Independence-class littoral combat ship
|Operators:||United States Navy|
|Preceded by:||Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate|
|Cost:||$704 million First Ship Future Ships $360 million|
|Type:||Littoral combat ship|
|Displacement:||2,307 metric tons light, 3,104 metric tons full, 797 metric tons deadweight|
|Length:||418 ft (127 m)|
|Beam:||104 ft (32 m)|
|Draft:||14 ft (4.3 m)|
|Propulsion:||2 × MTU Friedrichshafen 20V 8000 Series diesel engines, 2 x General Electric LM2500 gas turbines, 2 x American VULKAN light weight multiple-section carbon fiber propulsion shaftlines, 2 x LJ160E and 2 x LJ150E Wärtsilä waterjets, retractable bow-mounted azimuth thruster, 4 × diesel generators|
|Speed:||44 knots (51 mph; 81 km/h)|
|Range:||4,300 nautical miles (7,964 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h)|
|Capacity:||210 metric tons (206 long tons, 231 short tons)|
|Complement:||40 core crew (8 officers, 32 enlisted) plus up to 35 mission crew|
The hull design evolved from a project at Austal to design a 40 knot cruise ship. That hull design evolved into the high-speed trimaran ferry HSC Benchijigua Express and the Independence class was then proposed by General Dynamics and Austal as a contender for Navy plans to build a fleet of small, multipurpose warships to operate in the littoral zone. Two ships were approved, to compete with Lockheed Martin's Freedom-class design.
Despite initial plans to only build ships of the winner out of the two competing Independence or Freedom classes, in 2010 the Navy announced plans to order up to ten additional ships of each class, for a total 12 ships per class. In March 2016 the Navy announced their intention to order an additional two ships, increasing the order to 13 ships of each class.
It was announced in early September 2016 that the first four vessels of the LCS program would be used as test ships rather than being deployed with the fleet. This includes lead ship Independence and Coronado.
As of February 2018[update], six ships have been commissioned. Starting in 2019, ships of this class will be designated as fast frigates (FF) which will include increased firepower and heavier armor.
- 1 Planning and construction
- 2 Design
- 3 Small Surface Combatant
- 4 Derivative designs
- 5 Ships
- 6 In popular culture
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Planning and construction
Planning for a class of small, multipurpose warships to operate in the littoral zone began in the early 2000s. In July 2003, a proposal by General Dynamics (partnering with Austal USA, the American subsidiary of Australian shipbuilder Austal) was approved by the Navy, with a contract for two vessels. These would then be compared to two ships built by Lockheed Martin to determine which design would be taken up by the Navy for a production run of up to 55 ships.
The first ship, Independence was laid down at the Austal USA shipyard in Mobile, Alabama, on 19 January 2006. The planned second ship was cancelled in November 2007, but reordered in May 2009, and laid down in December of that year as Coronado, shortly before Independence was launched.
The development and construction of Independence as of June 2009 was running at more than 3 times budget. The total projected cost for the ship is $704 million. The Navy had originally projected the cost at $220 million. Independence began builder's trials in July 2009, three days behind schedule because of maintenance issues. A leak in the port gas turbine saw the order of trials altered, but builder's and acceptance trials were completed by November, and although her first INSURV inspection revealed 2,080 deficiencies, these were rectified in time for the ship to be handed over to the Navy in mid-December, and commissioned in mid-January 2010.
Navy leaders said that the fixed price competition offered the Austal design an equal shot, in spite of its excess size, cost and limited service. After much inconsistency on how testing and orders were to proceed, in November 2010, the Navy asked that Congress approve ten of both the Independence and Freedom classes.
The Independence-class design began life at Austal as a platform for a high-speed cruise ship. The principal requirements of that project were speed, stability and passenger comfort, and Austal's team determined that the trimaran hull form offered significant passenger comfort and stability advantages over both a catamaran and a monohull. The high-speed cruise ship project evolved into Austal's commercial high-speed trimaran ferry HSC Benchijigua Express. The ships are 127.4 m (418 ft) long, with a beam of 31.6 m (104 ft), and a draft of 13 ft (3.96 m). Their displacement is rated at 2,176 tons light, 2,784 tons full, and 608 tons deadweight. The standard ship's company is 40, although this can increase depending on the ship's role with mission-specific personnel. The habitability area with bunks is located under the bridge. The helm is controlled by joysticks instead of traditional steering wheels.
Although the trimaran hull increases the total surface area, it is still able to reach sustainable speeds of about 50 knots (93 km/h; 58 mph), with a range of 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km; 12,000 mi). Austal claims that the design will use a third less fuel than the competing Freedom-class, but the Congressional Budget Office found that fuel would account for 18 percent or less of the total lifetime cost of Freedom. The lack of bridge wings on the Independence class had been noted as the top problem in the entire LCS program to the extent that these will need to be retrofitted onto existing ships. The lightweight aluminum construction of the Independence-class ships makes them more vulnerable to damage than the Freedom-class ships.
The first ships of both LCS classes were delivered before the designs were mature so that improvements could be built into future ships. The Navy is improving the Independence-class with bridge wings for safety and replacing the 5.1-metre (17 ft) Rigid Hull Inflatable Boat (RHIB) with a 7-metre (23 ft) boat. An improved cathodic protection system will enhance corrosion protection. Like the Freedom-class, the Independence vessels will be getting axial flow water jets which pushes water parallel to the shaft of the impeller to improve efficiency and reduce maintenance; they will also be upgraded to handle the horsepower provided by the gas turbine propulsion system. A winch control system will modulate the motion of the anchor to reduce the reliance on manual hand brakes. The mission bay side door will be redesigned for reliability and the platform lift elevator reconfigured to better handle weapons and ordnance.
Modular mission capability
The Independence-class carries a default armament for self-defense, and command and control. Unlike traditional fighting ships with fixed armament such as guns and missiles, tailored mission modules can be configured for one mission package at a time. Modules may consist of manned aircraft, unmanned vehicles, off-board sensors, or mission-manning detachments. The interior volume and payload is greater than some destroyers and is sufficient to serve as a high-speed transport and maneuver platform. The mission bay is 15,200 square feet (1,410 m2), and takes up most of the deck below the hangar and flight deck. With 11,000 cubic metres (390,000 cu ft) of payload volume, it was designed with enough payload and volume to carry out one mission with a separate mission module in reserve, allowing the ship to do multiple missions without having to be refitted.
One Mobicon Flexible Container Handling System is carried on each ship in order to move mission containers. In addition to cargo or container-sized mission modules, the bay can carry four lanes of multiple Strykers, armored Humvees, and their associated troops. An elevator allows air transport of packages the size of a 20-foot-long (6.1 m) shipping container that can be moved into the mission bay while at sea. A side access ramp allows for vehicle roll-on/roll-off loading to a dock and would have allowed the ship to transport the since-cancelled Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle.
Armament and sensors
The Raytheon SeaRAM missile defense system is installed on the hangar roof. The SeaRAM combines the sensors of the Phalanx 1B close-in weapon system with an 11-missile launcher for the RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile, creating an autonomous system. The Independence-class ships also have an integrated LOS Mast, Sea Giraffe 3D Radar and SeaStar Safire FLIR. Northrop Grumman has demonstrated sensor fusion of on and off-board systems in the Integrated Combat Management System (ICMS) used on the LCS. The vessels have an Interior Communications Center that can be curtained off from the rest of bridge instead of the heavily protected Combat Information Center found on other Navy warships.
Side and forward surfaces are angled for reduced radar profile. The Fleet-class unmanned surface vessel is designed for operations from Independence-class ships. The flight deck, 1,030 m2 (11,100 sq ft), can support the operation of two SH-60 Seahawk helicopters, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, or one CH-53 Sea Stallion helicopter. H-60 series helicopters provide airlift, rescue, anti-submarine, radar picket and anti-ship capabilities with torpedoes and missiles. DARPA's Tactically Exploited Reconnaissance Node (TERN) program aims to build a Medium-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle (MALE UAV) that can operate from LCS-2 and can carry a payload of 600 pounds (270 kg) out to an operational radius of 600–900 nautical miles (1,100–1,700 km). First flight of a TERN demonstrator is expected in 2017. The trimaran hull will allow flight operations up to sea state 5. Austal USA vice president Craig Hooper has responded to critics of the class's light armament by suggesting that the ships employ long range drones instead.
On 19 July 2016, while participating in the Rim of the Pacific Exercise, Coronado was used to conduct a live-fire missile test of a Block 1C Harpoon anti-ship missile. While the missile failed to destroy its target, the test validated the ability to launch high-powered missiles from the forward deck of an Independence-class vessel, which is expected to lead to deployment of Harpoon missiles on future LCS missions.
The control system for this class is provided by General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems through an open architecture computing infrastructure (OPEN CI), while Lockheed provides their own control system for their variant of the LCS. OPEN CI includes the information technology (IT) infrastructure for the combat and seaframe control systems. This IT infrastructure also includes the primary operator interface for the control and monitoring of mission module operations. The General Dynamics OPEN CI is also used on the Austal-built Spearhead-class Joint High Speed Vessel.
After the lead ship of the class suffered from aggressive disintegration due to galvanic corrosion, Austal has made changes to the remaining ships in the class. Coronado will have "new anti-corrosion surface treatments", and Jackson will have "an array of tested corrosion-management tools and processes".
Small Surface Combatant
In December 2014, the Navy's recommendation to base the Small Surface Combatant on upgraded versions of both Independence and Freedom LCSs was accepted. The SSC is an attempt by the Navy to increase the LCS' firepower and protection. Although Austal submitted improvements including vertical launch systems, 76 mm guns, and advanced combat systems and sensors, the Navy opted to keep the 57 mm gun, not add a VLS, and chose to add an upgraded 3-D radar. Other changes included installation of an unspecified over-the-horizon missile, Mark 38 25 mm guns, a torpedo countermeasures system, a multifunction towed array system, installation the SeaRAM launcher (on the Freedom-class), an upgraded countermeasures decoy system, an upgraded electronic warfare system, armor added to vital spaces, and improved signature management. The SSC will focus on SUW and ASW with these additions, as well as retaining all other features of their mission packages; the SSC is not required to perform MCM, which will continue to be handled by the LCS. The vessels will retain a degree of modularity to concentrate on one mission set and will still have mission bays, although they may be reduced. SSC vessels are planned to begin procurement by 2019, and it is being investigated if the enhancements can be added to existing LCS hulls.
Austal has proposed a much smaller and slower trimaran, called the 'Multi Role Vessel' (MRV 80). Though it is only half the size of their LCS design, it would still be useful for border protection and counter piracy operations. In April 2017, Austal unveiled an updated LCS frigate design called the "Austal Frigate." Based on the Independence frigate hull, it features a slightly shorter flight deck for an aft section that can hold eight anti-ship missiles, an addition to the eight missile launchers in the forward section for 16 total, and a variable depth sonar with its handling system as well as a towed array. The Austal Frigate design can also feature an optional 16-cell Mk 41 VLS.
Ship order and naming history
The Navy originally ordered two Independence-class littoral combat ships, the lead ship Independence (LCS-2) and Coronado (LCS-4), named in March 2009 by then-Secretary of the Navy Donald C. Winter, with odd numbers being used for Freedom-class littoral combat ships. On 29 December 2010, the Navy announced that it would be ordering up to ten additional Independence-class ships, for a total of 12 ships in the class. On 25 March 2011, then-Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced the names of the third and fourth Independence-class ships, Jackson (LCS-6) and Montgomery (LCS-8), during a press conference in Mobile, Alabama. In February 2012, Secretary Mabus announced that the fifth ship of the class will be named Gabrielle Giffords (LCS-10), and the sixth named Omaha (LCS-12). The Navy announced the name Manchester (LCS-14) in April 2013 Tulsa (LCS-16) the following June.
On 11 March 2014, the Navy awarded contract options to fund construction of LCS-18 and LCS-20, the seventh and eighth ships in a 10-ship contract. In January 2015, Secretary Mabus announced the name of Charleston (LCS-18). and Cincinnati (LCS-20) the following July. On 1 April 2015, the Navy awarded build contracts for LCS-22 and LCS-24 to Austal USA. On 20 July 2015, at a Kansas City Royals baseball game being played at Kauffman Stadium in Kansas City, Missouri, Secretary Mabus and Mayor Sly James announced the name of Kansas City (LCS-22). On 20 August 2015, Secretary Mabus announced that the twelfth ship would be named Oakland (LCS-24).
On 31 March 2016, Austal announced the order to build the thirteenth Independence-class vessel with a congressional cost cap of $564 million, which had been placed as an option under Austal’s existing 10-vessel block-buy contract. LCS-26 will be the eleventh vessel built under that contract and the thirteenth Independence-class vessel overall (the first two ships, Independence and Coronado were built prior to award of the 10-vessel contract). In September 2016, Secretary Mabus announced the name of the next ship, Mobile (LCS-26). On 26 June 2017, Austal announced the order to build the fourteenth Independence-class vessel with a congressional cost cap of $584 million. The latest order for an Independence-class LCS ship is for LCS-30, the fifteenth ship of the class, announced by Austal on 8 October 2017, to be built at a cost under the congressional cost cap of $584 million. On 13 February 2018, Navy Secretary Richard V. Spencer announced the name of LCS-28 as Savannah, and on 23 February 2018, President Donald Trump announced the name of LCS-30 as Canberra.
Ships in class
|Ship||Hull Number||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Status|
|Independence||LCS-2||19 January 2006||26 April 2008||16 January 2010||Active in service|
|Coronado||LCS-4||17 December 2009||14 January 2012||5 April 2014||Active in service|
|Jackson||LCS-6||1 August 2011||14 December 2013||5 December 2015||Active in service|
|Montgomery||LCS-8||25 June 2013||6 August 2014||10 September 2016||Active in service|
|Gabrielle Giffords||LCS-10||16 April 2014||25 February 2015||10 June 2017||Active in service|
|Omaha||LCS-12||18 February 2015||20 November 2015||3 February 2018||Active in service|
|Manchester||LCS-14||29 June 2015||12 May 2016||Fitting out|
|Tulsa||LCS-16||11 January 2016||16 March 2017||Fitting out|
|Charleston||LCS-18||28 June 2016||14 September 2017||Fitting out|
|Cincinnati||LCS-20||10 April 2017||Under construction|
|Kansas City||LCS-22||15 November 2017||Under construction|
In popular culture
USS Independence appears in the Discovery Channel documentary Inside: A 21st Century Warship, which also features USS Freedom (LCS-1).
- Independence-class littoral mission vessel
- HSV Sea Slice, SLICE catamaran
- Sea Fighter (FSF-1), SWATH catamaran
- Sea Shadow (IX-529), stealth catamaran
- RV Triton, British trimaran warship demonstrator
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