India Defence League
It grew from the parliamentary India Defence Committee and was founded with the support of 10 Privy Councillors, 28 peers, 57 MPs, 2 former Governors and 3 former Lieutenant-Governors of Indian provinces and including members of the armed forces and the judiciary. Viscount Sumner was its Honorary President, with Lord Carson, Rudyard Kipling, Winston Churchill, Sir Henry Page-Croft, the Marquess of Hartington, and Viscount FitzAlan holding the Vice-Presidencies. It eventually had over 100 peers as members.
- Graham Stewart, Burying Caesar. Churchill, Chamberlain and the Battle for the Tory Party (Phoenix, 1999), p. 164.
- Stewart, p. 164.
- Stewart, p. 183.
- Maurice Cowling, The Impact of Hitler. British Politics and British Policy. 1933–1940 (Chicago University Press, 1977), p. 247.