Indian Gorkhas (Nepali: भारतीय गोर्खा, Bharatiya Gorkha) also known as Nepali-Indian (Nepali: नेपाली भारतीय) are Nepali language-speaking Indians. The term "Indian Gorkha" is used to differentiate the Gorkhas of India from the Gurkhas of Nepal.
Indian Gorkhas are citizens of India as per the gazette notification of the Government of India on the issue of citizenship of the Gorkhas of India. However, the Indian Gorkhas are faced with a unique identity crisis with regard to their Indian citizenship because of the Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship (1950) that permits "on a reciprocal basis, the nationals of one country in the territories of the other the same privileges in the matter of residence, ownership of property, participation in trade and commerce, movement and other privileges of a similar nature". Thus, there are also many Nepalese citizens of Nepal living in India. Therefore, the Nepali-speaking Indian citizens are mistakenly identified as Nepalese citizens.[dead link]
- 1 Ethnicities and castes
- 2 Population
- 3 Notable persons
- 4 See also
- 5 References
Ethnicities and castes
The Indian Gorkhas are a mixture of castes and tribal-ethnic clans. The caste groups include the Khas-Parbatiyas including Bahun (Brahmins), Chhetri, Kami, Damai, Sarki, etc. There is a considerable presence of Newar (Pradhan). Gurung, Magar, Tamang, Thami, Bhujel (Khawas), Rai (Khambu), Limbu (Subba), Sunuwar (Mukhia), Yakkha (Dewan), Sherpa, and Yolmo ethnic groups. Although each of them have their own language (belonging to the Tibeto-Burman or Indo-Aryan languages), the lingua franca among the Gorkhas is the Nepali language with its script in Devnagari, is one of the official languages of India.
As per the 2011 Census, a total of 2,926,168 people in India spoke Nepali as mother tongue. The largest populations can be found in West Bengal - 1,155,375 (+12.97% from 2001 Census), Assam - 596,210 (+5.56%), Uttarakhand - 106,399 (+16.86%), Sikkim - 382,200 (+12.87%), Arunachal Pradesh - 95,317 (+00.42%), HP - 89,508 (+27.37%), Maharashtra - 75,683 (+19.22%), Meghalaya - 54,716 (+4.91%), Manipur - 63,756 (+38.61%), Nagaland - 43,481 (+27.06%), and Mizoram - 8,994 (+0.51%). Apart from this, there are additional speakers of languages such as Limbu (40,835), Rai (15,644), Sherpa (16,012) and Tamang (20,154). So the combined strength of Nepali and the other four Gorkha languages comes to 3,018,813.
As per the 2001 Census, a total of 2,871,749 people in India spoke Nepali as mother tongue. As per the 1991 Census, this figure was 2,076,645. The largest populations can be found in West Bengal - 1,022,725 (+18.87% from 1991 Census), Assam - 564,790 (+30.58%), UP / Uttarakhand - 355,029 (+255.53%), Sikkim - 338,606 (+32.05%), Arunachal Pradesh - 94,919 (+16.93%), HP - 70,272 (+50.64%), Maharashtra - 63,480 (+59.69%), Meghalaya - 52,155 (+6.04%), Manipur - 45,998 (-1.08%), Nagaland - 34,222 (+6.04%), and Mizoram - 8,948 (+8.50%).
As per the 2001 Census, districts with the largest Nepali populations are West Kameng - 13,580 (18.2% of the total population) Lohit - 22,200 (15.77%), and Dibang Valley - 15,452 (26.77%). Tehsils with the largest proportion of Nepalis are Koronu (55.35%), Kibithoo (50.68%), Sunpura (42.28%), Vijoynagar (42.13%), and Roing (32.39%).
As per the 2011 Census, districts with the largest Nepali populations are West Kameng - 14,333 (17.1% of the total population) Lohit - 22,988 (13.77%), and Dibang Valley - 14,271 (22.99%). Tehsils with the largest proportion of Nepalis are Koronu (48.49%), Kibithoo (6.5%), Sunpura (34.47%), Vijoynagar (41.8%), and Roing (26.0%).
As per the 2001 Census, districts with the largest Nepali populations are Sonitpur - 131,261 (7.81% of the total population) Tinsukia - 87,850 (7.64%), and Karbi Anglong - 46,871 (5.76%). Tehsils with the largest proportion of Nepalis are Sadiya (27.51%), Na Duar (16.39%), Helem (15.43%), Margherita (13.10%), and Umrangso (12.37%).
As per the 2011 Census, districts with the largest Nepali populations are Sonitpur - 135,525 (7.04% of the total population) Tinsukia - 99,812 (7.52%), and Karbi Anglong - 51,496 (5.38%). Tehsils with the largest proportion of Nepalis are Sadiya (26.2%), Na Duar (14.88%), Helem (14.35%), Margherita (13.47%), and Umrangso (12.46%).
As per the 2001 Census, there are a total of 1,034,038 Nepalis in WB, of which 1,022,725 are speakers of the Nepali language and 11,313 are speakers of languages such as Tamang and Sherpa. districts with the largest Nepali populations are Darjeeling - 748,023 (46.48% of the total population) and Jalpaiguri - 234,500 (6.99%). About 7.56% of the Nepalis were Dalit, belonging to castes such as Kami and Sarki (population of 78,202 in 2001). The two tribes classified as Scheduled Tribe (Limbu and Tamang) constituted 16% of the Nepali population according to the census. The remaining 76% belonged to general category.
As per the 2011 Census, there were a total of 1,161,807 speakers of various Nepalese languages. Out of this 7.24% was Dalit (84,110) and 16.62% (193,050) were tribal Tamang/Limbu. Remaining 76.14% were General category.
As per the 2011 Census, there were a total of 453,819 speakers of various Nepalese languages (Nepali - 382,200, Limbu - 38,733, Sherpa - 13,681, Tamang - 11,734 and Rai - 7,471). Out of this, 20.14% (91,399) were tribal Limbu/Tamang, 6.23% (28,275) were Dalit and 73.63% were General category.
According to the census, there are a total of 53,703 Limbu and 37,696 Tamang in Sikkim, of whom a majority speak the Nepali language as their mother tongue. Also, small numbers of Bhotia and Lepcha also speak the Nepali language as their mother tongue. As per the 2011 Census, there were a total of 69,598 Bhotia in Sikkim (including Sherpa, Tibetan.etc), but only 58,355 were speaking languages such as Sikkimese and Sherpa. Out of the 42,909 Lepcha there were only 38,313 speakers for the Lepcha language.
As per the 2011 census, Tehsils with the largest proportion of Nepalis are Sadar Hills West (33.0%), Saitu-Gamphazol (9.54%), and Lamshang (10.85%). Districts with the largest Nepali population are Senapati - 39,039 (8.15%), Imphal West - 10,391 (2.01%) and Imphal East - 6,903 (1.51%).
This is how the previous censuses counted the number of Nepali speakers in Manipur:
- 1961 Census: 13,571
- 1971 Census: 26,381
- 1981 Census: 37,046
- 1991 Census: 46,500
- 2001 Census: 45,998 (*)
- 2011 Census: 63,756
Gorkha population is mostly concentrated in the districts of East Khasi Hills (37,000 or 4.48%) and Ribhoi (10,524 or 4.07%). Tehsils with the largest concentration include Myliem (8.18%) and Umling (6.72%).
Among the cities, the highest concentration of Nepali speakers can be found in Shillong Cantonment (29.98%), Shillong (9.83%), Pynthormukhrah (7.02%), Nongmynsong (26.67%), Madanriting (17.83%), and Nongkseh (14.20%).
Most of the Nepali speaking population are found in the districts of Dimapur (21,596 or 5.70%) and Kohima (9,812 or 3.66%). Tehsils with the largest concentration are Naginimora (7.48%), Merangmen (6.78%), Niuland (6.48%), Kuhoboto (7.04%), Chumukedima (7.07%), Dhansiripar (6.09%), Medziphema (9.11%), Namsang (8.81%), Kohima Sadar (6.27%), Sechu-Zubza (5.03%), and Pedi (7.61%).
- Aditya Narayan – Indian Television Host & Actor son of Nepali singer Udit Narayan and Deepa Narayan who hails from Nepal and Darjeeling
- Bhumika Gurung - Television Actress and Model
- Geetanjali Thapa – Bollywood actress (National Film Award for Best Actress recipient 2013)
- Mala Sinha – Indian Bollywood actress in Nepali and Bengali cinemas
- Pratibha Sinha – Bollywood Indian actress (daughter of actress Mala Sinha and Nepali actor C.P. Lohani)
- Rewati Chetri - Model and actress
- Shivani Giri - Nepalese Model and actress from Sikkim
- Major Durga Malla – Indian Freedom Fighter
- Captain Ram Singh Thakuri – Indian Freedom Fighter
- Lieutenant-Colonel Dhan Singh Thapa – Param Vir Chakra recipient
- Brigadier Sher Jung Thapa (Hero of Skardu) Mahavir Chakra recipient who saved Leh-Ladakh in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
- Trilochan Pokhrel – Indian freedom fighter
- Brijesh Thapa - Dag Hammarskjöld Medal (posthumous award given by the United Nations)
- Lt General Ram Singh Pradhan, AVSM,SM,VSM. Para Special Forces.
- Lieutenant General Shakti Gurung, UYSM, AVSM, VSMA
- Hira Devi Waiba - Pioneer of Nepali folk songs, singer
- Navneet Aditya Waiba - Folk singer
- Aruna Lama - Nepali Singer from Darjeeling
- Gopal Yonzon - Singer, musician, playwrighter
- Karma Yonzon - Composer, singer, producer
- Shanti Thatal - Composer, singer, producer
- Bipul Chettri - Singer, composer
- Louis Banks - Jazz musician
- Prashant Tamang - Singer, actor, winner of Indian Idol Season 3
- Ranjit Gazmer - Bollywood film musician
- Adrian Pradhan - Singer, songwriter, guitarist. Former 1974 AD member of Nepal
- Phiroj Shyangden - Singer, songwriter, guitarist. Former founding member 1974 AD Band of Nepal
- Shekinah Mukhiya - singer Finalist of reality show Voice India Kids from DehradunCol.Brown Cambridge school.
Tenzing Sherpa ( Mountainer Everester) Dhansingh Thapa ( Hockey) Ganu Giri Boxing
- Shiva Thapa - Boxer (youngest Indian boxer to qualify for the Olympic Games)
- Shyam Thapa - footballer
- Ashish Chettri - footballer
- Anirudh Thapa- footballer
- Bijendra Rai - footballer
- Israil Gurung - footballer
- Lalit Thapa - goalkeeper
- Kamal Thapa - footballer
- Mobin Rai - footballer
- Nagen Tamang - footballer
- Nirmal Chettri – footballer
- Nim Lepcha - footballer
- Nima Tamang - footballer
- Robin Gurung - footballer
- Sanju Pradhan – footballer, Mumbai City FC
- Sunil Chhetri – Captain of the Indian Football team (Arjuna Award recipient 2011)
- Vinit Rai - footballer
- Uttam Rai - footballer
- Baichung Bhutia - footballer. Former Indian Captain
* Bharat Chettri – Hockey player (former captain of Indian hockey team)
- Dhansingh Thapa
- Indra Bahadur Rai – Nepali writer and literary critic from Darjeeling, India.
- Hari Prasad Gorkha Rai
- Kumar Pradhan
- Lil Bahadur Chettri
- Prajwal Parajuly – English language writer and novelist
- Ganga Prasad Pradhan - Translator of the Nepali Bible, co-author of an English-Nepali dictionary, author of children's textbooks.
- Ramlal Adhikari - Former head of Nepali deptartment. Darjeeling Government College - conferred with Sahitya Academy Year-2000
- Manprasad Subba -1998 Poet Sahitya Academy receiver
- Parijat real name Bishnu Kumari Waiba - Original writer of The Blue Mimosa Birthplace Darjeeling
- Indra Sundas - Writer, poet, literary critic and translator of several Bengal Books into Nepali - Sahitya Academy Birthplace Kurseong
- Chobilal Upadhyaya - first president of the Assam Pradesh Congress Committee
- B. B. Gurung - third Chief Minister of Sikkim.
- Bimal Gurung- Leader of Gorkha Janmukti Morcha (GJM)
- Damber Singh Gurung – Indian Gorkha representative in the Constituent Assembly of India
- Dawa Narbula – Member of the Indian National Congress (INC), former Member of Parliament
- Madan Tamang –Former President of Akhil Bharatiya Gorkha League (ABGL)
- Moni Kumar Subba - Member of INC , Assam
- Nar Bahadur Bhandari – Former Chief Minister of Sikkim
- Ram Prasad Sharma - MP of Tezpur
- Pawan Kumar Chamling – Chief Minister of Sikkim
- Prasanta Pradhan - CPI(M) Leader
- Prem Das Rai – Member of Parliament
- Subhash Ghisingh - Founder of Gorkhaland Movement in India and founder of political party GNLF
- Binay Tamang - Chairman of Gorkhaland Territorial Administration
- George Mahabert Subba - First MLA of Siliguri
- Dil Kumari Bhandari - former and first women member of parliament from Sikkim. Wife of former Chief Minister of Sikkim Narbahadur Bhandari. Birthplace Darjeeling
- Shanta Chhetri– Member of Parliament
- India and Nepal. Treaty of Peace and Friendship. Signed at Kathmandu, on 31 July 1950. untreaty.un.org
- "Gorkhaland: Gazette Notification on the Issue of Citizenship of Gorkhas". Gorkhaland. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
- http://www.darjeelingtimes.com/opinions/political/5163-flawed-media-reporting-hurts-gorkha-community-.html ‘Flawed’ media reporting hurts Gorkha community
- Barun Roy (2012). Gorkhas and Gorkhaland. Darjeeling, India: Parbati Roy Foundation. Archived from the original on 2013-01-10.