Outline of thought

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A chimpanzee thinking.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to thought (thinking):

Thought (also called thinking) – the mental process in which beings form psychological associations and models of the world. Thinking is manipulating information, as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving, reason and make decisions. Thought, the act of thinking, produces thoughts. A thought may be an idea, an image, a sound or even an emotional feeling that arises from the brain.

Nature of thought[edit]

Thought (or thinking) can be described as all of the following:

  • An activity taking place in a:
    • brain – organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals (only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain). It is the physical structure associated with the mind.
    • computer (see § Machine thought below) – general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Since a sequence of operations (an algorithm) can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem.
  • An activity of intelligence – intelligence is the intellectual prowess of which is marked by cognition, motivation, and self-awareness.[3] Through intelligence, living creatures possess the cognitive abilities to learn, form concepts, understand, apply logic, and reason, including the capacities to recognize patterns, comprehend ideas, plan, problem solve, make decisions, retaining, and use language to communicate. Intelligence enables living creatures to experience and think.
    • A type of mental process – something that individuals can do with their minds. Mental processes include perception, memory, thinking, volition, and emotion. Sometimes the term cognitive function is used instead.
  • Thought as a biological adaptation mechanism[4]

Types of thoughts[edit]

Content of thoughts[edit]

Types of thought (thinking)[edit]

Listed below are types of thought, also known as thinking processes.

Animal thought[edit]

Human thought[edit]

Human thought

Classifications of thought[edit]

Creative processes[edit]

Decision-making[edit]

Erroneous thinking[edit]

Emotional intelligence (emotionally based thinking)[edit]

Emotional intelligence

Problem solving[edit]

Problem solving

Reasoning[edit]

Reasoning

Machine thought[edit]

Organizational thought[edit]

Organizational thought (thinking by organizations)

Aspects of the thinker[edit]

Aspects of the thinker which may affect (help or hamper) his or her thinking:

Properties of thought[edit]

Fields that study thought[edit]

Thought tools and thought research[edit]

History of thinking[edit]

History of reasoning

Nootropics (cognitive enhancers and smart drugs)[edit]

Nootropic

Substances that improve mental performance:

Organizational thinking concepts[edit]

Teaching methods and skills[edit]

Awards related to thinking[edit]

Awards for acts of genius[edit]

Organizations[edit]

Media[edit]

Publications[edit]

Books[edit]

Periodicals[edit]

Television programs[edit]

Persons associated with thinking[edit]

People notable for their extraordinary ability to think[edit]

Scientists in fields that study thought[edit]

Scholars of thinking[edit]

Related concepts[edit]

Awareness and perception[edit]

Learning and memory[edit]

See also[edit]

Miscellaneous
Thinking
Lists

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dictionary.com, "mind": "1. (in a human or other conscious being) the element, part, substance, or process that reasons, thinks, feels, wills, perceives, judges, etc.: the processes of the mind. 2. Psychology. the totality of conscious and unconscious mental processes and activities. 3. intellect or understanding, as distinguished from the faculties of feeling and willing; intelligence."
  2. ^ Google definition, "mind": "The element of a person that enables them to be aware of the world and their experiences, to think, and to feel; the faculty of consciousness." [1]
  3. ^ Tirri, Nokelainen. Measuring Multiple Intelligences and Moral Sensitivities in Education. Springer. ISBN 978-94-6091-758-5. 
  4. ^ Danko Nikolić (2014). "Practopoiesis: Or how life fosters a mind. arXiv:1402.5332 [q-bio.NC].". 
  5. ^ "Definition of: Moral Reasoning". Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  6. ^ "Dictionary Search › proportional reasoning - Quizlet". 
  7. ^ "History of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy". National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists. Retrieved March 8, 2011. 

External links[edit]