In the Realm of the Senses
|In the Realm of the Senses|
|Directed by||Nagisa Ōshima|
|Written by||Nagisa Ōshima|
|Produced by||Anatole Dauman|
|Edited by||Keiichi Uraoka|
|Music by||Minoru Miki|
In the Realm of the Senses (French: L'Empire des sens, Japanese: 愛のコリーダ, Ai no Korīda, "Bullfight of Love") is a 1976 erotic art film written and directed by Nagisa Ōshima. It is a fictionalised and sexually explicit treatment of a 1936 murder committed by Sada Abe. An international coproduction of France and Japan, the film generated great controversy at the time of its release. While intended for mainstream wide release, the film contains scenes of unsimulated sexual activity between the actors (Eiko Matsuda and Tatsuya Fuji, among others).
In 1936 Tokyo, Sada Abe is a former prostitute who now works as a maid in a hotel. The hotel's owner Kichizo Ishida molests her, and the two begin an intense affair that consists of sexual experiments and various self-indulgences. Ishida leaves his wife to pursue his affair with Sada. Sada becomes increasingly possessive and jealous of Ishida, and Ishida more eager to please her. Their mutual obsession escalates until Ishida finds that she is most excited by strangling him during lovemaking, and he is killed in this fashion. Sada then severs his penis. While she is shown next to him naked, it is mentioned that she will walk around with his penis inside her for several days. Words written with blood can be read on his chest: "Sada Kichi the two of us forever."
The film was released under the title of In the Realm of the Senses in the U.S. and the U.K., and under L'Empire des sens (Empire of the Senses) in France. The French title was taken from Roland Barthes's book about Japan, L'Empire des signes (Empire of Signs, 1970).
The original Japanese title Ai no Korīda was later reimagined as the title of the 1979 funk song "Ai No Corrida", originally recorded by Chaz Jankel and later brought to success by Quincy Jones in 1981.
Strict censorship laws in Japan would not have allowed the film to be made according to Ōshima's vision. This obstruction was bypassed by officially listing the production as a French enterprise, and the undeveloped footage was shipped to France for processing and editing. At its premiere in Japan, the film's sexual activity was optically censored using reframing and blurring.
In the United States, the film was initially banned upon its premiere at the 1976 New York Film Festival but was later screened uncut, and a similar fate awaited the film when it was released in Germany. It was also banned because of a scene in which Kichi pushes an egg into Sada's vulva, forcing her to push it out of her vagina before Kichi eats the egg. The film was not available on home video until 1990, although it was sometimes seen uncut in film clubs.
At the time of its initial screening at the 1976 London Film Festival, the British Board of Film Censors recommended that it be shown under private cinema club conditions to avoid the need for heavy cuts, but only after the Obscene Publications Act had been extended to films in 1977 to avoid potential legal problems. The film opened at the Gate Cinema Club in 1978. It was given an official countrywide cinema release in 1991, though the video release was delayed until 2000 when it was passed with an "18" certificate (suitable for adults only). All of the adult sexual activity was left intact, but a shot in which Sada yanks the penis of a prepubescent boy after he misbehaves was reframed, zooming in so that only the reaction of the boy was shown. In Australia, the film was originally banned, but a censored version was made available in 1977. In 2000, it finally became available in its complete version. The graphic sexual content of the production also caused it to be banned in Israel in 1987.
In Canada, when originally submitted to the provincial film boards in the 1970s, the film was rejected in all jurisdictions except Quebec and British Columbia. It was not until 1991 that individual provinces approved the film and gave it a certificate. However, in the Maritimes, the film was rejected again as the policies followed in the 1970s were still enforced.
Because of its sexual themes and explicit scenes, the film was the cause of great controversy in Portugal in 1991 after it aired on RTP. Some deemed it inappropriate even for the watershed slot, while others appreciated its airing. The film aired again on RTP2, almost unnoticed.
In France, the film sold 1,730,874 tickets, grossing approximately €4,673,360 ($5,203,732). In Germany, where it was released in 1978, the film sold 693,628 tickets, grossing approximately €1,803,433 ($2,446,050). Combined, the film sold 2,424,502 tickets and grossed approximately $7,649,782 in France and Germany.
On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a rating of 86% based on 36 critic reviews, with an average rating of 7.7 out of 10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Sexual taboos are broken and boundaries crossed In the Realm of the Senses, a fearlessly provocative psychosexual tale."
- Turim, Maureen (1998). The Films of Oshima Nagisa: Images of a Japanese Iconoclast. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 126–127. ISBN 0-520-20666-5.
- Richie, Donald. "In the Realm of the Senses: Some Notes on Oshima and Pornography". Criterion. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- Fountain, Clarke. "In the Realm of Passion". Allmovie. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- Sandra Buckley, ed. (14 December 2001). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Japanese Culture. Routledge. p. 9. ISBN 0-415-14344-6.
- Simon Matthews (2021). Looking for a New England. p. 1842. ISBN 9780857304124 – via Google Books.
- "In the Realm of the Senses: Some Notes on Oshima and Pornography". The Criterion Collection.
- "Nagisa Oshima's Realm of Restraint and Precision". The New York Times. 26 April 2009.
- "In the Realm of the Senses director Nagisa Oshima dies at 80". BBC News. BBC. 15 January 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
The film fell foul of censors in Germany, the UK and the US - where it was seized by customs officials ahead of a planned screening at the New York Film Festival.
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- "Nova Cinema". 11 June 2021.
- "Adieu Nagisa Oshima (1932–2013) - Filmmagie". Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
- Case Study: L'Empire des Sens (In The Realm Of The Senses) Archived 13 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Students' British Board of Film Classification page
- Wurm, Gerald. "In The Realm of the Senses (Comparison: BBFC 18 - US Blu-ray) - Movie-Censorship.com".
- "In the Realm of the Senses (1976) - Censor - Refused-Classification.com".
- Cetti, Robert (September 2014). Offensive to a Reasonable Adult. ISBN 9780987242556.
- Jones, Derek (December 2001). Censorship. ISBN 9781136798641.
- "Director of banned film nixes accord". Los Angeles Times. 5 May 2004.
- "Cinco filmes que incomodaram a censura durante a ditadura militar no Brasil". GZH (in Brazilian Portuguese). 16 January 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
- What Culture#15 Archived 15 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine; In the Realm of the Senses
- "O Império dos Sentidos".
- "L'Empire Des Sens (Ai no Corrida)". JP's Box-Office. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
- "Cinema market". Cinema, TV and radio in the EU: Statistics on audiovisual services (Data 1980-2002). Europa (2003 ed.). Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 2003. pp. 31–64 (61). ISBN 92-894-5709-0. ISSN 1725-4515. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
- "Historical currency converter with official exchange rates from 1953". fxtop.com. 31 December 1976. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
- "Historical currency converter with official exchange rates from 1953". fxtop.com. 31 December 1978. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
- In the Realm of the Senses at Rotten Tomatoes
- Buehrer, Beverley (1990). "In the Realm of the Senses (1976) Ai no Koriida". Japanese Films: a filmography and commentary, 1921–1989. Jefferson, North Carolina, and London: McFarland. pp. 222–225. ISBN 0-89950-458-2.
- Marran, Christine (2007). "Why Perversion Is Not Subversion: Tanaka Noboru's The True Story of Abe Sada and Oshima Nagisa's In the Realm of the Senses". Poison Woman: figuring female transgression in modern Japanese culture. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 150–161. ISBN 978-0-8166-4727-9.
- Kenny, Patrick T. M. (2007) Conflicting Legal and Cultural Conceptions of Obscenity in Japan: Hokusai's Shunga and Oshima Nagisa's "L'Empire des sens". Earlham College thesis
- Durgnat, Raymond (1985). "In the Realm of the Senses (Ai no Koriida)". In Frank N. Magill (ed.). Magill's Survey of Cinema: Foreign Language Films; Volume 3. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Salem Press. pp. 1475–1479. ISBN 0-89356-243-2.
- Joan Mellen. L'Empire des sens. London: British Film Institute, 2004.
- In the Realm of the Senses at IMDb
- In the Realm of the Senses at AllMovie
- In the Realm of the Senses at the Japanese Movie Database (in Japanese)
- In the Realm of the Senses: Some Notes on Oshima and Pornography an essay by Donald Richie at the Criterion Collection
- Nagisa Oshima on In the Realm of the Senses an essay by Nagisa Oshima at the Criterion Collection