Incinerating toilets may be powered by electric, gas, dried feces or other energy sources. They are used in environments where human waste cannot be otherwise dumped, or where normal toilets are too expensive or cumbersome to install. Such toilets gather excrement in a holding tank and then incinerate it, reducing it to pathogen-free ash. Some will also incinerate grey and black water created from showers and sinks.
In 2011 the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge to promote safer, more effective ways to treat human excreta. Some research teams have received funding to work on developing toilets based entirely, or in-part, upon solid waste combustion. For example, a toilet under development by RTI International is based on electrochemical disinfection and solid waste combustion. This system converts feces into burnable pieces and then uses thermoelectric devices to convert the thermal energy into electrical energy while excess heat dries the newer feces as it enters the system.
-  "Water Efficiency Technology Fact Sheet - Incinerating Toilets", EPA 832-F-99-072 (1999)
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- Elisabeth von Muench, Dorothee Spuhler, Trevor Surridge, Nelson Ekane, Kim Andersson, Emine Goekce Fidan, Arno Rosemarin (2013) Sustainable Sanitation Alliance members take a closer look at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s sanitation grants, Sustainable Sanitation Practice Journal, Issue 17, p. 4-10
-  RTI Reinvent the Toilet Project Team - Technology Overview
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