In the Pines
|"In the Pines"|
"In the Pines", also known as "Where Did You Sleep Last Night?" and "My Girl", is a traditional American folk song originating from two songs, "In the Pines" and "The Longest Train", both of whose authorship is unknown and date back to at least the 1870s. The songs originated in the Southern Appalachian area of the United States in the contiguous areas of Eastern Tennessee and Kentucky, Western North Carolina and Northern Georgia.
Versions of the song have been recorded by many artists in numerous genres, but it is most often associated with American bluegrass musician Bill Monroe and American Blues musician Lead Belly, both of whom recorded very different versions of the song in the 1940s and 1950s.
A version of the song performed by The Four Pennies reached the UK top-twenty in 1964. A live performance by the American grunge band Nirvana reinterpreted Lead Belly's version and was recorded during their MTV Unplugged performance in 1993.
Like numerous other folk songs, "In the Pines" was passed on from one generation and locale to the next by word of mouth. In 1925, a version of the song was recorded onto phonograph cylinder by a folk collector. This was the first documentation of "The Longest Train" variant of the song, which includes a verse about "The longest train I ever saw". This verse probably began as a separate song that later merged into "In the Pines". Lyrics in some versions about "Joe Brown's coal mine" and "the Georgia line" may refer to Joseph E. Brown, a former Governor of Georgia, who famously leased convicts to operate coal mines in the 1870s. While early renditions which mention the head in the "driver's wheel" make clear that the decapitation was caused by the train, some later versions would omit the reference to the train and reattribute the cause. As music historian Norm Cohen pointed out in his 1981 book, Long Steel Rail: The Railroad in American Folksong, the song came to consist of three frequent elements: a chorus about "in the pines", a verse about "the longest train" and a verse about a decapitation, but not all elements are present in all versions.
Starting in 1926, commercial recordings of the song were made by various country artists. In her 1970 Ph.D. dissertation, Judith McCulloh found 160 permutations of the song. As well as rearrangement of the three frequent elements, the person who goes into the pines, or who is decapitated, is described as a man, woman, adolescent, husband, wife, or parent, while the pines can be seen as representing sexuality, death, or loneliness. The train is described as killing a loved one, as taking one's beloved away, or as leaving an itinerant worker far from home.
In variants in which the song describes a confrontation, the person being challenged is always a woman. The folk version by the Kossoy Sisters asks, "Little girl, little girl, where'd you stay last night? Not even your mother knows." The reply to the question, "Where did you get that dress/ And those shoes that are so fine?" from one version is, "From a man in the mines/Who sleeps in the pines." The theme of a woman being caught doing something she should not is thus also common to many variants. One variant, performed in the early twentieth century by the Ellison clan (Ora Ellison, deceased) in Lookout Mountain, Georgia, tells of a young Georgia girl who flees to the pines after being raped. Her rapist, a male soldier, is later beheaded by the train.
Some versions of the song also reference the Great Depression, with the "black girl" being a hobo on the move from the police, who witnesses the murder of her father while train-jumping. She hides from this by sleeping in the pines, in the cold.
Bill Monroe's 1941 and 1952 recordings, both under the title "In the Pines", were highly influential on later bluegrass and country versions. Recorded with his Bluegrass Boys and featuring fiddles and yodelling, they represent the "longest train" variant of the song, and omit any reference to a decapitation. However, as Eric Weisbard writes in a 1994 article in The New York Times, "...the enigmatic train is almost as frightening, suggesting an eternal passage: 'I asked my captain for the time of day/He said he throwed his watch away.'"
Huddie Ledbetter, a.k.a. Lead Belly, recorded over half-a-dozen versions between 1944 and 1948, most often under the title, "Black Girl" or "Black Gal". His first rendition, for Musicraft Records in New York City in February 1944, is arguably his most familiar. Listed as "Where Did You Sleep Last Night", this version appears on a number of Lead Belly "best-of" compilations, such as Absolutely the Best (2000).
Another familiar version was recorded for Moses Asch, founder of Folkways Records, in New York City. Listed as "Black Girl" or "In the Pines", this version appears on compilations such as Where Did You Sleep Last Night – Lead Belly Legacy Vol. 1 (1996), and The Definitive Lead Belly (2008).
Lead Belly is often said to be the author of the song, e.g. by Nirvana on their MTV Unplugged album in 1994. However, Lead Belly didn't write the song, but reinterpreted it, as did other musicians before and after him. According to the American folklorist Alan Lomax, Lead Belly learned the song from someone's interpretation of the 1917 version compiled by Cecil Sharp, and by the 1925 phonograph recording.
"In the Pines", converted into the Cajun French language and sung under the titles "Pine Grove Blues" or "Ma Negresse", became one of the landmark songs of Cajun music. The song is most associated with Nathan Abshire, the Louisiana Cajun accordion player, for whom "Pine Grove Blues" was his biggest hit. His melody is a hard-driving blues, but the lyrics, when translated to English, are the familiar "Hey, my girl, where did you sleep last night?" The Cajun French word "negresse" and the masculine counterpart "negre" are terms of endearment without regard to race. He recorded it at least three times, from the 1940s onward. Since then, Abshire's version has been covered by a wide variety of Cajun and zydeco musicians, including the Pine Leaf Boys, the Lost Bayou Ramblers, Beau Jocque, and Cedric Watson.
The Four Pennies
|"Where Did You Sleep Last Night"|
|Promotional single by Nirvana|
|from the album MTV Unplugged in New York|
|Released||1 November 1994|
|Recorded||November 18, 1993 at Sony Music Studios in New York City|
|Producer(s)||Alex Coletti, Scott Litt, Nirvana|
|MTV Unplugged in New York track listing|
Nirvana occasionally performed the song during the early 1990s. Singer/guitarist Kurt Cobain was introduced to the song by fellow Seattle musician Mark Lanegan, and played guitar on a version on Lanegan's 1990 album, The Winding Sheet. Like Lanegan, Cobain usually screamed its final verse.
It is likely that Cobain referenced Lead Belly's 1944 Musicraft version for his interpretation of the song; Lanegan owned an original 78 rpm record of this version, and it is the one that Cobain's version most closely resembles in terms of lyrics, form and title—even repeating Leadbelly's interjection "Shiver for me" before the instrumental bridge. In a 2009 MTV article, Kurt Loder remembers discussing the song's title with Cobain, with Cobain insisting, "But the Leadbelly version is called 'Where Did You Sleep Last Night,'" and Loder preferring the "In the Pines" title used by Bill Monroe (as well as Lead Belly).
Cobain earned critical acclaim for his acoustic performance of the song during Nirvana's MTV Unplugged appearance in 1993. Canadian musician Neil Young described Cobain's vocals during the final screamed verse as "Unearthly, like a werewolf, unbelievable." This version was originally sanctioned to be released as a b-side to the band's "Pennyroyal Tea" single in 1994, but the single was cancelled following Cobain's death in April 1994. It was posthumously released on the band's MTV Unplugged in New York album in November 1994, and as a promotional single from the album. In 2002 the song featured as a bonus track on Nirvana's "best of" compilation album Nirvana. In 2003 the Nirvana version reached number 29 on WYSP's Top 30 most played songs, and in 2004 reached number 20. A solo Cobain home demo, recorded in 1990, appears on the band's 2004 rarities box set, With the Lights Out.
- Dolly Parton's version appears on her 1994 album Heartsongs: Live from Home.
- Carl Rutherford recorded a version on his 2001 album, Turn Off the Fear
- Laura Gibson's version appears as a b-side on her single La Grande
In popular culture
- In 2007, Czech-American writer-singer Natálie Kocábová used a strophe of "Where Did You Sleep Last Night" for the opening of her novella Růže: Cesta za světlem... ("Rose: A Way to the Light").
- Kari Kilgore's 2018 novella In the Pines took its inspiration from the song.
- A rendition by Jared Emerson-Johnson and Janel Drewis is played during the closing credits of The Walking Dead: Season Two - Episode 2: A House Divided released in 2014.
- A version of the song, as of yet unidentified, can be found playing in certain parts of the Ubisoft video game Far Cry 5, released on March 27, 2018.
- Cohen, Norm (2000), Long Steel Rail: The Railroad in American Folk Song. Chicago, University of Illinois Press, pp. 491–496. ISBN 0252068815. Accessed September 30, 2017.
- "In the Pines", Second Hand Songs. Accessed September 30, 2017.
- Five Good Covers: In The Pines (Where Did You Sleep Last Night), Cover Me. Accessed September 30, 2017.
- Seida, Linda. "The Four Pennies – Music Biography, Credits and Discography". AllMusic. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
- MTV Unplugged in New York (1993), DGC Records.
- Studio 360 (April 19, 2019). "The Haunting Power of 'In The Pines': The song has a rich musical and social history that predates Kurt Cobain and Nirvana". Slate.
- Weisbard, Eric (November 13, 1994). "A Simple Song That Lives Beyond Time". The New York Times.
- Cohen, Norm (2000). Long Steel Rail: The Railroad in American Folksong (2 ed.). p. 459. ISBN 978-0-252-06881-2.
- McCulloh, Judith Marie (1970), In the Pines: The Melodic-Textual Identity of an American Lyric Folksong Cluster, Indiana University,
Ph.D. dissertation, Folklore
- "The Four Pennies – Discover music, videos, concerts, stats, & pictures at". Last.fm. March 22, 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
- Kurt Loder (April 8, 2009). "Nirvana's Kurt Cobain: Still Missed". MTV.com. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
- "Nirvana's Tense, Brilliant Unplugged in New York, 20 Years Later". The Atlantic. December 12, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
- Nirvana - Where Did You Sleep Last Night Discogs.com. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- "Active Rock Power Playlists" (PDF). Billboard Airplay Monitor magazine. Billboard. May 2, 2003. p. 46. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- "Active Rock Power Playlists" (PDF). Billboard Airplay Monitor magazine. Billlboard. April 11, 2004. p. 41. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- "Turn Off the Fear - Carl Rutherford - Releases". AllMusic. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
- "Laura Gibson - La Grande b/w In the Pines". Discogs.
- Horáková, Hana (August 15, 2010). "Cesta Natálie Kocáb". VašeLiteratura (in Czech). VašeLiteratura. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- "Telltale Games". Telltale Games. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
- "Ubisoft Entertainment". Ubisoft. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
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