Incidents in the Gaza War (2008–09)
|This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (October 2010)|
Incidents in the Gaza War include incidents involving attacks against civilians, a school, a mosque, and naval confrontations.
- 1 United Nations facilities
- 2 Civilians and civilian infrastructure
- 3 International civilian efforts to break the blockade on Gaza
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
United Nations facilities
A United Nations inquiry into attacks on UN personnel or facilities during the Gaza War concluded that Israel had fired on U.N. personnel or facilities on eight separate incidents. The Board found no evidence that U.N. facilities had been used to launch attacks against the IDF. However, the Board's findings conclude only that violation of the inviolability of U.N. premises had occurred; its report does not make legal findings and does not consider whether laws of armed conflict were breached, as acknowledged by U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon.
The Israeli Government report notes that indeed the test applied by the UN Inquiry Board was merely whether the physical premises of U.N. facilities had been affected and not whether the Laws of Armed Conflict were violated. The IDF conducted its own probe into claims regarding incidents where UN and international facilities were fired upon and damaged. The findings published argue that in all the cases investigated, the damage resulted either from retaliatory fire or from misuse of the UN vehicles by Hamas militants and that there were no deliberate intentions to hit UN facilities.
U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon said the United Nations would consult with Israel to improve their lines of communication to prevent future attacks on U.N. personnel and facilities. Ban plans to seek compensation from Israel for the damage to U.N. property, estimated at $11 million. Mirit Cohen, an Israeli spokeswoman, said that Israeli military inquiries proved beyond doubt that the IDF did not intentionally fire at any U.N. installations.The U.N. board of inquiry urged Israel to withdraw charges that Palestinians had fired from inside U.N.-run schools and U.N. relief offices. Israeli officials said they had already done so in their military inquiry.
Al-Fakhura school attack, 6 January 2009
Al-Fakhura school attack, was an incident in which it was initially reported that Israeli forces had shelled a UNRWA school on January 6, 2009 and killed upwards of 30 people. At the time, the incident drew widespread condemnation from around the world. Reports from The Globe and Mail as well as Haaretz concluded that no one was killed inside the school in contradiction to a report from a separate branch of the UN. UNRWA responded that it had maintained from the day of attack "that the shelling and all of the fatalities took place outside and not inside the school." 
UNRWA Asma Elementary School, 5 January 2009
Following the investigation into the incident, the U.N. Board concluded that Israel intentionally struck a U.N.-run school, exhibiting a "reckless disregard for the lives and safety" of civilians; three civilians were killed. The Israeli Government report claims that the UN Inquiry acknowledged that "information regarding the School functioning as a shelter for civilians was provided by the U.N. to IDF only on 6 January 2009, the day after the incident had occurred. A list of facilities serving as shelters — provided by the U.N. one day earlier on 4 January 2009 — did not include UNRWA Asma School". However, earlier that day, UNRWA apparently had opened the school as an emergency shelter, after it had been closed for nine days prior the incident. IDF’s investigation of the incident revealed that on the night of 5 January, a unit of militants was present in Asma School site. Supposedly without being aware that civilians were present in the site, the IDF targeted the unit.
UNRWA Field Office Compound, 15 January 2009
On January 15, the IDF shelled a storage facility within the compound of the UN headquarters for Gaza, containing tons of food and sheltering hundreds of Palestinian refugees. According to United Nations personnel, unexploded ordnance analysis demonstrates that the compound was hit with 155m white phosphorus ammunition. The facility did not have the equipment to extinguish the chemical fire and it spread towards several fuel tanks. The UN asked the IDF for a local ceasefire in order to try to put out the fires, but the request was denied. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon expressed "strong protest and outrage". An Israeli Defence Spokesperson was quoted as saying "We regret that such an incident occurred, I am sorry for it however Hamas fired rockets and troops received fire coming from within the site." The United Nations has dismissed the Israeli explanation as "total nonsense". A senior UN official who was inside the building when it was attacked also denounced the Israeli statements as false and said that there were only non combatants in the building. The report from Israeli Government quotes findings of the UN Board Inquiry into the incident: the Board "was not within its scope to assess general allegations or denials" regarding "possible military activity close to United Nations premises and possible military use of nearby buildings". The Israeli position on this incident is that the incident "took place during intense fighting, which involved Hamas’ deployment of anti-tank units equipped with advanced anti-tank missiles north of the UNRWA compound", which posed threat to IDF forces in the area. IDF implemented an effective smokescreen as a protective measure in response, anticipating only "limited risk to civilians in relation to this operational advantage".
Civilians and civilian infrastructure
The IDF said civilian buildings in the Gaza Strip were destroyed during Operation Cast Lead due to "substantial operational needs" citing examples of buildings being booby-trapped, located over tunnels, or used by combatants to fire from.
During the conflict, life in much of southern Israel was paralyzed by Hamas rocket and mortar fire. According to HRW, during the Gaza War, rocket attacks placed up to 800,000 Israeli civilians within range of attack.
During the war, rockets reached major Israeli cities Ashdod, Beersheba and Gedera for the first time, putting one-eighth of Israel's population in rocket range. As of January 13, 2009, Palestinian militants had launched approximately 565 rockets and 200 mortars at Israel since the beginning of the conflict, according to Israeli security sources.
Besides the rockets fired by the Qassam Brigades of Hamas, other factions claimed responsibility for rockets fired into Israel and attacks on Israeli soldiers, including Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades (affiliated with Fatah), the Abu Ali Mustapha Brigades (armed wing of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine), the Quds Brigades and the Popular Resistance Councils. A Fatah official stated that the rocket attacks by his faction contradicted the official position of Mahmoud Abbas, Fatah leader and President of the Palestinian National Authority. Abbas had called on all sides to cease hostilities unconditionally.
Militants fired over 750 rockets and mortars from Gaza into Israel during the conflict. Bersheeba and Gedera were the furthest areas hit by rocket or mortars. The rockets killed three civilians and one IDF soldier and wounded 182 people, with another 584 people suffering from shock and anxiety syndrome. The rockets also caused property damage, including damage to three schools. Senior Hamas official Mahmoud al-Zahar stated during the operation "they [Israeli forces] shelled everyone in Gaza.... They shelled children and hospitals and mosques, ... and in doing so, they gave us legitimacy to strike them in the same way." Human Rights Watch noted in the open letter to Ismail Haniyeh that despite his Foreign Ministry stance as part of response to the Goldstone Report, Palestinian armed groups remain responsible for firing rockets indiscriminately or deliberately at Israeli civilian objects. HRW also noted that Palestinian militants put Palestinian civilians at risk of Israeli counter-attacks by launching rockets from populated areas.
In the Gaza Strip
BBC News stated on January 14 that the agency and the Israeli human rights group B'tselem have received claims from Gaza civilians that IDF forces fired on Gaza residents trying to escape the area. Israel has strongly denied the allegations, and dismissed B'tselem's report as "without foundation". The BBC reported speaking to members of a family who say they were shot at as they tried to leave to replenish dwindling water and food supplies during the three-hour humanitarian lull. It also mentioned allegations of the targeted killing of women, the elderly, and children trying to flee the conflict. B'tselem has been unable to corroborate the testimonies it had received.
On January 16, Dr. Ezzeldeen Abu al-Aish, an Israeli-trained Palestinian doctor of Gaza, and regular figure on Israel’s Channel 10 where he reported on the medical crisis, broke down when contacted for his nightly report by informing viewers that he had just lost three daughters and a niece in the fighting, prompting numerous calls of concern to the station from people who know him. Two surviving daughters were transported for treatment of their wounds to Tel Ha-Shomer Hospital in Tel Aviv. The Israeli army's investigation, approved by Chief of Staff Gabi Ashkenazi, stated that an IDF tank fired two shells at the house after suspicious figures were seen on the upper level of the doctor's home. The doctor has questioned part of the IDF report, saying his home is located in "Jebaliya, northeast of Gaza City, not in the Gaza City neighborhood of Sajaiyeh; there was no firing from his house; and he saw no pamphlets with Israeli warnings to evacuate that the military said it dropped." The Israeli army "could not be reached for an explanation (of the) discrepancies from their written statement." The British Army veteran Colonel Tim Collins visited the site of the incident. He said that from the spot the tank fired, no clear-cut target was visible. He added that the shot was questionable, but at the same time he understands how Israeli troops, situated at the inferior position, could have felt threatened in the middle of the battle.
The use of Palestinian children as human shields by Israeli forces during the conflict has been reported.
During the war, a Hamas rocket hit an Israeli kindergarten in Beersheba, causing damage to the building and to a nearby house. Dozens of people were treated for shock. In another case, a rocket landed in an Israeli elementary school in Beersheba, causing severe damage was caused to the structure. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. A Qassam rocket hit another school in Ashkelon, destroying classrooms and injuring two people.
Studies officially resumed on January 11. Only schools with fortified classrooms and bomb shelters were allowed to bring students in, and IDF Home Front Command representatives were stationed in the schools; attendance was low.
Medical facilities and personnel
The largest hospital on Israel's southern coast, Ashkelon's Barzilai Hospital, moved its critical treatment facilities into an underground shelter after a Gaza-fired rocket struck beside its helicopter pad on December 28.
On January 4, 2009, Israeli planes hit the A-Raeiya Medical Center and its mobile clinics, without warning, causing damages of $800,000. The center, which served 100 patients a day, was clearly marked as a medical facility and was located in the middle of a residential area, with no government or military facilities are nearby.
Several testimonies from local Gazan population and from IDF soldiers stated that Hamas operatives donned medic uniforms and commandeered ambulances for fighters transportation. After the Israeli airstrike on the central prison which resulted in prisoners being released into the streets, several of the 115 prisoners accused of collaboration with Israel who had not yet been tried, were executed by Hamas militants in civilian clothes in the Shifa hospital compound. An IDF probe released on April 22, 2009, stated that an incident involving a UN vehicle attacked by the IDF occurred after the IDF identified a Palestinian anti-tank squad disembarking from the vehicle. The Palestinian Authority's Health Ministry accused the Hamas-run government's security services of using several hospitals and clinics in Gaza as interrogation and detention centers, where medical staffers have been expelled, during and after the war. The IDF probe made similar charges and stated that Hamas operated a command and control center inside Shifa Hospital in the Gaza City throughout the War.
The following day, a mother and infant clinic run by Christian Aid and the Near East Council of Churches was destroyed by Israeli jets, Patients and workers were given only fifteen minutes to evacuate, before the bombing. Archbishop Barry Morgan demanded an explanation from the Israeli Ambassador to London regarding this attack on the Shij'ia Family Health Care Centre which served 10,836 families, solely dependent on the center for medical support. According to the report of the Israeli Government published in July 2009, the operational goal of the strike was to destroy a Hamas storage site located in the same building. The report adds that "there was no sign indicating the presence of the clinic, and its location had not been reported or otherwise known to the IDF prior to the military operation against the weapons depot".
The Aal Quds Hospital, in the densely populated Tal Hawa residential district, was hit by Israeli shell-fire on January 16. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies called the attack on the hospital "completely and utterly unacceptable based on every known standard of international humanitarian law". An official in the Palestinian People's Party said that resistance fighters were firing from positions all around the hospital. Corriere della Sera reporter wrote that the grounds, ambulances and uniforms of the al-Quds hospital had been hijacked by Hamas operatives. On January 15, the IDF fired at a Red Crescent hospital holding 400–500 people at the Tel Hawwa neighborhood of Gaza City. As claimed by Palestinian Authority's Health Ministry in Ramallah, both clinics were used by Hamas militants as interrogation and detention centers.
Israeli forces also attacked and damaged Danish mobile health clinics, prompting the Danish Foreign Ministry to consider demanding compensation from Israel. Muhammad Ramadan of the ICRC testified to Physicians for Human Rights-Israel (PHP-I) that his ambulance, clearly marked with ICRC symbols was shot at by a tank despite coordination with the IDF. Medics with the Palestine Red Crescent also claimed to have been deliberately fired upon by Israeli forces. On January 11, a senior IDF officer accused Hamas gunmen of using Red Crescent ambulances to break the IDF battle line into northern Gaza from the south. On January 12, a Palestinian doctor was killed by an Israeli helicopter while attempting to evacuate the wounded from a building hit by missiles in the Jabaliya refugee camp.
The Israel-based Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center claims that, around the start of the conflict, the Hamas police force operations room in the northern Gaza moved into the Kamal Adwan hospital. The Jewish Virtual Library has stated that "Hamas operatives have been seen hiding in maternity wards at civilian hospitals". On December 31, 2008, Israel Security Agency head Yuval Diskin told the government cabinet that he believed that Hamas militants have taken shelter in various Gaza hospitals. On January 11, a senior IDF officer accused Hamas gunmen of hiding inside Red Crescent ambulances in order to break the IDF battle line separating northern and southern Gaza.
On January 12, Israeli Public Security Minister accused Hamas militants of hiding in Gaza's Shifa Hospital, using the rooms to "hold meetings," and donning medics' uniforms. UNRWA disputes the assertions, and Shifa Hospital's Director accused the Israeli minister of lying in order to advance his political career, though the hospital doesn't monitor who enters or exits the building. On January 13, the PBS program "Wide Angle" reported that an anonymous doctor at Shifa stated that Hamas officials were hiding underneath the hospital building, "putting civilians in harm’s way". On January 14, Israel Ambassador to the United Nations Gabriela Shalev filed a formal complaint to the UN Secretary General, claiming the discovery of a war room under Shifa Hospital, that Hamas used patients as human shields.
It has, additionally, been reported that ambulance drivers tending to the wounded were targeted and in some cases killed by Israeli forces, despite having been wearing outfits clearly identifying them as medical personnel.
Five supposed collaborators with Israel were killed at the compound of Shifa hospital by Hamas militants dressed in civilian clothes. Several reports in mass media suggest that Hamas fighters used the ambulances to transport combatants.
Palestinian Authority's Health Ministry in Ramallah also accused Hamas of using hospitals and clinics in Gaza as interrogation and detention centers: "Hospitals … that were taken over include Al-Quds Hospital in Tal Al-Hawa, a Red Crescent initiative, parts of the Ash-Shifa Hospital in Gaza City, the upper and lower floors of the An-Nasser Hospital, as well as the Psychiatric Hospital".
According to witnesses reports, on January 5, Israeli troops ordered about 110 Palestinians, mostly women and children (separately detaining the men), into a single building without running water or food in the Zeitoun district, only to shell the building 24 hours later. The IDF stated that it had no knowledge of such attack, and argued that the claim is unreasonable since it claimed to have no forces present in that area on January 4. Israeli television claimed that Gaza hospitals had no knowledge of the attack.
Initial reports suggested that anywhere between 11 (including 5 infants) and 70 were killed. Later reports stated that 30 people died in the attack. The United Nations confirmed the witnesses' testimonies in a report published on January 9. The report, by the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs said the attack was "one of the gravest" in the conflict, and called an investigation into the attack. The report offered no evidence that the attack was deliberate, and Allegro Pacheco, a senior U.N. official in Jerusalem who helped draft the report on the attack for OCHA, added: "We are not making an accusation of deliberate action" by the Israelis.
According to an eyewitness account, while rounding up the Palestinians, Israeli soldiers shot dead two civilians, including a child.
According to the Red Cross, ambulances were not given permission to enter the neighborhood to retrieve the injured from the building that day, but did so a day later. Three children had later died after they were transported to hospital. After the attack, ambulances found four children clinging to their mothers' corpses for 48 hours, though Israeli soldiers were stationed nearby and did nothing to help. United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navanethem Pillay, said "Incidents such as this must be investigated because they display elements of what could constitute war crimes.", and called for "credible, independent and transparent" investigations into possible violations of humanitarian law.
Reports of the attack were given to the media by a Mads Gilbert, a Norwegian doctor and political activist stationed in the Shifa Hospital, Gaza, on January 5, and several newspapers reported that the survivors of the attack were treated at Shifa hospital.
As the 13th of January, the bodies of those killed in the attacks on 5 January has still not been recovered, despite the appeals to the Israeli army for access to the Al Samouni home.
Researcher of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, colonel (res.) Halevi claims that an examination of freely accessible Palestinian sources show that at least three members of the al-Samouni family were affiliated with Palestinian Islamic Jihad group; Tawfiq al-Samouni, who was killed on January 5, was supposedly a Palestinian Islamic Jihad operative. Moreover, he suggests that the official Palestinian Islamic Jihad version of the occurrences on the day of the incident indicate that its fighters had been operating in the area against IDF. Based on the evidences, he suggests that it is plausible civilians were caught in the fighting.
Ibrahim al-Maqadna mosque
On January 3, 2009, the Israeli Defense Force attacked the Ibrahim al-Maqadna mosque in Beit Lahiya at dusk. Witnesses said over 200 Palestinians were praying inside at the time. Thirteen people, including six children, were killed, and 30 people were reported wounded.
Israel has accused Hamas of using mosques to hide weapons and ammunition. The IDF's Spokesperson Unit has published videos showing secondary explosions that occurred after destroying mosques, alleging that these were caused by the weapons and ammunition hidden in them.
Abd Rabbo family incident
On January 7, 2009, Israeli soldiers allegedly shot at members of the Abd Rabbo family who were trying to leave the house. The incident was detailed by several news agencies, human-rights organizations and the Goldstone report.
International civilian efforts to break the blockade on Gaza
The Arion merchant vessel, which was headed to Gaza under a Greek Merchant Ensign in order to offer humanitarian aid as part of the Free Gaza movement, returned to Larnaca, Cyprus on January 15. According to the captain, the ship returned to Larnaca after an encounter with Israeli warships at a distance of 92 nautical miles from the Cape Greco off Cyprus in Famagusta Bay, which is in international waters. Three Israeli ships approached the Arion and warned it that if it will not change its course towards Gaza, and sail into Israeli waters, they will be forced to attack it. Aboard the Arion there were twelve Greek nationals and activists aboard as well as journalists and doctors of other nationalities.
Greece had informed the Israeli government on its transfer of humanitarian aid days ago, but also warned the leaders of the expedition about the dangers of the expedition.
The Greek government informed the head of the initiative and all those participating fully and in a timely manner – before the vessel set off – pointing out to them the serious safety risks involved in their planned action, which entails passing through a closed military sea zone that has been designated by Israel in the crisis region.
At the same time, we have carried out and are carrying out all of the necessary diplomatic actions towards the Israeli side, underscoring the purely humanitarian nature of this effort and calling on the Israeli authorities to handle the situation with the requisite sensitivity and with particular caution so as not to jeopardize the safety of those who are on board the vessel Arion.”
On December 29, 2008, the Free Gaza Movement sailboat Dignity set sail from Cyprus, headed for Gaza, attempting to deliver 3.5 tonnes (3.9 short tons) of medical supplies to its residents. The boat, which was boarded by Caoimhe Butterly, Cynthia McKinney, journalists from Al Jazeera and CNN, three surgeons including Dr. Elena Theoharous, was forced to turn back after a confrontation with Israeli naval vessels. According to passengers and crew, their boat was approached after dark, in international waters 90 miles off the coast of Gaza, ordered to halt, and upon refusal fired upon and rammed, thus sustaining heavy damage. Israel responded that no shooting had occurred, the sailboat was inside Israeli territorial waters, that it had failed to respond to Israeli naval radio contact, crashed into an Israeli vessel and refused Israeli assistance. Not having enough fuel to return to Cyprus, the boat docked in Lebanon.
Cyprus lodged a formal complaint regarding the incident. The Consulate General of Israel to the Southeast USA called McKinney "irresponsible", accusing her of a "provocation" that endangered many. The Free Gaza movement is contemplating a suit against Israel for deliberately damaging the boat.
- List of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel, 2009
- Timeline of the Gaza War
- List of Israeli attacks on Gaza, 2009
- United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East
- Lynch, Colum (2009-05-06). "U.N. Inquiry Finds Israel Purposely Fired on School in Gaza". Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- FACTUAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS Archived 2009-09-06 at WebCite, IMFA, July 2009
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 25, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2009.
- Macintyre, Donald; Kim Sengupta (2009-01-07). "Massacre of innocents as UN school is shelled". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2009-01-09.
- The Globe and Mail. Toronto https://web.archive.org/web/20090202192058/http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20090129.wgazaschool29/BNStory/International/home/. Archived from the original on February 2, 2009. Missing or empty
- "Hamas leader killed in airstrike". Sky News. 2009-01-16. Archived from the original on 2009-02-05. Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- "Gaza Rapid Response Deployment – 23 Jan. 2009". UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2009-01-23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-01-27. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- "Gaza pounded amid push for truce". BBC News. 2009-01-15. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- Butcher, Tim (2009-01-15). "UN building hit as Israeli tanks push into Gaza". London: The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2009-02-05. Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- Frenkel, Sheera (2009-01-15). "UN headquarters in Gaza hit by Israeli white phosphorus shells". The Times. London. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- "UN food centers working in Gaza despite attack". Google News. Associated Press. 2008-01-16. Archived from the original on 2008-02-05. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- Gaza doctor refutes casualties reported in Cast Lead op, Haaretz, 23 January 2009
- "Gaza homes destruction 'wanton'". BBC News. 2009-03-06. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- "Israeli forces bisect Gaza and surround biggest city – Middle East, World". London: The Independent. 2009-01-04. Retrieved 2010-03-24.
- "Hamas: Investigate Attacks on Israeli Civilians | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. 2009-10-20. Retrieved 2010-03-24.
- Amy Teibel; Ian Deitch (January 13, 2009). "Despite Gaza toll, Israeli media focus on Israel". www.cleveland.com. Cleveland, Ohio: The Plain Dealer (newspaper). Associated Press. Retrieved March 18, 2009.
- Yair Yanga, "Shin Bet: Some 565 rockets, 200 mortar shells fired at Israel since start of Gaza op", Ha'aretz 13-01-2009
- Shane Bauer. "Palestinian factions united by war". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2009-01-23.
- "Terrorists fire 18 rockets at Israel". 2009-01-14. Retrieved 2009-03-06.
- "Israel strikes back against Hamas terror infrastructure in Gaza". Israeli MFA. 21 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-06.
- ynetnews Rocket barrages hit Beersheba, Ashkelon; 5 lightly hurt, December 31, 2008
- Rockets reach Beersheba, cause damage, YNET, December 30, 2008.
- Rocket lands near Ashdod kindergarten; no injuries, YNET, January 11, 2009.
- "Israeli military surrounds Gaza City, officials say". CNN.com. Retrieved 2010-03-24.
- Israelis "shot at fleeing Gazans". BBC News. Published 14 January 2009.
- http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1056198.html ‘Israeli-trained Gaza doctor loses three daughters and niece to IDF tank shell,’ Haaretz 17/01/2009
- Martin Fletcher and Sheera Frenkel, 'Gaza war 'in final act' as ceasefire looms', The Times, 17/01/2009
- 'Israeli tank fire 'killed doctor's daughters',' CNN 4/02/2009
- IDF to doctor: Mistakes happen
- "Israeli tank fire 'killed doctor's daughters' - CNN.com". CNN. 2009-02-04. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- McCarthy, Rory (2009-02-06). "Netanyahu talks tough on Israeli settlements". The Age. Melbourne.
- Celebrated Iraq war veteran's view of the Gaza conflict BBC News, January 20, 2010, 7:00-9:12 segment
- Chassay, Clancy (2009-03-24). "Guardian investigation uncovers evidence of alleged Israeli war crimes in Gaza". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- IDF: Rocket that hit Beersheba school made in China. By Yael Barnovsky. Ynet News. Published December 31, 2008.
- Abe Selig, "School closure saves lives of pupils", Jerusalem Post 31-12-2009
- 4 troops hurt in mortar attack; Grad hits Ashkelon school. By Shmulik Hadad. Ynet News. Published January 8, 2009.
- IDF: Rocket that hit Beersheba school made in China
- Rocket barrages hit Beersheba, Ashkelon; 5 lightly hurt
- 'Improved’ Kassam slams into Ashkelon school
- Some 2,700 Beersheba students to attend classes in bomb shelters, Jerusalem Post 10-01-2009
- "Ashkelon Empties, Trauma teams Struggle", IRIN News (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs),13-01-2009
- "Ashkelon Empties, Trauma teams Struggle", IRIN News (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs13-01-2009
- Some Israelis go back to school as rocket fire declines. By Dina Kraft. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Published January 13, 2009.
- Abe Selig, "Back to school for students in South" Jerusalem Post 12-01-2009
- Fear sends Israeli hospital underground. MSNBC.com. Published December 28, 2008.
- "Gaza Strip: Israeli attacks and the right to health". International Federation of Health and Human Rights Organisations (IFHHRO). 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-01-13.
- "Maximum 600 Palestinians died in Gaza". Jerusalem Post. 2009-01-22.
- Katz, Yaakov (2009-04-22). "'Haniyeh hid in hospital during Gaza op'". JPost. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- "Hamas tried to hijack ambulances during Gaza war". SMH. 2009-01-29.
- Erlanger, Steven (2009-01-16). "Weighing Crimes and Ethics in the Fog of Urban Warfare". The NY Times. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
- No Early End Seen to ‘All-Out War’ on Hamas in Gaza NY Times, December 29, 2008
- PA Health Ministry: Hamas using hospitals as detention centers. Ma'an, February 7, 2009
- 'Haniyeh hid in hospital during Gaza op', JPost, April 22, 2009]
- Donald Macintyre (January 13, 2009). "Gaza clinics destroyed by raids". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2009-01-15.
- Gaza clinic destroyed in strike. BBC News. Published January 13, 2009.
- "Israeli jets destroy Gaza baby clinic". inthenews.co.uk. 2009-01-13. Retrieved 2009-01-13.
- Jenna Lyle (January 15, 2009). "Archbishop: Attack on Gaza health clinic 'incomprehensible'". Christian Today.
- Kim Sengupta (2009-01-16). "Outrage as Israel bombs UN". London: The Independent (UK). Retrieved 2009-01-16.
- Hamas and Its Discontents, Newsweek
- Così i ragazzini di Hamas ci hanno utilizzato come bersagli
- PA Health Ministry: Hamas using hospitals as detention centers
- "Stressed medics recount Gaza horrors". The New Zealand Herald. 2009-01-11. Retrieved 2009-01-13.[dead link]
- Army creating 'security zone' in Gaza. The Jerusalem Post. Published January 11, 2009.
- Amira Hass (January 14, 2009). "Palestinian doctor killed by IDF while treating Gaza wounded". Haaretz. Retrieved 2009-01-14.
- Hamas Exploitation of Civilians as Human Shields. Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center. Published January 2009.
- Hamas’s Human Shields. Jewish Virtual Library. Published January 16, 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2009.
- Dichter: Hamas salaries paid at Shifa Hospital. The Jerusalem Post. Published January 12, 2009.
- Gaza doctors slam 'crazy' Shin Bet charges that hospitals in Strip used as Hamas hideouts. By Daniel Edelson.
- Hamas Hiding in Shifa Hospital? Wide Angle: PBS. January 13, 2009.
- UN envoy: Hamas uses Gazans as human shields. Ynet News
- No Early End Seen to ‘All-Out War’ on Hamas in Gaza
- Hamas tried to hijack ambulances during Gaza war
- Tim Butcher (2009-01-09). "Gaza bombing witnesses describe horror of Israeli strike". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 2010-05-05. Jan 9, 2009.
- Cowell, Alan (2009-01-10). "30 Confirmed Dead in Shelling of Gaza Family". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-05. Jan 9, 2009.
- Gaza medics describe horror of strike which killed 70 Telegraph Jan 9, 2009.
- Israel kills 30 civilians at shelter, witnesses tell U.N. CNN Jan 9, 2009.
- 30 Confirmed Dead in Shelling of Gaza Family, New York Times, Jan 9 2009.
- War in Gaza: Israel accused of shelling house full of children The Times, Jan 9, 2009.
- Probe Israel for shelling Gaza site, U.N. says Survivors allege Israeli soldiers directed them to building that was later hit. MSBNC Jan 9, 2009.
- Butcher, Tim (2009-01-09). "Gaza bombing witnesses describe horror of Israeli strike". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- Call for Zeitoun investigation
- Butcher, Tim (2009-01-09). "Israeli strike on civilian house may be 'war crime' says UN". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- Cowell, Alan (2009-01-10). "30 Confirmed Dead in Shelling of Gaza Family". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- UN levels war crimes warning at Israel, The Guardian, January 9, 2009.
- Familien hennes ble utslettet, by Olav Røli, Aftenposten, 5. January, 2009
- El-Khodary, Taghreed; Kershner, Isabel (2009-01-06). "Warnings Not Enough for Gaza Families". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-05. New York Times Jan 5, 2009.
- "Israel pushes deeper into Gaza, rebuffing truce efforts". International Herald Tribune. Jan 5, 2009.
- "The bodies of those killed in the Al Samouni house in Az Zaitoun on 5 January have still not been recovered, despite appeals to the Israeli army for access to the home." – "Field Update On Gaza From The Humanitarian Coordinator – January 13, 2009, 1700 hours". UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2009-01-13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-01-15. Retrieved 2009-01-15.
- Analysis: Blocking the truth behind the Gaza war Archived July 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., JPost, September 22, 2009
- Blocking the Truth of the Gaza War, JCPA, September 18, 2009
- Goldstone: ‘If This Was a Court Of Law, There Would Have Been Nothing Proven.’, The Forward, October 16, 2009
- Weaver, Matthew (2009-01-03). "Israel fires artillery shells into Gaza". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- Israeli troops enter Gaza Strip BBC News. 2009-01-03
- Six children among 12 killed in mosque blast The Guardian. 2009-01-04.
- "Gaza: Hamas gunmen hide in hospitals". YNET. 2008-12-31.
- Επιστρέφει στην Κύπρο το πλοίο "Αρίων" Ta Nea, 15/1/2009 (in Greek)
- Foreign Ministry Spokesman’s reply to a question regarding the approach of the vessel Arion to the Gaza Strip, 15/1/2009
- "Pro-Palestinian activists say Israel Navy fired on protest boat off Gaza shore". Haaretz/Reuters. 2008-12-30. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
- "Gaza aid boat 'rammed by Israel'". BBC. 2008-12-30. Retrieved 2009-01-06.
- "Gaza relief boat damaged in encounter with Israeli vessel - CNN.com". cnn.com. 2008-12-30. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
- "Passengers List (Dignity has left Cyprus)". Free Gaza Movement. 2008-12-29. Archived from the original on 2008-12-30. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
- Tran, Mark (2008-12-30). "Israel accused of ramming Gaza aid ship". London: The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2008-12-30. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
- Fisher-Ilan, Allyn (2008-12-30). "Gaza aid boat damaged by Israelis reaches Lebanon". Reuters.
- Fisher-Ilan, Allyn (2008-12-30). "Israeli naval ship clashes with Gaza aid boat". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
- "Gaza protest boat sails into Lebanon". International Herald Tribune/Associated Press. 2008-12-30. Archived from the original on January 24, 2009. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
- YNET Navy orders aid boat to Gaza to retreat, December 30, 2008