In bocca al lupo
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In bocca al lupo (pronounced [in ˈbokka al ˈluːpo]; lit. "into the wolf's mouth") is an Italian idiom originally used in opera and theatre to wish a performer good luck prior to a performance. The standard response is crepi il lupo! (IPA: [ˈkrɛːpi il ˈluːpo]; "may the wolf die") or, more commonly, simply crepi! ("may it die").
Equivalent to the English actor's idiom break a leg, the expression reflects a theatrical superstition in which wishing a person "good luck" is considered bad luck. The expression is commonly used in Italy off stage, as superstitions and customs travel through other professions and then into common use, and it can sometimes be heard outside of Italy.
Its use originated with hunters wishing each other to be in dangerous situations. The superstitious use of wishing a negative or dangerous situation as a way of wishing good luck is common in other languages. Indeed, the general image of the wolf in the common language, both in Italy and in the Western culture, is that of a dangerous, hungry and violent creature (e.g. wolf in sheep's clothing, cry wolf).
An alternate operatic good luck charm is the phrase toi toi toi, originally an idiom used to ward off a spell or hex, often accompanied by knocking on wood, and onomatopoeic spitting (or imitating the sound of spitting). Amongst English actors break a leg is the usual phrase, while for professional dancers the traditional saying is merde, from French for "shit". In Spanish and Portuguese, the phrase is respectively mucha mierda and muita merda, or "lots of shit".
In popular culture
- Libby, Steve (July 1985). "It's a superstitious world: Of black cats, lucky numbers, broken mirrors..." The Rotarian. 147 (1): 30–31. ISSN 0035-838X.
- Peterson, Lenka; O'Connor, Dan (2006). Kids Take the Stage: Helping Young People Discover the Creative Outlet of Theater (2 ed.). Random House Digital. p. 203. ISBN 0-8230-7746-2.
- Helterbran, Valeri R. (2008). Exploring Idioms: A Critical-Thinking Resource for Grades 4–8. Maupin House Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 1-934338-14-1.
- Lapucci, Carlo. Dizionario dei modi di dire della lingua italiana (Garzanti-Vallardi, 1979)
- "Sull'origine della formula in bocca al lupo | Accademia della Crusca". www.accademiadellacrusca.it. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Urdang, Laurence; Hunsinger, Walter W.; LaRoche, Nancy (1985). Picturesque Expressions: A thematic dictionary (2 ed.). Gale Research. p. 321. ISBN 0-8103-1606-4.
- McConnell, Joan; McConnell, Teena (1977). Ballet as body language. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-012964-6.
- The QI Elves. "No Such Thing As The Ugly Panda". No Such Thing as a Fish (62). Quite Interesting Ltd. Retrieved 7 June 2015.[permanent dead link]
- "In Bocca al Lupo". Murderbydeath.bandcamp.com.