Manipur". www.census2011.co.in. Census 2011. 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Imphal, India". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  5. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Imphal, India". Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  6. ^ "Climate: Imphal - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
  7. ^ "Ever Recorded Maximum Temperature, Minimum Temperature and 24 Hours Heaviest Rainfall upto 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  8. ^ "Station: Imphal/Tulihal (A) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 335–336. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  9. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M156. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  10. ^ "Imphal Climatological Table 1971–2000". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  11. ^ "Ima Keithel – A market by women". She. msn. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  12. ^ "Imphal". Airports Authority of India. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  13. ^ "Govt approves rail link to Imphal". The Indian Express. 26 October 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  14. ^ "NFR – Jiribam-Imphal Rail Line – Manipur". Construction Intelligence Centre. Archived from the original on 19 January 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  15. ^ "Manipur University". Archived from the original on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  16. ^ "Welcome To NIT Manipur". Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  17. ^ "MTU". mtu.ac.in. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  18. ^ "Regional Institute of Medical Sciences". Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  19. ^ "JNIMS". Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2014.

External links[edit]