Independence Day (Georgia)
|Significance||Act of Independence of Georgia (1918)|
|Celebrations||Flag hoisting, parades, music concerts, exhibitions, "flower festival", speeches by the prime minister and president|
|Next time||26 May 2019|
|Related to||Day of National Unity (9 April)|
Independence Day (Georgian: დამოუკიდებლობის დღე, damoukideblobis dghe) is an annual public holiday in Georgia observed on 26 May. It commemorates the 26 May 1918 adoption of the Act of Independence, which established the Democratic Republic of Georgia in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917. It is the national day of Georgia. Independence Day is associated with military parades, fireworks, concerts, fairs, and political speeches and ceremonies, in addition to various other public and private events celebrating the history and culture of Georgia.
In the chaotic aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917, Georgia, which had been part of the Russian Empire since the early 19th century, declared itself an independent Democratic Republic on 26 May 1918, after a brief and loose federative union with the fellow South Caucasian countries of Armenia and Azerbaijan. In February–March 1921 the Democratic Republic of Georgia fell to the invading Russian army and the country became a Soviet Socialist Republic, being annexed into the Soviet Union in 1922. Georgia seceded from the Soviet Union, adopting the Act of Reestablishment of Independence on 9 April 1991, on the second anniversary of the Soviet military crackdown on a large pro-independence rally in Georgia's capital of Tbilisi in 1989.
Due its symbolism and historical significance, 9 April has been advocated to be recognized as Independence Day by the groups associated with the 1980s national movement and the government of Zviad Gamsakhurdia, which presided over the declaration of independence on 9 April 1991. During their rule (October 1990 – January 1992), Gamsakhurdia's government had instituted 26 May as Independence Day; the 9 April 1991 declaration stated it was based on the 26 May 1918 Act of Independence. The preceding referendum on 31 March 1991 had also asked the citizens of Georgia whether they wanted independence to be restored on the basis of the 26 May 1918 declaration. Since 1993, 9 April has been observed as the Day of National Unity, Civic Concordance, and Remembrance in Georgia.
26 May had been celebrated as the national day of the Democratic Republic of Georgia until the Soviet takeover in 1921. During the Soviet era, it was clandestinely and irregularly observed by segments of society opposed to the Communist regime. As the Georgian national movement gained momentum in the late 1980s, the symbols associated with the short-lived pre-Soviet republic became a rallying cry for those advocating independence from the Soviet Union. After Georgia's declaration of independence on 9 April 1991, the government set on 26 May 1991 Georgia's first presidential election, which was won by Zviad Gamsakhurdia. Georgia met 26 May of the next year with the new government led by Eduard Shevardnadze; Gamsakhurdia had been ousted in a military coup earlier that year. The 26 May 1992 celebration was attended by Shevardnadze's old acquaintance James Baker. The day also witnessed one of the first major anti-Shevardnadze demonstrations in the streets of Tbilisi.
Through much of Shevardnadze's rule, Independence Day was a civilian observance. Since 1997, no military parades had been organized by the government, citing financial difficulties. Shevardnadze's successor as President of Georgia, Mikheil Saakashvili, restored, in 2004, tradition of holding military parades, which was used as a venue to exhibit new equipment of the Georgian Armed Forces. 26 May 2004 saw the largest ever military parade in Georgia.
During Saakashvili's second term of presidency, the Independence Day celebrations were overshadowed by political instability; in 2008 and 2009 large opposition rallies in central Tbilisi limited the scale of the celebrations and in 2011 an attempt by part of the opposition at obstructing a military parade planned for 26 May led to fatalities during a clash with police.
After the Georgian Dream coalition acceded to power in 2012, a military component of the Independence Day celebration was limited to oath-taking ceremonies of Georgian soldiers and public exhibitions of military technology.
- 26 May 1918 – The National Council of Georgia adopts the Act of Independence of Georgia.
- 26 May 1920 – Leaders of the Second International attend the Independence Day demonstration in Tbilisi as part of their visit to Georgia.
- 26 May 1921 – The new Bolshevik government of Georgia marks Independence Day to celebrate the sovietization of Georgia, barring the national flags of the overthrown Democratic Republic of Georgia from being displayed during the celebrations.
- 26 May 1922 – Soviet security forces break up rallies to mark the Georgian Independence Day in Tbilisi and other places in the Georgian SSR.
- 26 May 1989 – Pro-independence demonstrators gather in Tbilisi to mark Independence Day for the first time since 1922.
- 26 May 1991 – Georgia holds its first presidential election. A National Guard parade marks the first official post-Soviet Independence Day celebration.
- 26 May 1992 – Georgian security forces break up a rally of supporters of the ousted President Gamsakhurdia, while James Baker attends the official celebrations of Independence Day.
- 26 May 2004 – The new government of Georgia marks Independence Day with the largest-ever military parade.
- 26 May 2011 – Police prevents attempt by an opposition party to block the venue of an Independence Day military parade, resulting in four deaths.
- 26 May 2018 – Georgia celebrates the 100th anniversary of the declaration of independence of the First Republic of Georgia. More than 20 high level delegations arrive to attend the event, including the presidents of Poland, Slovakia, Latvia, Finland, Armenia, and the European Commission.
- Rayfield, Donald (2012). Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia. London: Reaktion Books. p. 329. ISBN 1780230303.
- Suny, Ronald Grigor (1994). The Making of the Georgian Nation (2nd ed.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 192, 322, 327. ISBN 0253209153.
- Metreveli, Ia (12 April 2007). "April 9 – a day of mourning and celebration". Georgian Times. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- Datiashvili, Ana (10 April 2008). "Georgia commemorates April 9 tragedy". The Messenger Online. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- Fuller, Elizabeth (19 April 1991). "Georgia Declares Independence". Report on the USSR. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 3 (16): 31.
- Kukhianidze, Alexandre (2014). "Georgia's military and civil security challenges". In Jones, Stephen F. (ed.). The Making of Modern Georgia, 1918–2012: The First Georgian Republic and Its Successors. Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 1317815939.
- Alkhazashvili, M. (10 April 2008). "April 9, a day of two meanings". The Messenger Online. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- Goltz, Thomas (2009). Georgia Diary: A Chronicle of War and Political Chaos in the Post-Soviet Caucasus. M.E. Sharpe. pp. xix, 86. ISBN 0765629402.
- "საქართველოს პარლამენტის დადგენილება №211" [Resolution of the Parliament of Georgia No. 211]. Legislative Herald of Georgia (in Georgian). 8 April 1993. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- Crossette, Barbara (26 May 1992). "Baker Visits Georgia to Help a Friend". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- "Georgia Celebrates Independence Day". Civil Georgia. 26 May 2002. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- "Military Parade Marks Independence Day". Civil Georgia. 26 May 2010. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- "Independence Day Marked by the Largest Ever Military Parade". Civil Georgia. 26 May 2004. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- "Military Parade Marked Independence Day". Civil Georgia. 26 May 2004. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- "Army Parade Marks Independence Day". Civil Georgia. 26 May 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- "Opposition Rallies outside Parliament". Civil Georgia. 26 May 2008. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- "Tens of Thousands Rally". Civil Georgia. 26 May 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- "Georgia: Police Used Excessive Force on Peaceful Protests". Human Rights Watch. 26 May 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- "President's Independence Day Address". Civil Georgia. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "Georgia Marks Independence Day". Civil Georgia. 26 May 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
- Silogava, Valeri; Shengelia, Kakha (2007). History of Georgia: From the Ancient Times Through the "Rose Revolution". Tbilisi: Caucasus University Publishing House. p. 231.
- "Meeting Protocol of the Central Committee Plenum. May 7, 1921". The Archival Bulletin. Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia. 13: 71. 2012. ISSN 1512-2867.
- Kereselidze, Lia (2010). "May of 1922 in Georgia". The Archival Bulletin. Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia. 9: 4–22. ISSN 1512-2867.
- Jones, Stephen (2015). Georgia: A Political History Since Independence. I.B.Tauris. p. 30. ISBN 1784530859.
- Tsuladze, Zaza (1 May 2017). "ქართული ჯარის დიდი დღე" [The great day of the Georgian army] (in Georgian). Voice of America. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
- "Today Georgia marks the 100th anniversary since the First Republic of Georgia – what's in store?". Agenda.ge. 26 May 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2018.