|• Total||26.81 km2 (10.35 sq mi)|
|• Density||5,900/km2 (15,000/sq mi)|
|Racial makeup (2011)|
|• Black African||99.4%|
|First languages (2011)|
|• S. Ndebele||1.4%|
|Postal code (street)||4310|
Inanda (isiZulu: Pleasant Place) is a township in eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa that is situated 24 km inland from Durban; it now forms part of eThekwini, the Greater Durban Metropolitan Municipality. Populated primarily by Zulu-speaking Black Africans, Inanda is known as the home of John Langalibalele Dube, first president of the African National Congress (ANC), as a residence/base of operations of Mahatma Gandhi, and as birthplace of the syncretic Nazareth Baptist Church. It is a poor suburban area with a murder rate much higher than average in Ethekweni. Combined with high HIV rates this leads to not many reaching old age.
Gandhi and the Phoenix Settlement
In 1904, Mohandas Gandhi, who had resided in nearby Durban since 1893, established a small village-like settlement, Phoenix Settlement, on the northwestern outskirts of Inanda. Boasting residences, a clinic, a school, and a printing press, Phoenix served for a time as an important home to Gandhi, his family and his followers as they strove to follow a path of social change through passive resistance. The activist newspaper Indian Opinion, which argued strenuously for the civil rights of Indian South Africans, was published here in four languages.
Phoenix Settlement continued to serve as home to a number of residents and activists even after Gandhi's departure in 1914, including his son, Manilal Gandhi. By the early 1980s, a squatter camp, Bhambayi, occupied most of the area around the Settlement. In 1985, riots in the camp over apartheid caused heavy damage to Phoenix Settlement's buildings, and the community was largely abandoned until February 2000, when then-President Thabo Mbeki formally committed to its reopening and restoration.
Nazareth Baptist Church
In 1910, the Zulu mystic and charismatic preacher Isaiah Shembe founded the Nazareth Baptist Church, an African initiated church blending Christianity and indigenous Zulu traditions, in Inanda. Church doctrine emphasizes abstemious living and the Ten Commandments; its followers, themselves known as "Shembe", ascribe quasi-messianic powers to Isaiah Shembe and his descendants. The Church has undergone several schisms in the over 100 years since its founding. Most Shembe still hail from KwaZulu-Natal, and the historic and venerated Inanda church headquarters site, ekuPhakameni, remains in use.
John Langibalele Dube, nicknamed "Mafukuzela" and his wife Nokutela Dube was born here in the 1870s at an American-run Christian mission station in Inanda. The son of a highborn Zulu pastor, Dube was educated at Oberlin College in the United States. Upon returning to his native Inanda, Dube began to compose the first of his many thoughtful essays on the history and progress of Africans and founded the first bilingual Zulu/English newspaper, Ilanga laseNatali (The Sun of Natal), in 1903. Throughout his life, Dube was an active, pioneering author of Zulu literature. He later became a vocal force for Black African advancement and liberation, serving from 1912–1917 as the first president of the South African Native National Congress, which was to evolve into the influential African National Congress party.
Inspired by the work of African-American educator Booker T. Washington and his Tuskegee University, Dube and his wife founded several schools in Inanda, including Ohlange High School, Redfern Primary School, and Langalibalele High Primary School. Dube's home neighborhood in Inanda, Dube Village, now contains numerous memorials to his efforts.
Nearby communities in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, in addition to the major city of Durban, include KwaMashu and Ntuzuma. Inanda occupies an extensive area and is subdivided into smaller townships (villages), including Inanda Newtowns A, B, and C; Inanda Glebe; Amaoti; and Emachobeni. The area of Dube Village has become something of a tourist attraction because of its rich historical connection to John Langibalele Dube.
Economy and infrastructure
- Amandlakayise Primary School — founded by J.L. Dube
- Inanda Seminary School — independent girls' secondary school, founded in 1869 by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions
- Langalibalele High Primary School — founded by J.L. Dube
- Ohlange High School — founded by J.L. Dube and his Nokutela Dube as Zulu Christian Industrial School; in 1994, site of the polling place where Nelson Mandela cast his vote in South Africa's first racially integrated national election
- Redfern Primary School — founded by J.L. Dube
Inanda is the headquarters of bilingual (English/Zulu) radio station Inanda FM, which broadcasts throughout KwaZulu-Natal.