Impostor syndrome (also known as impostor phenomenon, impostorism, fraud syndrome or the impostor experience) is a psychological pattern in which an individual doubts their skills, talents, or accomplishments and has a persistent internalized fear of being exposed as a "fraud". Despite external evidence of their competence, those experiencing this phenomenon remain convinced that they are frauds and do not deserve all they have achieved. Individuals with impostorism incorrectly attribute their success to luck or the Matthew effect, for example, or they incorrectly interpret it as a result of deceiving others into thinking they are more intelligent than they perceive themselves to be. Impostor syndrome also occurs in normal human-to-human relationships. Based on this syndrome, continuing doubts about people and individual defense mechanisms are considered difficult to achieve healthy relationships. While early research focused on the prevalence among high-achieving women, impostor syndrome has been recognized to affect both men and women equally.
Impostor syndrome also occurs in the context of mental illness and its treatment. Certain individuals may see themselves as less ill (less depressed, less anxious) than their peers or other mentally ill people, citing their lack of severe symptoms as the indication of no or a minor underlying issue. People with this form often do not seek help for their issues, because they see their problems as not worthy of psychiatric attention.
The term impostor phenomenon was introduced in an article published in 1978, entitled "The Impostor Phenomenon in High Achieving Women: Dynamics and Therapeutic Intervention" by Pauline R. Clance and Suzanne A. Imes. Further research showed that imposter syndrome occurs in both men and women.
Clance and Imes defined impostor phenomenon as an individual experience of self-perceived intellectual phoniness. Impostor experience may be accompanied by anxiety, stress, rumination, or depression.
The researchers investigated the prevalence of this internal experience by interviewing a sample of 150 high-achieving women in the United States. All of the participants had been formally recognized for their professional excellence by colleagues, and had displayed academic achievement through degrees earned and standardized testing scores. Despite the consistent evidence of external validation, these women lacked the internal acknowledgement of their accomplishments. The participants explained how their success was a result of luck, and others simply overestimating their intelligence and abilities. Clance and Imes believed that this mental framework for impostor phenomenon developed from factors such as: gender stereotypes, early family dynamics, culture, and attribution style. The researchers determined that the women who experienced impostor phenomenon showcased symptoms related to depression, generalized anxiety, and low self-confidence.
Measuring impostor phenomenon
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (October 2021)
Impostor phenomenon is studied as a reaction to particular stimuli and events. It is a phenomenon (an experience) that occurs in an individual, not a mental disorder. Impostor phenomenon is not recognized in the DSM or ICD, although both of these classification systems recognize low self-esteem and sense of failure as associated symptoms of depression.
The first scale designated to measure characteristics of impostor phenomenon was designed by Clance in 1985, called the Clance Impostor Phenomenon Scale (CIPS). The scale can be used to determine if characteristics of fear are present, and to what extent. The aspects of fear include: fear of evaluation, fear of not continuing success and fear of not being as capable as others. The CIPS was designed to measure the concept that individuals are successful by external standards but have an illusion of personal incompetence. The scale assesses components of the phenomenon such as ideas about self-doubt and achieving success by chance. Psychometric properties of the scale were examined based on a sample of engineering college students. Internal consistency reliability and construct validity via confirmatory factor analysis were examined. The scale scores had satisfactory internal consistency reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the original theoretical model may be problematic and the factor structure requires additional consideration.
In her 1985 paper, Clance explained that impostor phenomenon can be distinguished by the following six dimensions:
- The impostor cycle
- The need to be special or the best
- Characteristics of superman/superwoman
- Fear of failure
- Denial of ability and discounting praise
- Feeling fear and guilt about success
Clance noted that the characteristics of these six dimensions may vary. By this model, for an individual to be considered to experience impostorism, at least two of these aspects have to be present. Clance theorised that the most important aspect to understand the manifestation of this experience can be seen through the impostor cycle she created.
Clance and Imes stated in their 1978 article that, based on their clinical experience, impostor phenomenon was less prevalent in men. However, more recent research has mostly found that impostor phenomenon is spread equally among men and women. Research has shown that women commonly face impostor phenomenon in regard to performance. The perception of ability and power is evidenced in out-performing others. For men, impostor phenomenon is often driven by the fear of being unsuccessful, or not good enough.
It has been estimated that nearly 70% of individuals will experience signs and symptoms of impostor phenomenon at least once in their life. This can be a result of a new academic or professional setting. Research shows that impostor phenomenon is not uncommon for students who enter a new academic environment. Feelings of insecurity can come as a result of an unknown, new environment. This can lead to lower self-confidence and belief in their own abilities.
Impostor phenomenon can occur in other various settings. Some examples include a new environment, academic settings, in the workplace, social interactions, and relationships (platonic or romantic).
In relationships, people with impostorism often feel they do not live up to the expectations of their friends or loved ones. It is common for the individual with impostorism to think that they must have somehow tricked others into liking them and wanting to spend time with them. They experience feelings of being unworthy, or of not deserving the beneficial relationships they possess.
There is empirical evidence that demonstrates the harmful effects of impostor phenomenon in students. Studies have shown that when a student's academic self-concept increases, the symptoms of impostor phenomenon decrease, and vice versa. The worry and emotions the students held, had a direct impact of their performance in the program. Common facets of impostor phenomenon experienced by students include not feeling prepared academically (especially when comparing themselves to classmates), questioning the grounds on which they were accepted into the program, and perceiving that positive recognition, awards, and good grades stemmed from external factors rather than personal ability or intelligence.
Cokley et al. investigated the impact impostor phenomenon has on students, specifically ethnic minority students. They found that the feelings the students had of being fraudulent resulted in psychological distress. Ethnic minority students often questioned the grounds on which they were accepted into the program. They held the false assumption that they only received their acceptance due to affirmative action—rather than an extraordinary application and qualities they had to offer.
Tigranyan et al. (2021) examined the way Imposter Phenomenon relates to psychology doctoral students. The purpose of the study was to investigate the IP's relationship to perfectionistic cognitions, depression, anxiety, achievement motives, self-efficacy, self-compassion, and self-esteem in clinical and counseling psychology doctoral students. Furthermore, this study sought to investigate how IP interferes with academic, practicum, and internship performance of these students and how IP manifests throughout a psychology doctoral program. Included were eighty-four clinical and counseling psychology doctoral students and they were instructed to respond to an online survey. The data was analyzed using a Pearson’s product-moment correlation and a multiple linear regression. 88% of the students in the study reported at least moderate feelings of IP characteristics. This study also found significant positive correlations between the IP and perfectionistic cognitions, depression, anxiety, and self-compassion. This study indicates that clinical faculty and supervisors should take a supportive approach to assist students to help decrease feelings of IP, in hopes of increasing feelings of competence and confidence.
Research has shown that there is a relationship between impostor phenomenon and the following factors:
- Family expectations
- Overprotective parent(s) or legal guardian(s)
- Graduate-level coursework
- Racial identities
- Attribution style
- Low trait self-esteem
- Excessive self-monitoring, with an emphasis on self-worth
The aspects listed are not mutually exclusive. These components are often found to correlate among individuals with impostor phenomenon. It is incorrect to infer that the correlational relationship between these aspects cause the impostor experience.
In individuals with impostor phenomenon, feelings of guilt often result in a fear of success. The following are examples of common notions that lead to feelings of guilt and reinforce the phenomenon.
- The good education they were able to receive
- Being acknowledged by others for success
- Belief that it is not right or fair to be in a better situation than a friend or loved one
- Being referred to as:
- "The smart one"
- "The talented one"
- "The responsible one"
- "The sensitive one"
- "The good one"
- "Our favorite"
In their 1978 paper, Clance and Imes proposed a therapeutic approach they used for their participants or clients with impostor phenomenon. This technique includes a group setting where various individuals meet others who are also living with this experience. The researchers explained that group meetings made a significant impact on their participants. They proposed that it was the realization that they were not the only ones who experienced these feelings. The participants were required to complete various homework assignments as well. In one assignment, participants recalled all of the people they believed they had fooled or tricked in the past. In another take-home task, individuals wrote down the positive feedback they had received. Later, they would have to recall why they received this feedback and what about it made them perceive it in a negative light. In the group sessions, the researchers also had the participants re-frame common thoughts and ideas about performance. An example would be to change: "I might fail this exam" to "I will do well on this exam".
The researchers concluded that simply extracting the self-doubt before an event occurs helps eliminate feelings of impostorism. It was recommended that the individuals struggling with this experience seek support from friends and family. Although impostor phenomenon is not a pathological condition, it is a distorted system of belief about oneself that can have a powerful negative impact on an individual's valuation of their own worth. Impostor syndrome is not a recognized psychiatric disorder: It is not featured in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual nor is it listed as a diagnosis in the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Outside the academic literature, impostor syndrome has become widely discussed, especially in the context of achievement in the workplace. Perhaps because it is not an officially recognized clinical diagnosis, despite the large peer review and lay literature, although there has been a qualitative review, there has never been a published systematic review of the literature on impostor syndrome. Thus, clinicians lack evidence on the prevalence, comorbidities, and best practices for diagnosing and treating impostor syndrome.
Other research on therapeutic approaches for impostorism emphasizes the importance of self-worth. Individuals who live with impostor phenomenon commonly relate self-esteem and self-worth to others. A major aspect of other therapeutic approaches for impostor phenomenon focus on separating the two into completely separate entities.
In a study in 2013, researcher Queena Hoang proposed that intrinsic motivation can decrease the feelings of being a fraud that are common in impostor phenomenon. Hoang also suggested that implementing a mentor program for new or entering students will minimize students' feelings of self-doubt. Having a mentor who has been in the program will help the new students feel supported. This allows for a much smoother and less overwhelming transition.
Below is a small selection of notable individuals who have reportedly experienced this phenomenon:
- Riz Ahmed
- Maya Angelou
- Jacinda Ardern
- Mike Cannon-Brookes
- Tommy Cooper[page needed]
- Neil Gaiman
- Tom Hanks
- Chuck Lorre
- Michelle Obama
- Michelle Pfeiffer
- Sonia Sotomayor
- Nicola Sturgeon
- David Tennant
- Emma Watson
- Matty Healy
- Thom Yorke
- Lando Norris
- Dunning–Kruger effect – a cognitive bias wherein people of non-average ability (both high and low) inaccurately estimate their own abilities
- Explanatory style – how people typically explain events to themselves
- Illusory superiority – a cognitive bias whereby a person overestimates their own qualities and abilities
- Inner critic
- "Fakin' It" (Simon & Garfunkel song) – 60s-era pop/rock song on the subject
- Jonah complex – the fear of success which prevents the realisation of one's potential
- Library anxiety
- Setting up to fail § Setting oneself up to fail
- Tall poppy syndrome – aspects of a culture where people of high status are resented for having been viewed as superior to their peers
- Langford, Joe; Clance, Pauline Rose (Fall 1993). "The impostor phenomenon: recent research findings regarding dynamics, personality and family patterns and their implications for treatment" (PDF). Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. 30 (3): 495–501. doi:10.1037/0033-318.104.22.1685.
Studies of college students (Harvey, 1981; Bussotti, 1990; Langford, 1990), college professors (Topping, 1983), and successful professionals (Dingman, 1987) have all failed, however, to reveal any sex differences in impostor feelings, suggesting that males in these populations are just as likely as females to have low expectations of success and to make attributions to non-ability related factors.
- Sakulku, J.; Alexander, J. (2011). "The Impostor Phenomenon". International Journal of Behavioral Science. 6: 73–92. doi:10.14456/ijbs.2011.6.
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- Lebowitz, Shana (12 January 2016). "Men are suffering from a psychological phenomenon that can undermine their success, but they're too ashamed to talk about it". businessinsider.com. Business Insider. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- "Imposter Syndrome and Mental Health". February 19, 2019.
- "Depression and the Other Type of Impostor Syndrome".
- Clance, Pauline R.; Imes, Suzanne A. (Fall 1978). "The Impostor Phenomenon in High Achieving Women: Dynamics and Therapeutic Intervention" (PDF). Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice. 15 (3): 241–247. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.452.4294. doi:10.1037/h0086006.
- "Yes, Impostor Syndrome is Real. Here's How to Deal With It". Time. Retrieved 2021-11-19.
- Gadsby, Stephen, (2021), "Imposter Syndrome and Self-Deception", Australasian Journal of Philosophy. doi:10.1080/00048402.2021.1874445
- American Psychiatric Association (2000a). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-0-89042-025-6.
- Hoang, Queena (January 2013). "The Impostor Phenomenon: Overcoming Internalized Barriers and Recognizing Achievements". The Vermont Connection. 34, Article 6. – via http://scholarworks.uvm.edu/tvc/vol34/iss1/6.
- French, Brian F.; Ullrich-French, Sarah C.; Follman, Deborah (April 2008). "The psychometric properties of the Clance Impostor Scale". Personality and Individual Differences. 44 (5): 1270–1278. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.11.023.
- Royse Roskowki, Jane C. (2010). "Impostor Phenomenon and Counselling Self-Efficacy: The Impact of Impostor Feelings". Ball State University.
- Ravindran, Sandeep (November 15, 2016). "Feeling Like A Fraud: The Impostor Phenomenon in Science Writing". The Open Notebook.
- Cokley, Kevin; et al. (2013). "An Examination of the Impact of Minority Status Stress and Impostor Feelings on the Mental Health of Diverse Ethnic Minority College Students". Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. 41 (2): 82–95. doi:10.1002/j.2161-1912.2013.00029.x.
- Tigranyan, Shushan; Byington, Dacoda R.; Liupakorn, Diana; Hicks, Alexis; Lombardi, Sarah; Mathis, Melissa; Rodolfa, Emil (November 2021). "Factors related to the impostor phenomenon in psychology doctoral students". Training and Education in Professional Psychology. 15 (4): 298–305. doi:10.1037/tep0000321. ISSN 1931-3926.
- Kumar, S.; Jagacinski, C.M. (2006). "Impostors have goals too: The impostor phenomenon and its relationship to achievement goal theory". Personality and Individual Differences. 40 (1): 147–157. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.05.014.
- Bravata, Dena M.; Watts, Sharon A.; Keefer, Autumn L.; Madhusudhan, Divya K.; Taylor, Katie T.; Clark, Dani M.; Nelson, Ross S.; Cokley, Kevin O.; Hagg, Heather K. (April 2020). "Prevalence, Predictors, and Treatment of Impostor Syndrome: a Systematic Review". Journal of General Internal Medicine. 35 (4): 1252–1275. doi:10.1007/s11606-019-05364-1. ISSN 0884-8734. PMC 7174434. PMID 31848865.
- Matthews, Gail; Clance, Pauline Rose (February 1985). "Treatment of the impostor phenomenon in psychotherapy clients". Psychotherapy in Private Practice. 3 (1): 71–81. doi:10.1300/J294v03n01_09.
- Leahy, Robert L. (2005). "Work worries: What if I really mess up?". The worry cure: seven steps to stop worry from stopping you. New York: Harmony Books. pp. 273–290 (274). ISBN 978-1-4000-9765-4. OCLC 57531355. Discusses treatment of impostor syndrome with cognitive therapy.
- Harris, Russ (2011). The confidence gap: a guide to overcoming fear and self-doubt. Boston: Trumpeter. ISBN 978-1-59030-923-0. OCLC 694394371. Discusses treatment of impostor syndrome with acceptance and commitment therapy.
- Clance, Pauline Rose; Dingman, Debbara; Reviere, Susan L.; Stober, Dianne R. (June 1995). "Impostor phenomenon in an interpersonal/social context". Women & Therapy. 16 (4): 79–96 (87). doi:10.1300/J015v16n04_07.
One of the most exciting and effective treatment modalities for women struggling with the impostor phenomenon is group psychotherapy.
- Lowman, Rodney L. (1993). "Fear of success and fear of failure". Counseling and psychotherapy of work dysfunctions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 74–82 (81). doi:10.1037/10133-004. ISBN 978-1-55798-204-9. OCLC 27812757.
Group treatment programs have reported positive results in lowering FOF [fear of failure] (Rajendran & Kaliappan, 1990). The value of groups in countering the so-called impostor phenomenon, in which an individual feels that he or she has succeeded inappropriately and will soon be "found out" to be a fraud, has also been reported (Clance & O'Toole, 1987; J. A. Steinberg, 1986).
- Richards, Carl (October 26, 2015). "Learning to Deal With the Impostor Syndrome". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-12-15.
I have written 11 books, but each time I think, 'Uh oh, they're going to find out now. I've run a game on everybody, and they're going to find me out.'
- Edmonds, Lizzie (23 March 2020). "Riz Ahmed: For a long time I felt I didn't belong in film industry". Evening Standard. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
- Roy, Eleanor Ainge (December 21, 2020). "Jacinda Ardern: I try to turn self-doubt into 'something more positive'". The Guardian. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
- Chau, business reporter David (June 16, 2017). "Australian tech billionaire Mike Cannon-Brookes' 'impostor syndrome'". ABC News.
- Fisher, John (2007) . Tommy Cooper: always leave them laughing. London: Harper. ISBN 978-0-00-721511-9. OCLC 174093089.
- "Neil Gaiman". Neil Gaiman. Retrieved 2019-07-24.
- Ha, Thu-Huong (May 15, 2017). "Neil Gaiman has the perfect anecdote to soothe anyone with impostor syndrome". Quartz. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
- Hanks, Tom. "Tom Hanks Says Self-Doubt Is 'A High-Wire Act That We All Walk'". NPR.org. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
- "Impostor syndrome: You're better than you think". NewsComAu. December 10, 2013.
- "Michelle Obama: 'I still have impostor syndrome'". BBC News. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- Aronofsky, Darren. "Michelle Pfeiffer". Wmagazine.com. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
- Goudreau, Jenna. "When Women Feel Like Frauds They Fuel Their Own Failures". Forbes.
- "Nicola Sturgeon says she 'absolutely' suffers from 'impostor syndrome'". The Independent. May 15, 2019.
- David Tennant Fights the Demon of Impostor Syndrome theoffcamerashow
- "Emma Watson: I suffered from impostor syndrome after Harry Potter Now magazine". Now Magazine. 2011.
- "Robbie Williams 'gives up Brits dressing room' to The 1975's 100-piece choir". Metro. 22 February 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
- David Marchese (October 19, 2018). "How Thom Yorke learned to stop worrying and (mostly) love rock stardom". Archived from the original on 2020-07-08. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
- "'I Beat Myself a Lot Over It' - McLaren's Norris Opens up on Mental Struggles". EssentiallySports. 2021-02-20. Retrieved 2021-05-12.
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