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Independence Day (1996 film)

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Independence Day
Independence day movieposter.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Roland Emmerich
Produced by Dean Devlin
Written by Dean Devlin
Roland Emmerich
Starring Will Smith
Bill Pullman
Jeff Goldblum
Mary McDonnell
Judd Hirsch
Margaret Colin
Randy Quaid
Robert Loggia
James Rebhorn
Harvey Fierstein
Music by David Arnold
Cinematography Karl Walter Lindenlaub
Edited by David Brenner
Production
company
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release dates
  • July 2, 1996 (1996-07-02) (Limited)
  • July 3, 1996 (1996-07-03) (United States)
Running time
145 minutes[1]
Country United States
Language English
Budget $75 million[2][3]
Box office $817.4 million[2]

Independence Day (sometimes styled as ID4) is a 1996 American epic, science fiction film. Directed and co-written by Roland Emmerich, the film focuses on disparate groups of people who converge in the Nevada desert in the aftermath of a calamitous attack by an ostensibly powerful extraterrestrial race from an unknown origin. Along with the rest of the human population, they launch a last-ditch counterattack on July 4 – the same date as the Independence Day in the United States.

While promoting Stargate in Europe, Emmerich came up with the idea for the film when fielding a question about his own belief in the existence of alien life. He and Devlin decided to incorporate a large-scale attack having noticed that aliens in most invasion films travel long distances in outer space only to remain hidden when reaching Earth. Shooting began in July 1995 in New York City, and the film was officially completed on June 20, 1996.

Now considered to be a significant turning point in the history of the Hollywood blockbuster, the film was released in wide on July 3, 1996, but began showing on July 2 (the same day the film's story begins) in limited release the result of a high level of anticipation among moviegoers. The film grossed over $817.4 million worldwide,[2] becoming the highest-grossing film of 1996, and briefly, the second highest-grossing film worldwide of all time behind 1993's Jurassic Park. As of June 2016, it ranks 55th among the highest-grossing films worldwide, and was at the forefront of the large-scale disaster film and sci-fi resurgence of the mid-1990s. The film received positive reviews upon its release, with critics praising its groundbreaking special effects, musical score, patriotic theme, and acting, which focused primarily on the performances of Will Smith and Jeff Goldblum. Others criticized its storyline and character development. It won the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Sound Mixing. A sequel, Independence Day: Resurgence, was released on June 24, 2016.

Plot[edit]

On July 2, 1996, an enormous alien mothership that has one fourth the mass of the Moon enters orbit around Earth, deploying 36 smaller spacecraft, each 15 miles (24 km) wide, that take positions over some of Earth's major cities and military bases. David Levinson, an MIT-trained satellite technician, decodes a signal embedded in the global satellite transmissions that he determines is a timer counting down to a coordinated attack. With the help of his former wife, White House Communications Director Constance Spano, Levinson, and his father Julius, gain access to the Oval Office and warn President Thomas J. Whitmore that the aliens are hostile. Whitmore orders large-scale evacuations of New York City, Los Angeles, and Washington D.C., but it is too late; the timer reaches zero and the ships activate devastating directed-energy weapons, killing millions. Whitmore, the Levinsons, and a few others, narrowly escape aboard Air Force One as the capital is destroyed, along with other locations over which the ships are positioned.

On July 3, international military leaders begin ordering individual counterattacks. Their aviation forces attack destroyer ships positioned above the ruins of the cities, but they are protected by force fields. Each destroyer launches a swarm of attack fighters, which wipe out the human fighter squadrons. Captain Steven Hiller of the Los Angeles USMC squadron survives by luring his attacker to the enclosed spaces of the Grand Canyon and sacrificing his plane, forcing the alien to crash-land. He subdues the injured alien pilot and flags down a convoy of refugees, hitching a ride with former combat pilot Russell Casse. They transport the unconscious alien to nearby Area 51 where Whitmore's group has landed. Through Secretary of Defense Albert Nimzicki, they learn that a faction of the government has been involved in a UFO conspiracy since 1947, when one of the invaders' attack fighters crashed in Roswell. Area 51 houses the refurbished attacker ship and three alien corpses recovered from the crash.

When eccentric scientist Brackish Okun examines the alien, it regains consciousness and attacks. It telepathically invades Okun's mind and uses his vocal cords to communicate with Whitmore before launching a psychic attack against him. Whitmore begins seeing visions of the aliens collecting resources by moving from planet to planet and exterminating all life. After Secret Service agents and military personnel kill the alien, he reluctantly authorizes a nuclear attack; a B-2 Spirit fires a nuclear cruise missile at a destroyer positioned above Houston, but the ship remains intact.

On July 4, Levinson demonstrates that the key to defeating the aliens is deactivating their force fields, and devises a way to do it by uploading a computer virus into the mothership. He proposes using the refurbished attack ship to gain entry which Hiller volunteers to pilot. The two are able to implant the virus and deploy a nuclear weapon on board. With military pilots in short supply, Whitmore enlists the help of volunteers with flight experience including Casse and leads an attack on a destroyer ship bearing down on Area 51. Although the fighters are able to inflict damage, their supply of missiles is quickly exhausted. As the destroyer prepares to fire on the base, the last missile jams and Casse decides to sacrifice his own life. He flies his plane kamikaze-style into the directed-energy weapon port, which results in an explosion that destroys the ship. Human resistance forces around the world successfully destroy the other craft using this vulnerability. As humankind is rejoicing in victory, Hiller and Levinson have returned to Area 51 unharmed and reunite with their families. They and military officers nearby accompany Whitmore and his daughter in watching the wreckage from the mothership burn up, resembling a fireworks display as it enters Earth's atmosphere.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

F/A-18 Hornets of VMFA-314, "Black Knights"

The idea for the film came when Emmerich and Devlin were in Europe promoting their film Stargate. A reporter asked Emmerich why he made a film with content like Stargate if he did not believe in aliens. Emmerich stated he was still fascinated by the idea of an alien arrival, and further explained his response by asking the reporter to imagine what it would be like to wake up one morning and to discover 15 mile-wide spaceships were hovering over the world's largest cities. Emmerich then turned to Devlin and said, "I think I have an idea for our next film."[7][17][18]

Emmerich and Devlin decided to expand on the idea by incorporating a large-scale attack, with Devlin saying he was bothered by the fact that "for the most part, in alien invasion movies, they come down to Earth and they're hidden in some back field ...[o]r they arrive in little spores and inject themselves into the back of someone's head."[19] Emmerich agreed by asking Devlin if arriving from across the galaxy, "would you hide on a farm or would you make a big entrance?"[19] The two wrote the script during a month-long vacation in Mexico,[17] and just one day after they sent it out for consideration, 20th Century Fox chairman Peter Chernin greenlit the screenplay.[11] Pre-production began just three days later in February 1995.[7][17] The U.S. military originally intended to provide personnel, vehicles, and costumes for the film; however, they backed out when the producers refused to remove the script's Area 51 references.[7]

A then-record 3,000-plus special effects shots would ultimately be required for the film.[18] The shoot utilized on-set, in-camera special effects more often than computer-generated effects in an effort to save money and get more authentic pyrotechnic results.[7] Many of these shots were accomplished at Hughes Aircraft in Culver City, California, where the film's art department, motion control photography teams, pyrotechnics team, and model shop were headquartered. The production's model-making department built more than twice as many miniatures for the production than had ever been built for any film before by creating miniatures for buildings, city streets, aircraft, landmarks, and monuments.[20] The crew also built miniatures for several of the spaceships featured in the film, including a 30-foot (9.1 m) destroyer model[21] and a version of the mother ship spanning 12 feet (3.7 m).[22] City streets were recreated, then tilted upright beneath a high-speed camera mounted on a scaffolding filming downwards. An explosion would be ignited below the model, and flames would rise towards the camera, engulfing the tilted model and creating the rolling "wall of destruction" look seen in the film.[23] A model of the White House was also created, covering 10 feet (3.0 m) by 5 feet (1.5 m), and was used in forced-perspective shots before being destroyed in a similar fashion for its destruction scene.[24] The detonation took a week to plan[11] and required 40 explosive charges.[24]

A World War II training aircraft with a camera mounted on its front navigated through the walls of the Little Colorado River canyon, and the footage was used as pilot point-of-view shots.[25]

The film's aliens were designed by production designer Patrick Tatopoulos. The actual aliens in the film are diminutive and based on a design Tatopoulos drew when tasked by Emmerich to create an alien that was "both familiar and completely original".[26] These creatures wear "bio-mechanical" suits that are based on another design Tatopoulos pitched to Emmerich. These suits were 8 feet (2.4 m) tall, equipped with 25 tentacles, and purposely designed to show it could not sustain a person inside so it would not appear to be a "man in a suit".[27]

Filming[edit]

Principal photography began in July 1995 in New York City. A second unit gathered plate shots and establishing shots of Manhattan, Washington D.C., an RV community in Flagstaff, Arizona, and the Very Large Array on the Plains of San Agustin, New Mexico.[27] The main crew also filmed in nearby Cliffside Park, New Jersey before moving to the former Kaiser Steel mill in Fontana, California to film the post-attack Los Angeles sequences.[28] The production then moved to Wendover, Utah, and West Wendover, Nevada,[29] where the deserts doubled for Imperial Valley, and the Wendover Airport doubled for the El Toro and Area 51 exteriors.[30] It was here where Pullman filmed his pre-battle speech. Immediately before filming the scene, Devlin and Pullman decided to add "Today, we celebrate our Independence Day!" to the end of the speech. At the time, the production was nicknamed "ID4" because Warner Bros. owned the rights to the title Independence Day, and Devlin had hoped that if Fox executives noticed the addition in dailies, the impact of the new dialogue would help them to win the rights to the title.[7] The right to use the title was eventually won two weeks later.[11]

The production team moved to the Bonneville Salt Flats to film three scenes, then returned to California to film in various places around Los Angeles, including Hughes Aircraft where sets for the cable company and Area 51 interiors were constructed at a former aircraft plant. Sets for the latter included corridors containing windows that were covered with blue material. The filmmakers originally intended to use the chroma key technique to make it appear as if activity was happening on the other side of the glass; but the composited images were not added to the final print because production designers decided the blue panels gave the sets a "clinical look".[31] The attacker hangar set contained an attacker mock-up 65 feet (20 m) wide[20] that took four months to build.[11] The White House interior sets used had already been built for The American President and had previously been used for Nixon.[24] Principal photography completed on November 3, 1995.[11]

The film originally depicted Russell Casse being rejected as a volunteer for the July 4 aerial counteroffensive because of his alcoholism. He then uses a stolen missile tied to his red biplane to carry out his suicide mission. According to Dean Devlin, test audiences responded well to the scene's irony and comedic value.[7] However, the scene was re-shot to include Russell's acceptance as a volunteer, his crash course on flying modern fighter aircraft, and him flying an F/A-18 instead of the biplane. Devlin preferred the alteration because the viewer now witnesses Russell ultimately making the decision to sacrifice his life,[7] and seeing the biplane keeping pace and flying amongst F/A-18s was "just not believable".[32] The film was officially completed on June 20, 1996.[11]

Music[edit]

The Grammy Award-winning[33] score for the film was composed by David Arnold and recorded with an orchestra of 90, a choir of 46, and "and every last ounce of stereotypical Americana he could muster for the occasion".[34] The film's producer Dean Devlin commented that "you can leave it up to a Brit to write some of the most rousing and patriotic music in the history of American cinema."[34] The soundtrack has received two official CD releases. RCA released a 50-minute album at the time of the film's release, then in 2010, La-La Land Records released a limited edition 2-CD set that comprised the complete score plus 12 alternate cues.[35] The premiere of Independence Day live[36] will take place at the Royal Albert Hall in September 2016, with the film's score performed live to a screening of the film.[37] This celebrates the twentieth anniversary of the film's release, and the event will also feature a pre-film talk by David Arnold.

Release[edit]

While the film was still in post-production, Fox began a massive marketing campaign to help promote the film, beginning with the airing of a dramatic commercial during Super Bowl XXX, for which it paid $1.3 million.[38] The film's subsequent success at the box office resulted in the trend of using Super Bowl air time to kick off the advertising campaign for potential blockbusters.[39][40]

Fox's Licensing and Merchandising division also entered into co-promotional deals with Apple Inc. The co-marketing project was dubbed "The Power to Save the World" campaign, in which the company used footage of David using his PowerBook laptop in their print and television advertisements.[41] Trendmasters entered a merchandising deal with the film's producers to create a line of tie-in toys.[42] In exchange for product placement, Fox also entered into co-promotional deals with Molson Coors Brewing Company and Coca-Cola.[43]

The film was marketed with several taglines, including: "We've always believed we weren't alone. On July 4, we'll wish we were", "Earth. Take a good look. It could be your last", and "Don't make plans for August". The weekend before the film's release, the Fox Network aired a half-hour special on the film, the first third of which was a spoof news report on the events that happen in the film. Roger Ebert attributed most of the film's early success to its teaser trailers and marketing campaigns, acknowledging them as "truly brilliant".[44]

The shot of the White House's destruction was the focus of the film's marketing campaign. A fleeing helicopter was added to the shot in the final print.

The film had its official premiere held at Los Angeles' now-defunct Mann Plaza Theater on June 25, 1996.[45] It was then screened privately at the White House for President Bill Clinton and his family[46] before receiving a nationwide release in the United States on July 2, 1996, a day earlier than its previously scheduled opening.[47]

After a six-week, $30 million marketing campaign, Independence Day was released on VHS on November 22, 1996.[48] It became available on DVD on June 27, 2000, and has since been re-released, in several different versions of this format, with varying supplemental material, including one instance where it was packaged with a lenticular cover.[49] Often accessible on these versions is a special edition of the film, which features nine minutes of additional footage not seen in the original theatrical release.[50] Independence Day became available on Blu-ray discs in the United Kingdom on December 24, 2007,[51] and in North America on March 11, 2008[52] and in Australia on March 5, 2008.[53] The Blu-ray edition does not include the deleted scenes. It was re-released on Blu-ray, DVD, and Digital HD on May 3, 2016[54] and was released on 4K Ultra HD Blu-ray on June 7, 2016 for the 20th Anniversary Edition.[55] The new Blu-ray edition includes both the theatrical and special edition, unlike the original.[56]

Censorship[edit]

In Lebanon, certain Jewish and Israel-related content in the film was censored. One cut scene involved Judd Hirsch's character donning a kippah, and leading soldiers and White House officials in a Jewish prayer. Other removed footage showed Israeli and Arab troops working together in preparation for countering the alien invasion. The Lebanese Shi'a Islamist militant group Hezbollah called for Muslims to boycott the film, describing it as "propaganda for the so-called genius of the Jews and their concern for humanity." In response, Jewish actor Jeff Goldblum said: "I think Hezbollah has missed the point: the film is not about American Jews saving the world; it's about teamwork among people of different religions and nationalities to defeat a common enemy."[57][58]

Twentieth anniversary release[edit]

The film will have both its twentieth anniversary and premiere at a special live-orchestral screening performance at the Royal Albert Hall on September 22, 2016. The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by the original orchestrator Nicholas Dodd, will perform the score live[59] during the film, and the film's composer, David Arnold, will be a presenter at the event.

Reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

One of the film's creatures on the cover of the July 8, 1996 issue of Time.

Independence Day was the highest-grossing film of 1996.[2] In the United States, Independence Day earned $104.3 million in its first full week,[60] including $96.1 million during its five-day holiday opening, and $50.2 million during its opening weekend.[61] All three figures broke records set by Jurassic Park three years earlier.[60] That film's sequel, The Lost World: Jurassic Park, claimed all three records when it was released the following year. Independence Day stayed in the number-one spot for three consecutive weeks, and grossed $306,169,268 in North America,[2] and $511,231,623 in other territories during its theatrical run.[2] The combined total of $817,400,891 once trailed only the worldwide earnings of Jurassic Park as the highest of all time.[62] Box Office Mojo estimates that the film sold over 69.26 million tickets in the US.[63] It has been surpassed by multiple 21st century films since, and currently holds the 51st-highest worldwide gross of all time for a film. Hoping to capitalize on the film's success, several studios released large-scale disaster films,[64] and the already rising interest in science fiction-related media was further increased by the film's popularity.[46]

A month after the film's release, jewelry designers and marketing consultants reported an increased interest in dolphin-themed jewelry, as the character Jasmine (Vivica A. Fox) wears dolphin earrings, and is presented with a wedding ring featuring a gold dolphin.[65]

Critical response[edit]

Upon its release, Independence Day received praise for its visuals and sense of fun, but criticism of its writing. Rotten Tomatoes reports a score of 61%, based on 59 reviews, with the site's critical consensus reading: "The plot is thin and so is character development, but as a thrilling, spectacle-filled summer movie, Independence Day delivers."[66] On Metacritic, the film has a score of 59 out of 100, based on 19 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews".[67]

Critics noted that the film had "cardboard" and "stereotypical" characters,[4][47][68][69][70] and weak dialogue.[64][70][71][72] Yet the shot of the White House's destruction has been declared a milestone in visual effects, and one of the most memorable scenes of the 1990s.[73][74] In a 2010 poll, readers of Entertainment Weekly rated it the second-greatest summer film of the previous 20 years, ranking only behind Jurassic Park.[75]

Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle gave the film his highest rating, declaring it the "apotheosis" of Star Wars.[47] Lisa Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly gave it a B+ for living up to its massive hype, adding "charm is the foremost of this epic's contemporary characteristics. The script is witty, knowing, cool."[69] Eight years later, Entertainment Weekly would rate the film as one of the best disaster films of all time.[64] Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times felt that the film did an "excellent job conveying the boggling immensity of [the] extraterrestrial vehicles [...] and panic in the streets" and the scenes of the alien attack were "disturbing, unsettling and completely convincing".[4]

However, the film's nationalistic overtones were widely criticized by reviewers outside the U.S. Movie Review UK described the film as "a mish-mash of elements from a wide variety of alien invasion movies and gung-ho American jingoism."[76] The speech during which Whitmore states that victory in the coming war would see the entire world henceforth describe July 4 as its Independence Day, was described in a BBC review as "the most jaw-droppingly pompous soliloquy ever delivered in a mainstream Hollywood movie."[77] In 2003, readers of Empire, voted the scene that contained this speech as the "Cheesiest Movie Moment of All-Time".[78] Conversely, Empire critic Kim Newman gave the film a five-star rating in the magazine's original review of the film.[67]

Several prominent critics expressed disappointment with the quality of the film's special effects. Newsweek's David Ansen claimed the special effects were of no better caliber than those seen nineteen years earlier in Star Wars.[70] Todd McCarthy of Variety felt the production's budget-conscious approach resulted in "cheesy" shots that lacked in quality relative to the effects present in films directed by James Cameron and Steven Spielberg.[45] In his review, Roger Ebert took note of a lack of imagination in the spaceship and creature designs.[79] Gene Siskel expressed the same sentiments on At the Movies review of the film.[44][dead link]

American Film Institute lists

Accolades[edit]

Award Subject Nominee Result
CAS Awards[82] Best Sound Mixing Chris Carpenter, Bob Beemer, Bill W. Benton and Jeff Wexler Nominated
Academy Awards[82] Nominated
Best Visual Effects Volker Engel, Douglas Smith, Clay Pinney and Joe Viskocil Won
Saturn Awards[82] Best Special Effects Won
Best Science Fiction Film Won
Best Director Roland Emmerich Won
Best Writer Roland Emmerich and Dean Devlin Nominated
Best Costumes Joseph A. Porro Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Brent Spiner Nominated
Best Supporting Actress Vivica A. Fox Nominated
Best Young Actor James Duval Nominated
Best Music David Arnold Nominated
Best Actor Jeff Goldblum Nominated
Will Smith Nominated
Kids' Choice Awards[82] Favorite Movie Actor Nominated
Favorite Movie Won
Hugo Awards[82] Best Dramatic Presentation Nominated
Young Artist Awards[82] Best Young Actor – Age 10 or Under Ross Bagley Nominated
People's Choice Awards[82] Favorite Dramatic Motion Picture Won
MTV Movie Awards[82] Best Action Sequence Aliens blow up cities Nominated
Best Movie Nominated
Best Male Performance Will Smith Nominated
Best Breakthrough Performance Vivica A. Fox Nominated
Best Kiss Will Smith and Vivica A. Fox Won
Grammy Awards[82] Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television David Arnold Won
Satellite Awards[82] Outstanding Visual Effects Volker Engel, Douglas Smith, Clay Pinney and Joe Viskocil Won
Outstanding Film Editing David Brenner Won
Mainichi Film Awards[82] Best Foreign Language Film Won
Japanese Academy Awards[82] Nominated
Amanda Awards[82] Nominated
Blockbuster Entertainment Awards[82] Favorite Actor – Sci-Fi Will Smith Won
Universe Reader's Choice Awards[82] Best Actor Won
Best Supporting Actress Vivica A. Fox Won
Best Science Fiction Film Won
Best Special Effects Volker Engel, Douglas Smith, Clay Pinney and Joe Viskocil Won
Best Director Roland Emmerich Won
Best Score David Arnold Won
Best Cinematography Karl Walter Lindenlaub Won
Best Writing Roland Emmerich and Dean Devlin Won
Golden Raspberry Awards[82] Worst Written Film Grossing Over $100 Million Nominated

Legacy[edit]

Disaster elements portrayed in Independence Day represented a significant turning point for Hollywood blockbuster films. With advancements in CGI special effects, events depicting mass destruction became commonplace in films that soon followed, such as 1998's Armageddon and Deep Impact. The trend continued throughout the 2000s and 2010s, evident in films like 2004's The Day After Tomorrow and 2012's The Avengers.[83]

In other media[edit]

Books[edit]

Author Stephen Molstad wrote a tie-in novel to help promote the film shortly before its release. The novel goes into further detail on the characters, situations, and overall concepts not explored in the film. The novel presents the film's finale as originally scripted, with the character played by Randy Quaid stealing a missile and roping it to his cropduster biplane.

Following the film's success, a prequel novel entitled Independence Day: Silent Zone was written by Molstad in February 1998.[84] The novel is set in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and details the early career of Dr. Brackish Okun.[85]

Molstad wrote a third novel, Independence Day: War in the Desert in July 1999. Set in Saudi Arabia on July 3, it centers around Captain Cummins and Colonel Thompson, the two Royal Air Force officers seen receiving the Morse code message in the film.

A Marvel comic book was also written based on the first two novelizations.

Radio[edit]

On August 4, 1996, BBC Radio 1 broadcast the one-hour play Independence Day UK, written, produced, and directed by Dirk Maggs, a spin-off depicting the alien invasion from a British perspective.[86] None of the original cast was present. Dean Devlin gave Maggs permission to produce an original version, on the condition that he did not reveal certain details of the movie's plot, and that the British were not depicted as saving the day.[86] Independence Day UK was set up to be similar to the 1938 radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds - the first 20 minutes were live.[86]

Video games[edit]

An Independence Day video game was released in February 1997 for the PlayStation, Sega Saturn, and PC, each version receiving mostly tepid reviews.[87][88] The multi-view shooter game contains various missions to perform, with the ultimate goal of destroying the aliens' primary weapon. A wireless mobile version was released in 2005. A computer game entitled ID4 Online was released in 2000.[citation needed]

Toys[edit]

Trendmasters released a toy line for the film in 1996.[89] Each action figure, vehicle or playset came with a 3 1⁄2" floppy disk that contained an interactive computer game.[90]

Sequel[edit]

In June 2011, Devlin confirmed that he and Emmerich had written a treatment for two sequels to form a trilogy; both expressed the desire for Will Smith to return.[91] In October 2011, however, discussions over Smith returning were halted, due to Fox's refusal to provide the $50 million salary demanded by Smith for the two sequels. Emmerich, however, made assurances that the films would be shot back-to-back, regardless of Smith's involvement.[92]

In March 2013, Emmerich stated that the titles of the new films would be ID Forever Part I and ID Forever Part II.[93] In November 2014, the sequel was given the green light by 20th Century Fox, with a release date of June 24, 2016. This would be a stand-alone sequel, that would not split into two parts as originally planned, with filming beginning in May 2015 and casting being done after the studio locked down Emmerich as the director of the film.[94] In December 2014, Devlin confirmed that Emmerich would indeed be directing the sequel.[95] On June 22, 2015, Emmerich announced the official title, Independence Day: Resurgence.[96]

With respect to Smith's decision not to return to film a sequel, Emmerich told Screen Crush that: "In the very beginning, I wanted to work with him and he was excited to be in it but then after a while he was tired of sequels, and he did another science fiction film, which was his father-son story [After Earth], so he opted out."[97]

Independence Day: Resurgence was released on June 24, 2016.[98]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "INDEPENDENCE DAY (12)". British Board of Film Classification. July 21, 1996. Retrieved March 10, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Independence Day (1996)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 5, 2009. 
  3. ^ Independence Day (1996) Synopsis Rotten tomatoes. Retrieved September 25, 2007.
    "With a $71 million budget and mind-blowing special effects..."
  4. ^ a b c Kenneth Turan (July 2, 1996). "Independence Day review". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 19, 2008. Retrieved July 8, 2008. 
  5. ^ Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 36.
  6. ^ Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 32.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h DVD commentary
  8. ^ Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 42.
  9. ^ Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 44.
  10. ^ Stephen Galloway (July 4, 2001). "Affleck's Schedule Busies After 'Harbor'". bnet.com. Archived from the original on March 20, 2006. Retrieved September 6, 2008. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Rebecca Ascher-Walsh (July 12, 1996). "SPACE UNDER FIRE". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 8, 2008. 
  12. ^ "Brent Spiner in Pasadena". classicscifi.org.uk. April 25, 1999. Retrieved January 30, 2009. 
  13. ^ Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 45.
  14. ^ a b c Molstad, Stephen (1996). Independence Day. HarperPrism. pp. 28–29. ISBN 0061056871. 
  15. ^ a b c Emmerich, Roland (Director and Writer) (1996). Independence Day (Two-Disc Collector's Edition) (DVD). 
  16. ^ Independence Day (1996) digitallyobsessed.com. Retrieved July 8, 2008.
  17. ^ a b c Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 8.
  18. ^ a b The 1996 Summer Movie Preview: July Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 8, 2008.
  19. ^ a b Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 93.
  20. ^ a b Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 72.
  21. ^ Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 54.
  22. ^ Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 121.
  23. ^ Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 78.
  24. ^ a b c Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 82.
  25. ^ Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 112.
  26. ^ Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 86.
  27. ^ a b Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 91.
  28. ^ Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 62.
  29. ^ Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 104.
  30. ^ Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 96.
  31. ^ Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 98.
  32. ^ "Independence Day." amazon.ca. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  33. ^ "Winners of the 1997 Grammy Awards". The New York Times. 28 February 1997. Retrieved 16 April 2016. 
  34. ^ a b "Independence Day". Filmtracks. 24 September 1996. Retrieved 16 April 2016. 
  35. ^ "film music - movie music- film score - Independence Day - David Arnold - Limited Edition". 
  36. ^ Burin, Rick (8 February 2016). "David Arnold, aliens and a full orchestra invade the Royal Albert Hall". Royal Albert Hall. Retrieved 16 April 2016. 
  37. ^ "Independence Day Live at the Royal Albert Hall". Royal Albert Hall. Retrieved 16 April 2016. 
  38. ^ "UW-Eau Claire Marketing Researchers Study Super Bowl Ad Successes."[permanent dead link] University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
  39. ^ Analysis: Super Bowl Movie Ads Lack Luster boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved July 8, 2008.
  40. ^ Rick Romell (January 27, 2007). "Ads the real stars of Super Bowl". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved July 8, 2008. 
  41. ^ Apple Ties in With 20th Century Fox "Independence Day The online Macinstuff Times. Retrieved July 8, 2008.
  42. ^ Kenneth M. Chanko (July 12, 1996). "Independence Play". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 8, 2008. 
  43. ^ Top Ten: Most Shameless Uses Of Product Placement In Film movie-moron.com. Retrieved July 8, 2008.
  44. ^ a b Ebert & Roeper. atthemovies.tv. Retrieved July 8, 2008.
  45. ^ a b Todd McCarthy (July 1, 1996). "Independence Day Review". Variety. Retrieved July 8, 2008. 
  46. ^ a b Richard Corliss (July 8, 1996). "THE INVASION HAS BEGUN!". TIME. Retrieved July 8, 2008. 
  47. ^ a b c Mick LaSalle (July 2, 1996). "Declaration of "Independence"". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 4, 2008. 
  48. ^ Independence Day blitz. HighBeam Research. Retrieved July 8, 2008.
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External links[edit]

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
12 Monkeys
Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film
1996
Succeeded by
Men in Black