In the Wee Small Hours
|In the Wee Small Hours|
|Studio album by Frank Sinatra|
|Released||April 25, 1955|
|Recorded||February 8 – March 4, 1955, (except "Last Night When We Were Young", March 1, 1954) KHJ Studios, Hollywood|
|Genre||Vocal jazz, traditional pop|
|Frank Sinatra chronology|
In the Wee Small Hours is the ninth studio album by American vocalist Frank Sinatra. It was released in April 1955 on Capitol Records, produced by Voyle Gilmore with arrangements by Nelson Riddle. All the songs on the album deal with specific themes such as loneliness, introspection, lost love, failed relationships, depression and night-life; as a result, In the Wee Small Hours has been called one of the first concept albums. The cover artwork reflects these themes, portraying Sinatra on an eerie and deserted street awash in blue-tinged street lights. He had been developing this idea since 1946 with his first album release, The Voice; he would successfully continue this "concept" formula with later albums such as Songs for Swingin' Lovers! and Only the Lonely.
In the Wee Small Hours was issued as two 10-inch LP discs, and also as one 12-inch record LP, making it one of the first of its kind in the pop field. It was also issued as four four–song 45-rpm EP discs sold in cardboard sleeves with the same cover as the LPs, not in paper covers like 45-rpm singles.
The album was a commercial success, reaching number 2 on the US charts where it stayed for 18 weeks, being Sinatra's highest charting album since his 1947 release Songs by Sinatra. As of 2002 it has been certified Gold by the RIAA, selling over 500,000 units. The album was also a critical success, and is listed as the third most acclaimed album of the 1950s. In 2012, Rolling Stone ranked it the 101st greatest album of all time.
By the early 1950s, the singer saw his career in decline, his teen "bobby soxer" audience having lost interest in him as he entered his late 30s. In 1951, he went so far as to attempt suicide according to one author. Later that year, a second season of The Frank Sinatra Show was aired on CBS, but failed to receive the same positive reception the first season had, with its host having lost his previous energy. Later, in 1952, Sinatra was dropped from Columbia Records.
Against the wishes of his colleagues, on March 14, 1953 then-Vice President of A&R at Capitol Records, Alan Livingston, signed Sinatra to a seven-year deal on his label. The deal proved to be a success; later that year in August, Sinatra appeared as Private Angelo Maggio in the film From Here to Eternity. The film was highly successful and his performance was highly acclaimed, winning him the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor and the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. With this new-found popularity he recorded two albums in 1954, Songs for Young Lovers and Swing Easy!, which both peaked at number 3 on the US charts, and the latter number 5 on the UK Album Charts. Sinatra made another acclaimed performance in February as the lead character, Frankie Machine, in the film The Man with the Golden Arm, which won him nominations for the Academy Award and BAFTA for Best Actor and Actor in Lead Role respectively.
Despite his new commercial gain, by the time of the recording of In the Wee Small Hours, Sinatra witnessed the messy end of a chain of relationships. He and his first wife, Nancy Barbato, had separated on Valentine's Day 1950. While still married, Sinatra began a relationship with Ava Gardner, which became very controversial. After he and Barbato finally divorced in October 1951, he married Gardner just ten days later. However, they were both jealous of the others' extramarital affairs. The relationship deteriorated during the recording of Songs for Young Lovers. Despite having considerable influence in getting him his part in From Here to Eternity, Ava broke off from Sinatra two months after the release of the film, divorcing in 1957. She claimed "We don't have the ability to live together like any normal married couple." It is assumed that this album's grouping of "love gone bad" songs, and Sinatra's poignant renderings, were a direct result of Sinatra's failing relationship with Gardner, to the point that these are called "Ava Songs". Riddle directly credited Sinatra's loss of Gardner with his ability to sing the type of songs contained in this album. The failure of this relationship did not irrevocably shatter Sinatra, but instead caused him to expand as an artist, capable of communicating emotionally to a degree rarely equaled in pop music.
The album was designed as a concept album. Albums from the time period tended to be little more than collections of singles, but Sinatra developed a distinction between songs intended as singles for radio airplay and for jukeboxes, and those songs he intended to package together in an album. His sessions intended for album release tend to be more serious, artistically.
In the Wee Small Hours was recorded before stereophonic technology, but the fidelity of this monophonic album feels "warm" to modern ears. The album was recorded in five sessions at KHJ Studios, Hollywood. These sessions took place on February 8, 16, and 17, and April 1 and 4, and would start at 8:00 P.M., continuing to past midnight. The sessions were recorded in Studio C, located downstairs, which was a smaller studio designed to record small ensembles. The first four songs recorded specifically for this album ("Can't We Be Friends", "Dancing on the Ceiling", "Glad to Be Unhappy", "I'll Be Around") were not recorded with any brass or strings, but were sparsely arranged. Although the arrangements were Riddle's, there was no need for a conductor, so pianist Bill Miller managed from his instrument.
Set against his then-current relationship troubles, Sinatra set out to record "angst-ridden" songs involving lost love. Sinatra was very tense during the recording of the album, reportedly breaking down and crying after the master take of "When Your Lover Has Gone". Rita Kirwan of Music magazine witnessed one of the sessions, and her account goes thus:
Sinatra takes a gulp of the lukewarm coffee remaining in the cup most recently handed to him, and then he lifts the inevitable hat from his head a little, and plops it right back, almost as if he wanted to relieve the pressure from the hat band. The studio empties fast; just music stands and chairs remain. Sinatra flops onto one of the chairs, crosses his legs, and hums a fragment of one of the songs he's been recording. He waves to the night janitor now straightening up the studio, and says: "Jeez, what crazy working hours we got. We both should've been plumbers, huh?"
Nelson Riddle commented on Sinatra's work ethic and its effect on Riddle's arrangements and the studio orchestra:
You have to be right on mettle all the time. The man, himself, somehow draws everything out of you, and he has the same effect on the boys in the band. They know he means business, so they pull everything out."
Sinatra was meticulous about the quality of the sessions for In the Wee Small Hours. Guitarist George Van Eps recalls that Sinatra stopped a session after only singing a few notes because he felt his voice did not have "the right sound" at the time. The session was rescheduled for the following night, and Van Eps felt it "was perfect." Sinatra also carefully sequenced the songs, with input from Miller and Riddle, for the LP he personally referred to as "the Ava album."
Sinatra's voice was maturing at this point, and he had matured musically regarding intonation and vocal shading. He had also become more comfortable with improvising rhythmically within the confines of Riddle's arrangements. Slight technical imperfections by Sinatra have been found in this recording, but the overall emotional effect compensates completely, so that the listener attributes any shortcomings to the sincere human expressions of the singer.
"Deep in a Dream" is identified by critic Will Friedwald as an example of Sinatra's ability to correctly interpret song, in that the song could easily be delivered as "detached" or "hysterical", but Sinatra finds the perfect balance. The song was considered for inclusion in Trilogy: Past Present Future but did not make the final cut.
"I Get Along Without You Very Well" is an "exquisitely ironic" piece written by Hoagy Carmichael with lyrics based on a poem by Jane Brown Thompson. Although Sinatra's relationship with Gardner was not ending well, author James Kaplan posits this song as clearly setting the album's mood of one of "capitulation, not retaliation".
"I'll Never Be the Same" uses a "wind chime" motif, which came from Riddle's appreciation of French impressionist music. He uses this same mini-theme briefly in It Never Entered My Mind, and also later in Gone With the Wind from the 1958 album Frank Sinatra Sings for Only the Lonely.
The title track came about by happenstance. Composers Bob Hilliard and David Mann were in New York City to visit a publisher. They spotted Sinatra and Riddle and decided to show them their new composition "In the Wee Small Hours of the Morning." Sinatra liked the song and wanted to use it immediately for the album he was currently working on.
Sinatra had originally recorded "It Never Entered My Mind" in 1947 for Columbia Records. It was originally part of the Rodgers and Hart Broadway show Higher and Higher. Ironically this song, which was a long-time resident in Sinatra's repertoire, was cut from the film version, Sinatra's cinematic debut.
Recorded nearly a year before all other selections, "Last Night When We Were Young" was a problematic recording, Riddle recalled that about thirty takes were used. The recording features a "low-key" coda emphasizing strings and horns, and a small guitar solo. Sinatra was highly involved in the recording production, and felt that the guitar solo needed to be slowed considerably. Sinatra held both Riddle and the musicians hired for the session in high esteem, so he first talked with guitarist Van Eps about the change, and then discussed it separately with Riddle. The resulting feel of the song became highly relaxed. Van Eps commented "Frank was loaded with things like that." The song finale in this version is a "cataclysmic climax." Sinatra would later record the song with a Gordon Jenkins arrangement for the 1965 album September of My Years. Last Night was originally written for the 1935 movie Metropolitan, but was cut from the final version, appearing only as an instrumental during the credits. The song features advanced harmonic progressions and a melodic juxtaposition of chromaticism and octave leaps.
Along with "Ill Wind," Duke Ellington's "Mood Indigo" is the purest jazz song on the album. A motif developed here by Riddle would later become more famous as the descending riff in Sinatra's hit "Witchcraft." Sinatra would henceforth include a blues-based selection such as this on each of his "downbeat" albums.
"This Love of Mine" was first recorded by Sinatra in 1941 when he was with the Tommy Dorsey orchestra. In this 1955 version Sinatra gives a more mature reading to the lyrics. Riddle brings a rich arrangement to the harmonically simple song, which assists the mood presented in the album.
"What Is This Thing Called Love" is noted by Charles Granata for its "most expressive vocal shading". Sinatra's voice approaches the bass range at times, and the interpretation is noted for the lyrical liberties Sinatra takes with Porter's lyrics. The song was recorded in 21 takes.
"When Your Lover Has Gone" had a great effect on Lester Young. Young had asked record store clerk Bob Sherrick to "Let me hear something by my man, Frank." In the Wee Small Hours had been recently released, and Sherrick played this song for Young first. Young listened only to this one song, then left the record shop muttering to himself that he had to record it himself on his next session.
More than just a picture of the artist, or an abstract artistic expression, the cover art is designed to assist in setting the mood for the music contained inside. The cover shows Sinatra on an eerie and deserted street awash in blue-tinged street lights, reflecting the album's themes of introspection, lost love, failed relationships, depression and night-life. It is significant that Sinatra is depicted alone, as loneliness during the "Wee Small Hours" is a key concept of the album. Rather than at a rakish angle, Sinatra's snap-brim hat is pushed back, designating emotional resignation and openness. The artwork is reminiscent of film noir, or a hardboiled fiction cover.
Themes of loss and love's bittersweet relationship to loss pervade the album. Yet the ending tone is not one of despair, but of hope and survival as made possible by cathartic reflection. Perhaps given as kindly advice by a person of experience, Jonathan Schwartz believes the album refrains from being "mushy" but instead presents the material in a stately manner. Sinatra's next album, Songs for Swingin' Lovers, seems to follow up on this promise by depicting an individual who is "free to enjoy women again". These two albums well represent the "heartbroken/hedonistic duality" of Sinatra's persona in the mid-1950s.
Sinatra intended the album to be his first 12-inch LP, but it was initially released as a two-volume set, each set containing eight songs, as a set of 2 ten-inch LPs (Capitol H-581 PT1 and PT2) and as a set of 2 45rpm EP sets, each of 2 discs. The album was released in April 1955. Taken as a whole, the collection is Sinatra's first truly full-length album. Capitol record executives were concerned that an entire album of "dark" material would disaffect the record-buying public. It peaked at number 2 on the Billboard 200, where it remained for 18 weeks, the longest time Sinatra had held a spot in the top-ten at the time, and also his highest charting album since Songs by Sinatra. On September 6, 2002, it was certified Gold by the RIAA, meaning it had shifted over 500,000 units.
In the Wee Small Hours became available on compact disc for the first time in 1991, and has been reissued and remastered several times since. Capitol released its first compact disc in 1991, with 15 of the 16 original tracks (U.S. Catalog #CDP-46571). Track 10, "Last Night When We Were Young", was omitted.
The album was instantly popular upon its release. In the United States the album was listed at number two at its peak, and appeared on the charts for eighteen weeks. In August 1962 it re-entered the Billboard album charts for another run.
Since its release, In the Wee Small Hours has been regarded as one of Sinatra's best, often being ranked alongside Songs for Swingin' Lovers! (1956) and Frank Sinatra Sings for Only the Lonely (1958). It is also considered by many to be one of the best vocal jazz releases of all time. It received immediate critical acclaim upon its initial release. Acclaimed Music, a website which aggregates musical accolades, names ...Hours the 3rd most acclaimed album of the 1950s (...Swingin' Lovers! being one place behind it), with Kind of Blue by Miles Davis and Elvis Presley's self titled début album in front. It also names the album the 322th most acclaimed album of all time.
Stephen Thomas Erlewine commented in AllMusic that the album had an authentic melancholy mood, and is "one of Sinatra's most jazz-oriented performances". Another critic called the album "...perhaps the definitive musical evocation of loneliness".
|Amazon.com||10 Best Albums by Decade (50s)||1999||3|
|Gear||The 100 Greatest Albums of the Century||1999|
|Blender||The 100 Greatest American Albums of All Time||2002||54|
|Rolling Stone||The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time||2003||101|
|1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die||1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die||2005|
|Time||The All-TIME 100 Albums||2006|
|Mojo||100 Records That Changed the World||2007||11|
|Platendraaier||Top 30 Albums of the 50s||2016||7|
The album marks a turning point for Sinatra, the beginning of Sinatra's "mature" singing style, carrying with it both depth of emotive expression and willingness to experiment rhythmically. Sinatra's relationship with Gardner had previously largely been unaccepted by the general public. John Rockwell believes it was this album, because of the genuine emotional palette on display, that changed the perception of the "validity" of the ill-fated romance.
Directly before Sinatra's funeral service, songs from "the Ava album" were played by a trio led by Bill Miller.
Charles Granata opines that this album of ballads best defines Sinatra and the era in which it was recorded. The title track, "In the Wee Small Hours of the Morning", has been recorded by a number of artists following Sinatra's version, including Johnny Hartman, Astrud Gilberto, Lou Rawls, Carly Simon, Art Blakey, Count Basie and His Orchestra, Andy Williams, Wes Montgomery, Ruby Braff, Jamie Cullum, John Mayer, Susan Wong, and many others. A cover version of the title track is also featured as the last track on Curtis Stigers' 2009 album, Lost in Dreams. In his autobiography, B.B. King speaks about how he was a "Sinatra nut" and how he went to bed every night listening to "In the Wee Small Hours."  Tom Waits has named it one of his favourite albums. His album The Heart of Saturday Night features cover artwork based on In the Wee Small Hours. Per the biography "Divided Soul," Marvin Gaye cited it as a favorite and an inspiration for his posthumously released "ballad" album Vulnerable along with Billie Holiday's "Lady in Satin."
Based largely on Sinatra's reputation, this album helped change the "tough guy" image, allowing for a larger range of acceptable emotional responses from men, which might previously have been perceived as for wimps.
|1.||"In the Wee Small Hours of the Morning"||Bob Hilliard and David Mann||3:00|
|2.||"Mood Indigo"||Barney Bigard, Duke Ellington and Irving Mills||3:30|
|3.||"Glad to Be Unhappy"||Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart||2:35|
|4.||"I Get Along Without You Very Well"||Hoagy Carmichael||3:42|
|5.||"Deep in a Dream"||Eddie DeLange and Jimmy Van Heusen||2:49|
|6.||"I See Your Face Before Me"||Howard Dietz and Arthur Schwartz||3:24|
|7.||"Can't We Be Friends?"||Paul James and Kay Swift||2:48|
|8.||"When Your Lover Has Gone"||Einar Aaron Swan||3:10|
|9.||"What Is This Thing Called Love?"||Cole Porter||2:35|
|10.||"Last Night When We Were Young"||Harold Arlen and Yip Harburg||3:17|
|11.||"I'll Be Around"||Alec Wilder||2:59|
|12.||"Ill Wind"||Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler||3:46|
|13.||"It Never Entered My Mind"||Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart||2:42|
|14.||"Dancing on the Ceiling"||Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart||2:57|
|15.||"I'll Never Be the Same"||Gus Kahn, Matty Malneck and Frank Signorelli||3:05|
|16.||"This Love of Mine"||Sol Parker, Henry W. Sanicola, Jr. and Frank Sinatra||3:33|
|2007 Re-release Bonus Tracks|
|17.||"Three Coins in the Fountain"||Jule Styne and Sammy Cahn||3:08|
|18.||"Young at Heart"||Johnny Richards and Carolyn Leigh||2:55|
- Frank Sinatra – vocals
- Nelson Riddle – arranger, conductor
- Voyle Gilmore – producer 
- John Palladino – audio engineer
Tracks 1, 4, 8, 16:
(February 17, 1955 - Capitol recording session KHJ Studios 8-11:30 P.M.)
Felix Slatkin, Paul Shure, Harry Bluestone, Mischa Russell, Emo Neufeld, Marshall Sosson, Alex Beller, Victor Bay, Walter Edelstein, Henry Hill, Nathan Ross, David Frisina (vln); Alvin Dinkin, Paul Robyn, David Sterkin, Stanley Harris (vla); Eleanor Slatkin, Kurt Reher, Edgar Lustgarten, Ray Kramer (vie); Kathryn Julye (harp); Bill Miller (p), George Van Eps (g); Mike Rubin, Morty Corb (b); Lou Singer (d).
Tracks 2, 6, 9, 12:
(February 16, 1955 - Capitol recording session KHJ Studios 8-11:30 P.M.)
Harry Edison (tpt); Mahlon Clark, Skeets Herfurt, Champ Webb, Babe Russin, Ted Nash (sax/wwd); Felix Slatkin, Paul Shure, Harry Bluestone, Mischa Russell (vln); Alvin Dinkin, Eleanor Slatkin (via); Kathryn Julye (harp); Bill Miller (p); Paul Smith (eel); George Van Eps (g); Phil Stephens (b); Alvin Stoller (d).
Tracks 3, 7, 11, 14
(February 8, 1955 - Capitol recording session KHJ Studios 8:30 P.M-12 M.) Frank Sinatra with Rhythm Section Conducted by Bill Miler
Bill Miller (p); Paul Smith (eel); George Van Eps (g); Phil Stephens (b); Alvin Stoller (d). Nelson Riddle (arr).
Tracks 5, 13, 15:
(March 4, 1955 - Capitol recording session KHJ Stidios)
John Cave, Vincent DeRosa, Joseph Eger, Richard Perissi (fr-h); Arthur Gleghorn, Louella Howard, Jules Kinsler, George Poole (fl); Felix Slatkin, Paul Shure, Harry Bluestone, Mischa Russell, Marshall Sosson, Nathan Ross, Victor Bay, Alex Beller (vln); Eleanor Slatkin, Cy Bernard, Edgar Lustgarten, Armand Kaproff, Ray Kramer, Joseph Saxon, Kurt Reher, James Arkatov (vlc); Kathryn Julye (harp); Bill Miller (p); George Van Eps (g); Phil Stephens (b); Lou Singer (d).
(March 1, 1954 - Capitol recording session KHJ Studios 8pm-12m)
Joe Howard, Tommy Pederson (tbn); John Graas, John Cave (fr-h); Harry Klee, James Williamson, Champ Webb, Mahlon Clark, Mort Friedman, Bart Caldarell (sax/wwd); Alex Beller, Victor Bay, Walter Edelstein, Nathan Ross, Felix Slatkin, Paul Shure, Mischa Russell, Harry Bluestone, Eudice Shapiro, Paul Nero, George Kast (vln); Paul Robyn, Maxine Johnson, Stanley Harris (via); Cy Bernard, Eleanor Slatkin, Edgar Lustgarten (vlc); Kathryn Julye, Ann Mason Stockton (harp); Bill Miller (p); Bobby Gibbons (g); Joe Comfort, Eddie Gilbert (b); Frank Carlson (d).
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