The Incredible Hulk (comic book)
|The Incredible Hulk|
The Incredible Hulk is an ongoing comic book series featuring the Marvel Comics superhero the Hulk and his alter ego Dr. Bruce Banner. First published in May 1962, the series ran for six issues before it was cancelled in March 1963, and the Hulk character began appearing in Tales to Astonish. With issue #102, Tales to Astonish was renamed to The Incredible Hulk in April 1968, becoming its second volume. The series continued to run until issue #474 in March 1999 when it was replaced with the series Hulk which ran until February 2000 and was retitled to The Incredible Hulk's third volume, running until March 2007 when it became The Incredible Hercules with a new title character. The Incredible Hulk returned in September 2009 beginning at issue #600, which became The Incredible Hulks in November 2010 and focused on the Hulk and the modern incarnation of his expanded family. The series returned to The Incredible Hulk in December 2011 and ran until January 2013, when it was replaced with The Indestructible Hulk as part of Marvel's Marvel NOW! relaunch.
Tales to Astonish
This new Hulk feature was initially scripted by writer-editor Lee and illustrated by the team of penciller Steve Ditko and inker George Roussos. Other artists later in this run included Jack Kirby from #68–87 (June 1965 – Oct. 1966), doing full pencils or, more often, layouts for other artists; Gil Kane, credited as "Scott Edwards", in #76 (February 1966), his first Marvel Comics work; Bill Everett inking Kirby in #78–84 (April–Oct. 1966); and John Buscema penciling Kirby's layouts in #85-87. The Tales to Astonish run introduced the super-villains the Leader, who would become the Hulk's nemesis, and the Abomination, another gamma-irradiated being. Marie Severin finished out the Hulk's run in Tales to Astonish. Beginning with issue #102 (April 1968) the book was retitled The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, and ran until 1999, when Marvel canceled the series and restarted the title with the shorter-titled Hulk #1.
The Incredible Hulk vol. 2 was published through the 1970s. At times, the writers included Archie Goodwin, Chris Claremont, and Tony Isabella. Len Wein wrote the series from 1974 through 1978. Nearly all of the 1970s issues were drawn by either Herb Trimpe, who was the regular artist for seven years, or Sal Buscema, who was the regular artist for ten years, starting with issue #194 (December 1975). Issues #180–181 (Oct.–Nov. 1974) introduced the character Wolverine, who would go on to become one of Marvel Comics' most popular. The original art for the comic book page that introduced Wolverine sold for $657,250 in May 2014. Key supporting characters included Jim Wilson and Jarella, both of whom would make few appearances outside of this decade.
In 1977, Marvel launched a second title, The Rampaging Hulk, a black-and-white comics magazine. This was originally conceived as a flashback series, set between the end of his original, short-lived solo title and the beginning of his feature in Tales to Astonish. After nine issues, the magazine was retitled The Hulk! and printed in color. A nine-part "continuity insert" that in many ways contradicted the original comics stories was retconned later as a movie made by an alien movie producer, Bereet who also portrayed her people as warmonger shape-changers.
1980s and 1990s
Following Roger Stern, Bill Mantlo took over the writing with issue #245 (March 1980). Among the adversaries Mantlo created for the series were the U-Foes and the Soviet Super-Soldiers. Mantlo's "Crossroads of Eternity" stories, which ran through issues #300–313 (Oct. 1984 – Nov.1985), explored the idea that Banner had suffered child abuse. Later The Incredible Hulk writers Peter David and Greg Pak called these stories an influence on their approaches to the series. After five years, Mantlo left the title for Alpha Flight, while Alpha Flight writer John Byrne took over the series and left it after six issues, claiming, "I took on the Hulk after a discussion with editor-in-chief Jim Shooter, in which I mentioned some of the things I would like to do with that character, given the chance. He told me to do whatever was necessary to get on the book, he liked my ideas so much. I did, and once installed he immediately changed his mind - 'You can't do this!' Six issues was as much as I could take." Byrne's final issue featured the wedding of Bruce Banner and Betty Ross. Byrne had done a seventh issue, consisting entirely of one-panel pages. It was eventually published in Marvel Fanfare #29.
Al Milgrom briefly succeeded Byrne before new regular writer Peter David took over with issue #331 (May 1987), the start of an 11-year tenure. He returned to the Stern and Mantlo abuse storyline, expanding the damage caused, and depicting Banner as suffering dissociative identity disorder (DID). In issue #377 he merged Banner, the green Hulk, and the grey Hulk into a single being with the unified personality, intelligence, and powers of all three. David claimed he had been planning this from the beginning of his tenure on the series, and had held off so that he could make the readers have an emotional attachment to the grey Hulk. David worked with numerous artists over his run on the series, including Dale Keown, Todd McFarlane, Sam Kieth, Gary Frank, Liam Sharp, Terry Dodson, Mike Deodato, George Pérez, and Adam Kubert.
In 1998, David followed editor Bobbie Chase's suggestion to kill Betty Ross. In the introduction to the Hulk trade paperback Beauty and the Behemoth, David said that his wife had recently left him, providing inspiration for the storyline. Marvel executives used Ross' death as an opportunity to push the idea of bringing back the Savage Hulk. David disagreed, leading to his parting ways with Marvel. His last issue of The Incredible Hulk was #467 (Aug. 1998), his 137th. Also in 1998, Marvel relaunched The Rampaging Hulk as a standard comic book rather than as a comics magazine.
Following David's departure, Joe Casey took over as writer until this series ended with The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #474 (March 1999). The first volume of the shorter-titled Hulk began immediately the following month, scripted by Byrne and penciled by Ron Garney.
Erik Larsen and Jerry Ordway briefly took over scripting and with issue #12 (March 2000) the series was restarted as The Incredible Hulk vol. 3 New series writer Paul Jenkins developed the Hulk's multiple personalities, and his run was followed by Bruce Jones. Jones' storyline featuring Banner being pursued by a secret conspiracy and aided by the mysterious Mr. Blue. Jones appended his 43-issues of Incredible Hulk with the limited series Hulk/Thing: Hard Knocks #1–4 (Nov. 2004 – Feb. 2005), which Marvel published after putting the ongoing series on hiatus.
Peter David, who had initially signed a contract for the six-issue Tempest Fugit limited series, returned as writer when it was decided to make that story the first five parts of the revived volume three. After a four-part tie-in to the House of M crossover and a one-issue epilogue, David left the series once more, citing the need to do non-Hulk work for the sake of his career.
In 2006, writer Greg Pak, took over the series, With issue #113 (Feb. 2008), it was retitled The Incredible Hercules, still written by Pak but starring the mythological demigod Hercules and teenage genius Amadeus Cho. Concurrently, Marvel launched Hulk vol. 2, written by Jeph Loeb and drawn by Ed McGuinness. While continuing to publish Hulk vol. 2, Marvel also relaunched the second 1960s Hulk series with The Incredible Hulk vol. 2 #600 (Sept. 2009). With the arrival of the Red Hulk — a transformed General "Thunderbolt" Ross, the Hulk's longtime nemesis — and the Red She-Hulk — the revived Betty Ross — this series was retitled Incredible Hulks with issue #612 (Nov. 2010). This lasted through issue #635 (Oct. 2011). Yet another Hulk series, The Incredible Hulk vol. 4, written by Jason Aaron and drawn by Marc Silvestri, began with a new #1 and lasted 15 issues (Dec. 2011 - Dec. 2012). In November 2012, Marvel announced it would publish a new Hulk title, Indestructible Hulk, by writer Mark Waid and artist Leinil Yu. Hulk vol. 2 became Red She-Hulk with issue #58 (Dec. 2012).
- DeFalco, Tom; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1960s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-0756641238.
Tales to Astonish #60...introduced a new series - The Incredible Hulk - starring the famous character.
- DeFalco, Tom (May 5, 2003). The Hulk: The Incredible Guide. London: Dorling Kindersley. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-7894-9260-9.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 128: "Hailing 1968 as the beginning of the 'Second Age of Marvel Comics,' and with more titles to play with, editor Stan Lee discarded his split books and gave more characters their own titles...Tales to Astonish #101 [was followed] by The Incredible Hulk #102."
- Buttery, Jarrod (February 2014). "Hulk Smash!: The Incredible Hulk in the 1970s". Back Issue!. TwoMorrows Publishing (70): 3–18.
- Amash, Jim (2010). Sal Buscema: Comics' Fast & Furious Artist. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 17. ISBN 978-1605490212.
- Sanderson, Peter "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 167: "Len Wein wrote and Herb Trimpe drew Wolverine's cameo appearance in The Incredible Hulk #180 and his premiere in issue #181."
- Gustines, George Gene (May 19, 2014). "First Wolverine Comic Art Is Sold for Nearly $660,000". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 7, 2014.
- Sanderson, "1970s", in Gilbert (2008), p. 178: "This black-and-white magazine starred the Hulk in adventures set in Europe shortly after his original six-issue series."
- Sanderson, "1970s", in Gilbert (2008), p. 186: "To appeal to the audience of the popular new Incredible Hulk TV series, Marvel revamped The Rampaging Hulk magazine, calling it The Hulk!."
- Mantlo, Bill (w), Buscema, Sal (p), Buscema, Sal (i). "Enter: The Hulk-Hunters!" The Incredible Hulk v2, 269 (March 1982)
- DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 199: "Inspired by the 1979 Graham Parker song 'Waiting for the UFOs', the creation of the U-Foes was truly a team effort. Writer Bill Mantlo and artist Sal Buscema produced the first U-Foes story, but editor Al Milgrom helped design the costumes and Editor-in-Chief Jim Shooter suggested some of the names."
- DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 201: "The Soviet Super-Soldiers, the Russian equivalent of the Avengers, were a team of super-powered individuals assembled by the Soviet government in this issue by writer Bill Mantlo and artist Sal Buscema."
- O'Neill, Patrick Daniel (February 1992). "Peter David". Comics Interview (105). Fictioneer Books. pp. 19–23.
- Taylor, Robert (August 3, 2006). "Greg Goes Wild on Planet Pak". Wizard. Wizard Entertainment Group. Archived from the original on April 2, 2007. Retrieved November 15, 2007.
- Serwin, Andy (July 23, 2007). "The Wizard Retrospective: Mike Mignola". Wizard. Wizard Entertainment Group. Archived from the original on January 20, 2008. Retrieved November 13, 2007.
- Thomas, Michael (August 22, 2000). "John Byrne: The Hidden Answers". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on May 19, 2011.
- DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 227: "Dr. Bruce Banner first met Betty Ross in The Incredible Hulk #1 (May 1962) and finally married her in issue #319 by John Byrne."
- Radford, Bill (February 21, 1999). "Marvel's not-so-jolly green giant gets a fresh start and a new team". The Gazette. p. L4.
- The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators: Hulk (II) (1999–2000)
- Manning, Matthew K. "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 294: "Bruce Banner took to the road in an attempt to escape his past in this new series by writer John Byrne and artist Ron Garney."
- The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators: Incredible Hulk (III) (2000–2008)
- Jenkins, Paul (w), Garney, Ron (p), Buscema, Sal (i). "Snake Eyes, Part 2" The Incredible Hulk v3, 13 (April 2000)
- Manning "2000s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 310: "Creating a lengthy run to rival J. Michael Straczynski over on The Amazing Spider-Man and Brian Michael Bendis on Daredevil, writer Bruce Jones reinvented the green goliath with a modern, cinematic approach."
- "Slight change of plan with Hulk". PeterDavid.net. September 30, 2004. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved November 5, 2007.
- David, Peter (July 18, 2005). "My leaving Hulk". The Incredible Hulk Message Board. Archived from the original on March 7, 2006. Retrieved August 28, 2005.
- Manning "2000s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 340: "The Hulk's adventures began anew in this ongoing series by writer Jeph Loeb and artist Ed McGuinness."
- The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators: The Incredible Hulk (IV) Incredible Hulks (2009-2011)
- Johnston, Rich (October 25, 2011). "Advance Review: The Incredible Hulk #1 by Jason Aaron and Marc Silvestri". BleedingCool.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2013.
- The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators: The Incredible Hulk (IV) (2011-2012)
- Hoffman, Carla (August 8, 2012). "Marvel NOW! Q&A: Indestructible Hulk". Marvel Comics. Archived from the original on January 13, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2012.