Independence-class littoral combat ship
|Operators:||United States Navy|
|Cost:||$704 million First Ship Future Ships $360 million|
|Type:||Littoral combat ship|
|Displacement:||2,307 metric tons light, 3,104 metric tons full, 797 metric tons deadweight|
|Length:||418 ft (127 m)|
|Beam:||104 ft (32 m)|
|Draft:||14 ft (4.3 m)|
|Propulsion:||2 × MTU Friedrichshafen 20V 8000 Series diesel engines, 2 x General Electric LM2500 gas turbines, 2 x American VULKAN light weight multiple-section carbon fiber propulsion shaftlines, 2 x LJ160E and 2 x LJ150E Wärtsilä waterjets, retractable bow-mounted azimuth thruster, 4 × diesel generators|
|Speed:||44 knots (51 mph; 81 km/h)|
|Range:||4,300 nautical miles (7,964 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h)|
|Capacity:||210 metric tons (206 long tons, 231 short tons)|
|Complement:||40 core crew (8 officers, 32 enlisted) plus up to 35 mission crew|
The hull design evolved from a project at Austal to design a 40 knot cruise ship. That hull design evolved into the high-speed trimaran ferry HSC Benchijigua Express and the Independence class was then proposed by General Dynamics and Austal as a contender for Navy plans to build a fleet of small, multipurpose warships to operate in the littoral zone. Two ships were approved, to compete with Lockheed Martin's Freedom-class design.
Despite initial plans to only build ships of the winner out of the two competing Independence or Freedom classes, in 2010 the Navy announced plans to order up to ten additional ships of each class, for a total 12 ships per class. In March 2016 the Navy announced their intention to order an additional two ships, increasing the order to 13 ships of each class.
It was announced in early September 2016 that the first four vessels of the LCS program would be used as test ships rather than being deployed with the fleet. This includes Independence and Coronado.
As of November 2016[update], the lead ship and three additional ships have been commissioned. Starting in 2019, ships of this class will be designated as fast frigates (FF) which will include increased firepower and heavier armor.
- 1 Planning and construction
- 2 Design
- 3 Small Surface Combatant
- 4 Derivative designs
- 5 Ships
- 6 In popular culture
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Planning and construction
Planning for a class of small, multipurpose warships to operate in the littoral zone began in the early 2000s. In July 2003, a proposal by General Dynamics (partnering with Austal USA, the American subsidiary of Australian shipbuilder Austal) was approved by the Navy, with a contract for two vessels. These would then be compared to two ships built by Lockheed Martin to determine which design would be taken up by the Navy for a production run of up to 55 ships.
The first ship, USS Independence was laid down at the Austal USA shipyard in Mobile, Alabama, on 19 January 2006. The planned second ship was cancelled in November 2007, but reordered in May 2009, and laid down in December of that year as USS Coronado, shortly before Independence was launched.
The development and construction of Independence as of June 2009 was running at more than 3 times budget. The total projected cost for the ship is $704 million. The Navy had originally projected the cost at $220 million. Independence began builder's trials in July 2009, three days behind schedule because of maintenance issues. A leak in the port gas turbine saw the order of trials altered, but builder's and acceptance trials were completed by November. and although her first INSURV inspection revealed 2,080 deficiencies, these were rectified in time for the ship to be handed over to the Navy in mid-December, and commissioned in mid-January 2010.
Navy leaders said that the fixed price competition offered the Austal design an equal shot, in spite of its excess size, cost and limited service.
The Independence-class design began life at Austal as a platform for a high-speed cruise ship. The principal requirements of that project were speed, stability and passenger comfort, and Austal's team determined that the trimaran hull form offered significant passenger comfort and stability advantages over both a catamaran and a monohull. The high-speed cruise ship project evolved into Austal's commercial high-speed trimaran ferry HSC Benchijigua Express. The ships are 127.4 m (418 ft) long, with a beam of 31.6 m (104 ft), and a draft of 13 ft (3.96 m). Their displacement is rated at 2,176 tons light, 2,784 tons full, and 608 tons deadweight.
The standard ship's company is 40, although this can increase depending on the ship's role with mission-specific personnel. The habitability area with bunks is located under the bridge. The helm is controlled by joysticks instead of traditional steering wheels.
Although the trimaran hull increases the total surface area, it is still able to reach sustainable speeds of about 50 knots (93 km/h; 58 mph), with a range of 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km; 12,000 mi). Austal claims that the design will use a third less fuel than the competing Freedom class, but the Congressional Budget Office found that fuel would account for 18 percent or less of the total lifetime cost of Freedom.
The lightweight aluminum construction of the Independence-class ships makes them more vulnerable to damage than the Freedom-class ships.
The first ships of both LCS classes were delivered before the designs were mature so that improvements could be built into future ships. The Navy is improving the Independence-class with bridge wings for safety and replacing the 5.1-metre (17 ft) Rigid Hull Inflatable Boat (RHIB) with a 7-metre (23 ft) boat. An improved cathodic protection system will enhance corrosion protection. Like the Freedom-class, the Independence vessels will be getting axial flow water jets which pushes water parallel to the shaft of the impeller to improve efficiency and reduce maintenance; they will also be upgraded to handle the horsepower provided by the gas turbine propulsion system. A winch control system will modulate the motion of the anchor to reduce the reliance on manual hand brakes. The mission bay side door will be redesigned for reliability and the platform lift elevator reconfigured to better handle weapons and ordnance.
Modular mission capability
The Independence class carries a default armament for self-defense, and command and control. However, unlike traditional fighting ships with fixed armament such as guns and missiles, tailored mission modules can be configured for one mission package at a time. Modules may consist of manned aircraft, unmanned vehicles, off-board sensors, or mission-manning detachments.
The interior volume and payload is greater than some destroyers and is sufficient to serve as a high-speed transport and maneuver platform. The mission bay is 15,200 square feet (1,410 m2), and takes up most of the deck below the hangar and flight deck. With 11,000 cubic metres (390,000 cu ft) of payload volume, it was designed with enough payload and volume to carry out one mission with a separate mission module in reserve, allowing the ship to do multiple missions without having to be refitted.
In addition to cargo or container-sized mission modules, the bay can carry four lanes of multiple Strykers, armored Humvees, and their associated troops. An elevator allows air transport of packages the size of a 20-foot-long (6.1 m) shipping container that can be moved into the mission bay while at sea. A side access ramp allows for vehicle roll-on/roll-off loading to a dock and allows the ship to transport the Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle.
Armament and sensors
The Raytheon SeaRAM missile defense system is installed on the hangar roof. The SeaRAM combines the sensors of the Phalanx 1B close-in weapon system with an 11-missile launcher for the RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile, creating an autonomous system.
The Independence-class ships also have an integrated LOS Mast, Sea Giraffe 3D Radar and SeaStar Safire FLIR. Northrop Grumman has demonstrated sensor fusion of on and off-board systems in the Integrated Combat Management System (ICMS) used on the LCS. The vessels have an Interior Communications Center that can be curtained off from the rest of bridge instead of the heavily protected Combat Information Center found on other Navy warships.
The flight deck, 1,030 m2 (11,100 sq ft), can support the operation of two SH-60 Seahawk helicopters, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, or one CH-53 Sea Stallion helicopter. H-60 series helicopters provide airlift, rescue, anti-submarine, radar picket and anti-ship capabilities with torpedoes and missiles. DARPA's Tactically Exploited Reconnaissance Node (TERN) program aims to build a Medium-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle (MALE UAV) that can operate from LCS-2 and can carry a payload of 600 pounds (270 kg) out to an operational radius of 600–900 nautical miles (1,100–1,700 km). First flight of a TERN demonstrator is expected in 2017. The trimaran hull will allow flight operations up to sea state 5. Austal USA vice president Craig Hooper has responded to critics of the class's light armament by suggesting that the ships employ long range drones instead.
On 19 July 2016, while participating in the Rim of the Pacific Exercise, Coronado was used to conduct a live-fire missile test of a Block 1C Harpoon anti-ship missile. While the missile failed to destroy its target, the test validated the ability to launch high-powered missiles from the forward deck of an Independence-class vessel, which is expected to lead to deployment of Harpoon missiles on future LCS missions.
The control system for this class is provided by General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems through an open architecture computing infrastructure (OPEN CI), while Lockheed provides their own control system for their variant of the LCS. OPEN CI includes the information technology (IT) infrastructure for the combat and seaframe control systems. This IT infrastructure also includes the primary operator interface for the control and monitoring of mission module operations.
After the lead ship of the class suffered from aggressive disintegration due to galvanic corrosion, Austal has made changes to the remaining ships in the class. Coronado will have "new anti-corrosion surface treatments", and Jackson will have "an array of tested corrosion-management tools and processes".
Small Surface Combatant
In December 2014, the Navy's recommendation to base the Small Surface Combatant on upgraded versions of both Independence and Freedom LCSs was accepted. The SSC is an attempt by the Navy to increase the LCS' firepower and protection. Although Austal submitted improvements including vertical launch systems, 76 mm guns, and advanced combat systems and sensors, the Navy opted to keep the 57 mm gun, not add a VLS, and chose to add an upgraded 3-D radar. Other changes included installation of an unspecified over-the-horizon missile, Mark 38 25 mm guns, a torpedo countermeasures system, a multifunction towed array system, installation the SeaRAM launcher (on the Freedom-class), an upgraded countermeasures decoy system, an upgraded electronic warfare system, armor added to vital spaces, and improved signature management. The SSC will focus in SUW and ASW with these additions, as well as retaining all other features of their mission packages; the SSC is not required to perform MCM, which will continue to be handled by the LCS. The vessels will retain a degree of modularity to concentrate on one mission set and will still have mission bays, although they may be reduced. SSC vessels are planned to begin procurement by 2019, and it is being investigated if the enhancements can be added to existing LCS hulls.
Austal has proposed a much smaller and slower trimaran, called the 'Multi Role Vessel' (MRV 80). Though it is only half the size of their LCS design, it would still be useful for border protection and counter piracy operations.
Four Independence-class LCS ships have been commissioned. Seven more are under construction by Austal USA. Two more are on order.
Ship order and naming history
The Navy originally ordered two Independence-class littoral combat ships, the lead ship LCS-2 USS Independence and LCS-4 (odd numbers are used for Freedom-class littoral combat ships). In March 2009, the then Secretary of the Navy Donald C. Winter announced that LCS-4 would be named USS Coronado. On 29 December 2010, the Navy announced that it would be ordering up to ten additional Independence-class ships, for a total of 12 ships in the class.
On 25 March 2011, Secretary Ray Mabus announced the names of the third and fourth Independence-class ships, LCS-6 USS Jackson and LCS-8 USS Montgomery, during a press conference in Mobile, Alabama. In February 2012, Secretary Mabus announced that the fifth Independence-class littoral combat ship will be named USS Gabrielle Giffords, and the sixth USS Omaha. In April 2013, the name USS Manchester was assigned to LCS-14, while in June 2013, the name USS Tulsa was assigned to LCS-16.
On 11 March 2014, the Navy awarded contract options to fund construction of LCS-18 and LCS-20, the seventh and eighth ships in a 10-ship contract. In January 2015, Secretary Mabus announced that the next Independence-class ship, LCS-18, will be named USS Charleston. In July 2015, Secretary Mabus announced that the tenth Independence-class ship, LCS-20, will be named USS Cincinnati.
On 1 April 2015, the Navy awarded build contracts for LCS-22 and LCS-24 to Austal USA. On 20 July 2015, at a Kansas City Royals baseball game being played at Kauffman Stadium in Kansas City, Missouri, Secretary Mabus and Mayor Sly James announced that LCS-22 would be named USS Kansas City. On 20 August 2015, Secretary Mabus announced that LCS-24 would be named USS Oakland.
As of November 2016[update], the latest order for an Independence-class LCS ship is for LCS-26. On 31 March 2016, Austal announced the order to build the thirteenth Independence-class vessel with a congressional cost cap of $564 million, which had been placed as an option under Austal’s existing 10-vessel block-buy contract. LCS-26 will be the eleventh vessel built under that contract and the thirteenth Independence-class vessel overall (Independence and Coronado were built prior to award of the 10-vessel contract).
Ships in class
|Ship||Hull Number||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Status|
|Independence||LCS-2||19 January 2006||26 April 2008||16 January 2010||Active in service|
|Coronado||LCS-4||17 December 2009||14 January 2012||5 April 2014||Active in service|
|Jackson||LCS-6||1 August 2011||14 December 2013||5 December 2015||Active in service|
|Montgomery||LCS-8||25 June 2013||6 August 2014||10 September 2016||Active in service|
|Gabrielle Giffords||LCS-10||16 April 2014||25 February 2015||Fitting out|
|Omaha||LCS-12||18 February 2015||20 November 2015||Fitting out|
|Manchester||LCS-14||29 June 2015||12 May 2016||Fitting out|
|Tulsa||LCS-16||11 January 2016||Under construction|
|Charleston||LCS-18||28 June 2016||Under construction|
|Kansas City||LCS-22||Under construction|
In popular culture
- USS Independence appears in the Discovery Channel documentary Inside: A 21st Century Warship, which also features USS Freedom (LCS-1).
- Independence-class littoral mission vessel
- HSV Sea Slice, SLICE catamaran
- Sea Fighter (FSF-1), SWATH catamaran
- Sea Shadow (IX-529), stealth catamaran
- RV Triton, British trimaran warship demonstrator
- Ewing, Philip (29 June 2009). "LCS 2 delays trials after engine issue". Military Times. Retrieved 30 May 2015. (subscription required)
- "USS Independence (LCS 2)". Naval Vessel Register. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- "GE and U.S. Navy Celebrate 40th Operating Anniversary of LM2500 Gas Turbine" (Press release). GE Aviation. 27 October 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Thompson, Jason (1 February 2010). "USS Independence LCS-2 - GE LM2500 Gas Turbines". Diesel Power Magazine. TruckTrend Network. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Sharp, David (22 October 2009). "Navy's newest warships top out at more than 50 mph". KOMO News. Associated Press. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
- Reilly, Sean (4 April 2010). "In high-stakes LCS competition, disagreement on how to rank the best deal". al.com. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "GDLCS Media Center". AUSTAL/General Dynamics. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Q & A with the U.S. Navy on Lockheed Martin Hellfire missiles for Littoral Combat Ships". Navyrecognition.com. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Freedburg Jr., Sydney J. (17 December 2014). "Fire Scout Grows Up: Drone Getting Radar, Rockets, 2016 IOC". Breakingdefense.com. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Special from Navy Office of Information (29 December 2010). "Littoral Combat Ship Contract Award Announced" (Press release). Navy News Service. NNS101229-09. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- Sick, Hope Hodge (1 April 2016). "Two More Littoral Combat Ships Under Contract". DoD Buzz. Military.com. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
- U.S. Navy announces Littoral Combat Ship program overhaul
- US Navy overhauls troubled littoral combat ship program
- SECNAV unveils new name for LCS: the 'fast frigate'
- "General Dynamics Bath Iron Works Team Wins Preliminary Design Award for U.S. Navy's Littoral Combat Ship" (Press release). General Dynamics. 17 July 2003. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010.
- "Navy Terminates Littoral Combat Ship (LCS 4) Contract" (Press release). U.S. Department of Defense. 1 November 2007. 1269-07. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "General Dynamics Littoral Combat Ship Team Delivers Independence (LCS 2) and Lays Keel for Coronado (LCS 4)". PR Newswire. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Ewing, Philip (3 July 2009). "LCS 2 begins sea trials after 3-day delay". Military Times. Retrieved 30 May 2015. (subscription required)
- Ewing, Philip (4 August 2009). "Turbine-seal leak means more tests for LCS 2". NavyTimes. Retrieved 30 May 2015. (subscription required)
- Cavas, Christopher P. (21 November 2009). "Trials successful for 2nd LCS hull". Military Times. Retrieved 30 May 2015. (subscription required)
- "Navy News Service". Navy.mil. 16 January 2010.[dead link]
- "Navy says the field is level for teams competing for LCS contract".
- Sessions, Jeff (3 November 2010). "Sessions comments today regarding the Navy's proposal to purchase additional Littoral Combat Ship". Office of Jeff Sessions. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "US Navy said to buy LCS warships from both bidders". Reuters. 3 November 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Cavas, Christopher P. (4 November 2010). "Navy asks Congress to buy both LCS designs". Navy Times. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Cavas, Christopher P. (11 January 2010). "LCS 2 features large hangar, bigger berths". Military Times. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Reilly, Sean (7 May 2010). "Navy not using fuel cost data in LCS competition". al.com. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Fabey, Michael (30 November 2012). "Redeeming Freedom -- Changes for the U.S. Navy's Littoral Combat Ship". Aviation Week. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Lerman, David; Taborek, Nick (20 February 2013). "Ships Leaking $37 Billion Reflect Eisenhower's Warning". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Osborn, Kris (27 June 2014). "Navy Engineers LCS Changes". DoDBuzz.com. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "US Navy snaps up Aussie straddle carrier". SupplyChain Review. 25 November 2010. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011.
- "Mobicon Flexible Container Handling System". Mobicon Systems. 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Independence-class Littoral Combat Ship" (PDF). General Dynamics. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Raytheon Delivers SeaRAM to USS Independence" (Press release). Raytheon Company. 18 March 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Northrop Grumman-Led Team Demonstrates Means to Effectively Enhance Littoral Warfighting Capabilities". NASDAQ Global Newswire. 18 August 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Cavas, Christopher (12 April 2010). "LCS 2: 'It'll blow your mind'". NavyTimes. Retrieved 30 May 2015. (subscription required)
- Sobie, Brendan (24 August 2010). "AUVSI: Making a splash". Flightglobal. Reed Business Information. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "DARPA's New TERN Program Aims for Eyes in the Sky from the Sea". DARPA. 1 March 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Tactically Exploited Reconnaissance Node (TERN) Program Solicitation Number: DARPA-BAA-13-28". 26 March 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- USS Independence LCS 2 - General Info Archived 18 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- Cox, Matthew (8 April 2013). "LCS Maker Responds to Ship's Firepower Critics". Military.com. Military Advantage. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Lockie, Alex (21 July 2016). "A major element of US Naval strategy came to fruition in this 15-second clip". Business Insider. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- "General Dynamics to Deliver Open Architecture-based Combat Systems for 10 Littoral Combat Ships" (Press release). General Dynamics. 3 January 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Murtaugh, Dan (3 January 2010). "Austal taps General Dynamics for LCS combat systems". Press-Register. al.com. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "General Dynamics Successfully Integrates Littoral Combat Ship Mission Package Computing Environment" (Press release). General Dynamics. 18 March 2008. Archived from the original on 14 May 2014.
- "OPEN CI: The Power of Open Architecture". General Dynamics. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Axe, David (5 July 2011). "Plenty of Blame to Go Around for 'Disappearing' Warship". Wired. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Cavas, Christopher P. (11 December 2014). "Split Decision on New US Navy Ship". Defensenews.com. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Multi Role Vessel MRV80" (PDF). Austal. 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "San Diego Union-Tribune, Future Warship To Bear The City's Name, March 15, 2009". .signonsandiego.com. 15 March 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
- Department of Defense Public Affairs (25 March 2011). "Navy Names Next Two Littoral Combat Ships" (Press release). United States Department of Defense. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Department of the Navy (10 February 2012). "Navy Names Littoral Combat Ship Gabrielle Giffords" (Press release). Navy News Service. NNS120210-25. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- "Introducing... The USS Omaha". WOWT. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Secretary of the Navy Names Multiple Ships" (Press release). U.S. Department of Defense. 12 April 2013. 237-13. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Department of Defense Public Affairs (6 June 2013). "SecNav Names Multiple Ships" (Press release). Navy News Service. NNS130606-21. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "US Navy funds two further Littoral Combat Ships" (Press release). Austal USA. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Kropf, Schuyler (9 January 2015). "USS Charleston an easy choice, Navy Secretary says". The Post and Courier. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Jean, Grace (1 April 2015). "USN awards FY 2015 LCS contracts". IHS Jane's Navy International. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- "U.S. Navy funds two further Littoral Combat Ships, with option added for a third" (Press release). Austal. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- Campbell, Matt (20 July 2015). "New USS Kansas City shown off before Royals game". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- "Secretary of the Navy Names Littoral Combat Ship" (Press release). U.S. Department of Defense. 20 August 2015. NR-333-15. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "U.S. Navy Funds Additional Littoral Combat Ship" (Press release). Austal. 31 March 2016.
- Surface Forces Public Affairs (6 January 2010). "USS Independence Commissioned" (Press release). Navy News Service. NNS100116-31. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- Senior Chief Mass Communication Specialist Donnie W. Ryan, Naval Surface Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet Public Affairs (5 April 2014). "USS Coronado Commissioned in Namesake City" (Press release). Navy News Service. NNS140405-05. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- MC2 Kathleen L. Church (5 December 2015). "USS Jackson (LCS 6) Commissioned" (Press release). Navy News Service. NNS151207-02. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- Yawn, Andrew J. (10 September 2016). "'Man our ship': USS Montgomery commissioned". Montgomery Advertiser. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Media related to USS Independence (LCS-2) at Wikimedia Commons
- Independence-class littoral combat ships on Austal USA official website