Indabibi

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Indabibi was a ruler of ancient Elam in 649 BCE[1] and perhaps 648.[2] He is sometimes referred to as Indabigash.[3] He was the successor of Tammaritu II and the predecessor of Humban-Haltash III.[1] Elam was located to the east of the more powerful Assyrian Empire, and the reign of Indabibi occurred during the reign of Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (668 - c. 617).

In 649, then-Elamite king Tammaritu II was deposed in an uprising and fled to Assyria's king Ashurbanipal, at which point Indabibi took the throne.[3] At this time, Ashurbanipal was engaged in a conflict with his brother, Shamash-shum-ukin, king of Babylon, who was attempting to gain control of the Assyrian Empire. Tammaritu II militarily supported Shamash-shum-ukin.[4] During a battle, one of his generals, Indabibi, switched sides, and Tammaritu escaped to Nineveh in either 650 or 649. Thus began the brief rule of Indabibi over Elam.

Assyrian records give contradictory reports concerning Indabibi's relationship to Assyria: one source, written during Indabibi's rule records that Indabibi was an ally and "brother" of Ashurbanipal, while a source written two years later has a different opinion.[5]

As relations soured, Ashurbanipal send a demand that Indabibi extradite to him a number of rebellious subjects who were taking refuge in Elam.[6] Indabibi delivered some of these, but withheld others.[6] After Ashurbanipal sent a messenger to demand the extradition of the remaining subjects, but the message did not reach Elam.[6]

The Annals of Ashurbanipal record that Ashurbanipal declared was against Indabibi.[7] As Ashurbanipal's armies approached Elam, the Elamites revolted and killed Indabibi in 648.[8][6]

Indabibi was then replaced by Humban-haltash III.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jane McIntosh (2005). Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. p. 359. ISBN 978-1-57607-965-2.
  2. ^ His reign is listed as occurring entirely in 649 by McIntosh. On the other hand, Elizabeth Carter and Matthew Stolper see his reign as extending into 648. Jane McIntosh (2005). Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. p. 359. ISBN 978-1-57607-965-2. Elizabeth Carter; Matthew W. Stolper (1984). Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. University of California Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-520-09950-0.
  3. ^ a b Elizabeth Carter; Matthew W. Stolper (1984). Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. University of California Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-520-09950-0.
  4. ^ D. T. Potts (1999). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. p. 282.
  5. ^ Marvin Alan Sweeney; Ehud Ben Zvi (2003). The Changing Face of Form Criticism for the Twenty-first Century. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-8028-6067-5.
  6. ^ a b c d D. T. Potts (12 November 2015). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 458. ISBN 978-1-316-58631-0.
  7. ^ Amnon Altman (10 May 2012). Tracing the Earliest Recorded Concepts of International Law: The Ancient Near East (2500-330 BCE). BRILL. p. 169. ISBN 90-04-22252-9.
  8. ^ Marvin Alan Sweeney; Ehud Ben Zvi (2003). The Changing Face of Form Criticism for the Twenty-first Century. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-8028-6067-5.
  9. ^ Elizabeth Carter and Matthew W. Stolper (1984). Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. p. 50.