Inclusion (value and practice)

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This article for the general inclusion concepts in organizational environments. For the use of the term in the sphere of disabilities see Inclusion (disability rights).

Inclusion is an organizational practice and goal stemming from the sociological notion of inclusiveness which is the political action and personal effort but at the same time the presence of inclusion practices in which different groups or individuals having different backgrounds like origin, age, race and ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation and gender identity and other are culturally and socially accepted and welcomed, equally treated, etc.

Miller and Katz (2002) presents a common definition of an inclusive value system where they say, “Inclusion is a sense of belonging: feeling respected, valued for who you are; feeling a level of supportive energy and commitment from others so than you can do your best work.”[1] Inclusion is a shift in organization culture. The process of inclusion engages each individual and makes people feeling valued essential to the success of the organization. Individuals function at full capacity, feel more valued, and included in the organization’s mission. This culture shift creates higher performing organizations where motivation and morale soar.

Gasorek (1998) notes her success of instituting diversity and inclusion initiatives at Dun & Bradstreet, a credit-reporting firm.[2] Hyter and Turnock (2006) offer several case studies of engaging inclusion with corporate organizations such as BellSouth, Frito-Lay, Home Depot, and Procter & Gamble.[3]

Roberson (2006) notes that the term inclusion is often coupled with the term diversity and these terms are often used interchangeably. However, they are distinctly different.[4] The Institute for Inclusion, a nonprofit organization, has collectively attempted to define inclusion apart from diversity. It has developed a set of core values and general principles and conceives of inclusion as requiring a paradigm shift in human consciousness, awareness, and interaction.[citation needed]

Interactional participation skills are not currently standardized in formal evaluations of communicative competence, and there will probably be much controversy surrounding any proposals to standardize the testing of interactional competence. Nonetheless, we need some set of inclusion guidelines to decide what skills to look for and how to document them. (page 116, Sawzin, 1984)

This study focused on the aspects of Jennie that can be appreciated. "Positive analysis" is a strategy which has much utility in many contexts, but is very much needed in the lives of children and adults with developmental difficulties. There are many opportunities for parents, professionals and neighbors to minimize their fears, and to move from expectations of deviance to acceptances of difference. (page 122, Sawzin, 1984)

Also see for paradigms out of phase, Martin Sawzin, 1981, Paradigmatic Aphasia and An Antidote: Developmentalism.

Various negative elements like lack of participation, inequality, absence of opportunities, absence of access to rights and opportunities have combined together to give way to the term ‘exclusion’. From a layperson’s point of view; exclusion can be seen as- ‘setting apart’, ‘leaving behind’, ‘denial’ or ‘pushing towards the margin’.But poverty or lack of participation is just a part of the syndrome called exclusion. According to a report of the International Labour Organisation (ILO report) of the year 1995; ‘excluded persons or groups are seen to be in a situation of disadvantage ... beyond a narrow definition of poverty as lack of income or material possessions ... they are socially isolated in some sense, ... they “have”, or experience, weak social relatedness ... may lack ties to the family, local community, voluntary associations, trade unions or even the nation ... they may be disadvantaged in terms of the extent of their legal rights. ..”. Various constituents of exclusion appear on the scene from this discussion. These are –economic hardship, lack of resources, gap from the mainstream (society, nation….) and lack of access to rights. That is why; exclusion is said to be multi-dimensional which results in multiple deprivations.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Miller, Frederick A. and Katz, Judith H. 2002. The Inclusion Breakthrough: Unleashing the Real Power of Diversity. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers
  2. ^ Gasorek, Dory. 1998. “Inclusion at Dun & Bradstreet: Building a High-Performing Company.” The Diversity Factor 8/4 (Summer) 2529
  3. ^ Hyter, Michael C. and Turnock, Judith L. 2006. The Power of Inclusion: Unlock the Potential And Productivity of Your Workforce. John Wiley & Sons
  4. ^ Roberson, Quinetta M. 2006. “Disentangling the Meanings of Diversity and Inclusion in Organizations.” Group & Organization Management 31/2:212-236
  5. ^ "Blogger". Retrieved 2015-10-09. 


  • Sawzin, Martin M (1984), Deviance To Difference: Documenting Skills Of A Child With Down's Syndrome, Boston University Doctorate Dissertation
  • Sawzin, Martin (1981), Paradigmatic Aphasia and An Antidote: Developmentalism, The Society for The Study of Social Problems, August 23, Toronto

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