|Chamber music by Karlheinz Stockhausen|
|Performed||28 July 1977|
|Scoring||one instrument, originally clarinet|
In Freundschaft (In friendship) is a composition by Karlheinz Stockhausen, number 46 in his catalogue of works. It is a serial composition for a solo instrument, first for clarinet, and later arranged by the composer for many other instruments, often in friendship to specific performers.
In Freundschaft was first conceived in 1977 as a birthday present for clarinetist Suzanne Stephens, and was first performed at her birthday party in Aix-en-Provence on 28 July that year in a version for the flute. It was later reprised on other instruments as the composer adapted it to nearly every standard orchestral instrument at the request of performers. The work is an example of formula composition, with a basic motif first being presented and then varied in two contrasting, cyclical layers; interrupted by cadenzas.
The work has been recorded multiple times, including under the supervision of its composer.
The works by the prolific composer Karlheinz Stockhausen have been grouped in four phases, with the first two matching the decades of the 1950s and the 1960s, the third phase ranging from 1970 to 1977, and finally the rest of his life, dedicated mainly to the composition of Licht, an opera cycle in seven parts begun in 1977. During the third phase, Stockhausen composed in a technique that he termed "formula technique" (Formeltechnik), with works including Mantra (1970), Inori (1974), Jubiläum and In Freundschaft (both 1977). He included the formula method in other compositions of the time such as Tierkreis (1975/76).
The first version of In Freundschaft was composed on Sunday, 24 July 1977 in Aix-en-Provence as a birthday gift for Suzanne Stephens. This version was written for the clarinet, but Stockhausen immediately made a fair copy transposition for flute, and it was this version that was first performed, one time each by two American flautists, Lucille Goeres and Marjorie Shansky, for Stephens's birthday party in Aix on 28 July 1977. The first public performance, also of the flute version, was given by Lucille Goeres on 6 August 1977, in a concert by course participants of the Centre Sirius at the Aix Conservatory. Stockhausen reworked the composition on 27 April 1978, at which time he also made versions for oboe, trumpet, violin, and viola. The premiere of the version for clarinet was given by Suzanne Stephens on 30 November 1978 as part of a concert Hommage à Olivier Messiaen, in the Salle Wagram, Paris, and the version for oboe was premiered by Heinz Holliger on 6 July 1979 in a concert themed Music of the 20th Century in the large hall of the broadcaster Saarländischer Rundfunk in Saarbrücken. At around this time, Stockhausen adapted the clarinet version for the basset horn, with extended range to low C3, and this version was first performed by Stephens at a private gathering at the composer’s house on the occasion of his fifty-first birthday on 22 August 1979. Both the clarinet and basset-horn versions are authorised for performance on bass clarinet, and the first public performance of the extended-range version was given by the Dutch bass clarinetist Harry Sparnaay on 10 January 1981 in Haarlem.
In the following years, Stockhausen adapted the work for most of the other standard orchestral instruments. Between 7 and 10 January 1981, in collaboration with Warren Stewart, Stockhausen made a version for cello, which Stewart premiered at the Eastman School of Music on 23 April 1981. Even before this premiere, Stockhausen had adapted it, from 16 to 19 April 1981, as a new version for violin. A version for bassoon followed the next year, composed on 19 and 20 April 1982 for Kim Walker. During rehearsals, Stockhausen came to imagine the piece being played by a teddy bear, like the one he had had as a small child, only much larger. Walker had a costume made, and gave the premiere in the Wigmore Hall in London on 10 May 1982 under the title "In Freundschaft, for a teddy bear with bassoon". A version for trombone was requested by Mark Tezak, who finalized the details with Stockhausen during rehearsals in August and September 1982. Around the same time, John Sampen requested and performed a version for soprano saxophone, though Stockhausen made further adjustments the next year with the saxophonist Hugo Read. At the request of the hornist Alejandro Govea Zappino, a version for his instrument was prepared during rehearsals on 17 November 1983, but further changes were carried out up to 11 September 1984 and the premiere was only finally given by Jens McManama, hornist with the Ensemble InterContemporain, at a concert in Baden-Baden celebrating Pierre Boulez’s 60th birthday on 31 March 1985. Even a version for alto recorder came into existence, at the instigation of Geesche Geddert, first in an exchange of letters, then in rehearsal with Stockhausen on 6 April 1984. The published score of the cello version can also be played on double bass, and a version for tuba also exists. In response to a suggestion by his trumpet-player son, Markus (who had put off attempting the work for 20 years), he replaced the original trumpet version with a new one for trumpet in E♭ with a special fourth valve. Markus gave the world premiere of this new version in Kürten on 31 August 1997.
In Freundschaft begins with a basic musical formula (transcribed below), which defines the musical parameters: pitch, duration, dynamics, and timbre. It is used as a motif for further variation. The basic formula consists of five segments, containing 1, 3, 2, 5, and 8 notes—therefore 19 notes in all—occupying durational units of approximately 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 quarter-notes' duration, though the ending is altered in the introductory statement—a "reduced formula" ending with a slow oscillation between two notes a semitone apart. This formula is then presented in two registrally separated and permuted alternating statements, similar to the arrangement in Stockhausen’s Mantra, so that the work may be said to be monothematic. Initially, the separation of the two layers is emphasized through the dynamics: the higher level is consistently pp, the lower one ff.
Each layer consists of five segments, and the rests separating the segments in the upper layer correspond to the lengths of the sounding segments in the lower one. Measured in sixteenth notes (and therefore on average a quarter the lengths of the upper-layer segments), these are: 4, 7, 2, 11, and 0 (= grace note). The segment statements are separated by a middle-register semitone trill (A to B♭ in the clarinet version), which first emerges from a gradual acceleration of the last interval of the fifth segment in the introduction.
After the initial presentation, the opposing characters of the two layers are gradually evened out, in a process of development over seven cyclical statements of the formula, until the two layers are merged into a single melody. This is accomplished by progressively transposing the upper level downward by one semitone per cycle, and the lower level upward by the same degree. In this way, the entirely separate ranges in the first cycle (F♯5–F6 and F♯4–F5) are brought into the single octave C5–B5 in the seventh.
The overall form is interrupted by two cadenzas, the first between the third and fourth cycles, the second at the point of union between the two layers, beginning near the end of the sixth cycle and leading to the seventh.
There are recordings of In Freundschaft for various instruments. Some versions have been recorded multiple times. Stockhausen-Verlag issued a series of recordings under the composer's supervision, as part of the complete recordings of his works beginning in 1991.
In an obituary by the CBC summarised in 2007:
In the 1970s, he took up "formula composition" and created a simple style that became a model for a new generation of German composers. Tierkreis (Zodiac) and In Freundschaft (In Friendship) are his most recorded works from this period.
- ^ a b c Szendy 2021. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSzendy2021 (help)
- ^ a b c d e f g Quantrill 2014.
- ^ Kohl 1993, p. 601.
- ^ Stockhausen 1978.
- ^ Stockhausen 1989a, 136–137.
- ^ a b c Stockhausen 1989a, 137.
- ^ Geddert 1985, 416.
- ^ Stockhausen-Verlag 2010, 25.
- ^ Stockhausen 1998, 8, 14, 20.
- ^ Zelinsky & Smeyers 1985, 412.
- ^ a b Zelinsky & Smeyers 1985, 413.
- ^ Stockhausen 1989b, 672, 674–675.
- ^ Conen 1991, 54.
- ^ Conen 1991, 243.
- ^ Conen 1991, 242.
- ^ Stockhausen 1989b, 672.
- ^ Frisius 2008, 328.
- ^ Zelinsky & Smeyers 1985, 418.
- ^ Conen 1991, 251–252.
- ^ Zelinsky & Smeyers 1985, 415.
- ^ a b c d e Klingenschmitt 2012.
- ^ Stockhausen-Verlag 2013.
- ^ Primavera; AMP 5005-2; Christian Hommel, Oboe, Kay Johannsen, Cembalo. Bach, Mozart, Huber, Stockhausen. (CD7888) fonoteca.ch
- ^ Clarinet in the 20th century muziekweb.nl
- ^ 20th century music for unaccompanied clarinet muziekweb.nl
- ^ Dal niente / Eduard Brunner ECM
- ^ Alain Damiens clarinette: Stravinsky Boulez Denisov Stockhausen Donatoni Berio. Adda 581066 (1988) and Accord reissues discophage.com
- ^ Stockhausen: for basset horn / Michele Marelli (basset horn) prestomusic.com
- ^ Karlheinz Stockhausen: Bass Clarinet & Piano. Volker Hemken, bass clarinet MDG
- ^ Musiques contemporaines pour saxophones muziekweb.nl
- ^ Reed my mind : Contemporary music for saxophone muziekweb.nl
- ^ In Freundschaft / Giovanni Nardi & Carlotta Meldolesi shazam.com
- ^ Solitary Saxophone (The) chandos.net
- ^ Contemporary Music for Saxophone – AllMusic AllMusic
- ^ In Friendship / James Romain (saxophone), Kevin Class (piano), James Romain (alto saxophone) prestomusic.com
- ^ Interpreting Stockhausen sonoloco.com
- ^ Fagott XX jpc.de
- ^ The Solitary Trombone BIS
- ^ CBC 2010.
- "Avant-garde composer Karlheinz Stockhausen dies at 79". CBC. 7 December 2010. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010.
- Conen, Hermann (1991). Fritsch, Johannes; Kämper, Dietrich (eds.). Formel-Komposition: Zu Karlheinz Stockhausens Musik der siebziger Jahre. Kölner Schriften zur neuen Musik 1. Mainz: Schott Musik International. ISBN 3-7957-1890-2.
- Frisius, Rudolf (2008). Karlheinz Stockhausen II: Die Werke 1950–1977; Gespräch mit Karlheinz Stockhausen, "Es geht aufwärts". Mainz: Schott Musik International. ISBN 978-3-7957-0249-6.
- Geddert, Geesche (1985). "In Freundschaft von Karlheinz Stockhausen jetzt auch für Altblockflöte" (PDF). Tibia: Magazin für Freunde alter und neuer Bläsermusik (in German) (3): 419.
- Klingenschmitt, Patrick (2012). "Stockhausen, Karlheinz / In Freundschaft / Versionen für Blockflöte, für Fagott, für Horn und für Kontrabass". Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (in German) (4): 80.
- Kohl, Jerome (December 1993). ""Formel-Komposition: Zu Karlheinz Stockhausens Musik der siebziger Jahre" by Hermann Conen". Notes. Music Library Association. 50 (2): 600–602. doi:10.2307/898477. JSTOR 898477.
- Quantrill, Peter (19 November 2014). "Stockhausen: In Freundschaft". The Strad.
- Stockhausen, Karlheinz (1978). Blumröder, Christoph von (ed.). In Freundschaft für Flöte oder Klarinette oder Oboe, Trompete, Violine, Viola (1977). Texte zur Musik 4: 1970–1977. Cologne: DuMont Buchverlag. ISBN 3-7701-1078-1.
- Stockhausen, Karlheinz (1989a). Blumröder, Christoph von (ed.). In Freundschaft (1977): Einzelausgaben für Klarinette, Flöte, Blockflöte, Oboe, Fagott, Bassetthorn oder Baßklarinette, Violine, Violoncello, Saxophon, Horn, Posaune. Texte zur Musik 5: 1977–1984, Komposition. Cologne: DuMont Buchverlag. pp. 136–138. ISBN 3-7701-2249-6.
- Stockhausen, Karlheinz (1989b). Blumröder, Christoph von (ed.). Die Kunst, zu hören. Texte zur Musik 5: 1977–1984, Komposition. Cologne: DuMont Buchverlag. pp. 669–698. ISBN 3-7701-2249-6.
- Stockhausen, Markus (1998). Markus Stockhausen spielt Karlheinz Stockhausen: Meinem Vater zum 70. Geburtstag von Herzen gewidmet. Cologne: EMI Electrola.
- "Stockhausen: August 22nd 1928 – December 5th 2007 / English edition of brochure with official worklist and list of CDs" (PDF). Kürten: Stockhausen-Verlag. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-04-04. Retrieved 2010-11-16.
- "In Freundschaft für Flöte". Kürten: Stockhausen-Verlag. 2013.
- Szendy, Peter (2021). "Karlheinz Stockhausen: In Freundschaft (1977)" (work details) (in French and English). Paris: IRCAM. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
- Zelinsky, Beate; Smeyers, David (1985). "Karlheinz Stockhausen In Freundschaft: Eine Herausforderung für Interpreten und Publikum" (PDF). Tibia: Magazin für Freunde alter und neuer Bläsermusik (in German) (3): 412–416.
- Bitondi, Matheus Gentile. 2006. "A estruturação melódica em quatro peças contemporâneas". Nondoctoral dissertation. São Paulo: Mest, Music from Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP).
- Decarsin, Francois. 1998. "Metamorphoses of Invention". Perspectives of New Music 36, no. 2 (Summer): 13–39.
- Faria, Richard. 2002. "In Freundschaft by Karlheinz Stockhausen". The Clarinet 29, no. 3 (June): 4–9.
- I, Mi-jin (이미진). 2002. "윤곽이론에 기초한 현대음악의 리듬분석 연구" [Rhythmic Analysis of Contemporary Music Based on Contour Theory]. Yeonse Eum'ag Yeongu/Yonsei Music Research 9:53–90.
- Maconie, Robin. 2005. Other Planets: The Music of Karlheinz Stockhausen. Lanham, Maryland, Toronto, Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN 0-8108-5356-6.
- List of Works, Stockhausen-Verlag, 2021.
- List of CDs, Stockhausen-Verlag, 2021.
- Stockhausen Edition no.102 (in German), Stockhausen-Verlag, 2021.
- Heath, Karen, The synthesis of music and dance: performance strategies for selected choreographic music works by Karlheinz Stockhausen, Master's thesis, Monash University, July 2005.
- Chang, Ed, In Freundschaft, Stockhausen: Sounds in Space, 2014.
- Audio: In Freundschaft (Clarinet version) – Suzanne Stephens 2011 on YouTube
- Robert Kirzinger. In Freundschaft, for melody instrument at AllMusic
- Stockhausen – In Freundschaft, Werk Nr. 46, (recordings containing the work) prestomusic.com
- 20th-century classical music
- Compositions by Karlheinz Stockhausen
- 1977 compositions
- Serial compositions
- Music dedicated to ensembles or performers
- Compositions for flute
- Compositions for clarinet
- Compositions for oboe
- Compositions for saxophone
- Compositions for bassoon
- Compositions for trumpet
- Compositions for horn
- Compositions for trombone
- Compositions for violin
- Compositions for viola
- Solo cello pieces
- Solo flute pieces
- Solo clarinet pieces
- Solo oboe pieces
- Solo violin pieces
- Compositions for recorder
- Process music pieces