Independent Federation of Chinese Students and Scholars
The Independent Federation of Chinese Students and Scholars (IFCSS) was founded on August 1, 1989, when over 1000 Chinese student representatives from more than 200 major U.S. universities held their First Congress of Chinese Students and Scholars in USA at the University of Illinois at Chicago and elected Liu Yongchuan (Alex Liu) as its president. The mission of IFCSS was to promote democracy in China and to protect the interests of the Chinese students and scholars studying in the United States, as a response to Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
Since its birth, IFCSS had become one of the most influential overseas Chinese students groups in history. It had lobbied successfully in U.S. Congress, organized the well-known "Washington March for Chinese Democracy" in 1989, and united tens of thousands of Chinese students together for many years since 1989. However, its relevance and importance have been declining for years, even though some of its members continues to organize Memorials for the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 in Washington DC.
The IFCSS was credited as to have started using the Internet for social mobilization and congressional lobby, for which a lot of research has been completed and resulted many published books and articles. Also, IFCSS is widely considered as a pioneer in utilizing modern technologies (electronic gadgets) like fax machines and emails to spread truth in totalitarian countries, and to coordinate social protests.
- NY Times Report on IFCSS 1st Congress
- Washington Post Report on IFCSS's Forming 1989
- Chinese Students Unite for Democracy 1989
- Los Angeles Times Report on IFCSS's Congressional Lobby 1989
- Washington Post Report on IFCSS 1990
- New York Times Report on IFCSS 1990
- Political Networking by Norman Matloff 1997
- Politics, control, and computer networks: the Chinese Student Lobby of 1989 by David Alan Grier ACM 1998
- Subscribing to Democracy through the Internet by Fenghua Wang 1999
- Opening Up Authoritarian Regimes with ICT,2001 Sweden IDEA
- Revolt of the Gadgets by Robert S. Eshelman 2012
- Chinese Activism of a Different Kind by Dr. Jia Gao 2013
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