Indian Gorkha

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Indian Gorkhas (Nepali: भारतीय गोर्खा, Bharatiya Gorkha) also known as Nepali-Indian (Nepali: नेपाली भारतीय) are Nepali language-speaking Indian citizens. The term "Indian Gorkha" is used to differentiate the Gorkhas of India from the Gurkhas of Nepal.[1]

Gorkhas=Indian Born Citizens

Nepalese=Nepal Born Citizens

Indian Gorkhas are citizens of India as per the gazette notification of the Government of India on the issue of citizenship of the Gorkhas of India.[2] However, the Indian Gorkhas are faced with a unique identity crisis with regard to their Indian citizenship because of the Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship (1950) that permits "on a reciprocal basis, the nationals of one country in the territories of the other the same privileges in the matter of residence, ownership of property, participation in trade and commerce, movement and other privileges of a similar nature". Thus, there are also many Nepalese citizens of Nepal living in India. Therefore, the Nepali-speaking Indian citizens are mistakenly identified as Nepalese citizens.[3][dead link]

Ethnicities and castes[edit]

The Indian Gorkhas are a mixture of castes and tribal-ethnic clans. The caste groups include the Khas-Parbatiyas including Bahun (Brahmins), Chhetri, Kami, Damai, Sarki, etc. There is a considerable presence of Newar (Pradhan), Gurung, Magar, Tamang, Thami, Bhujel (Khawas), Rai (Khambu), Limbu (Subba), Sunuwar (Mukhia), Yakkha (Dewan), Sherpa, and Yolmo ethnic groups.[4] Although each of them have their own language (belonging to the Tibeto-Burman or Indo-Aryan languages), the lingua franca among the Gorkhas is the Nepali language with its script in Devnagari, is one of the official languages of India.

Population[edit]

As per the 2011 Census, a total of 2,926,168 people in India spoke Nepali as mother tongue. The largest populations can be found in West Bengal - 1,155,375 (+12.97% from 2001 Census), Assam - 596,210 (+5.56%), Uttarakhand - 106,399 (+16.86%), Sikkim - 382,200 (+12.87%), Arunachal Pradesh - 95,317 (+00.42%), HP - 89,508 (+27.37%), Maharashtra - 75,683 (+19.22%), Meghalaya - 54,716 (+4.91%), Manipur - 63,756 (+38.61%), Nagaland - 43,481 (+27.06%), and Mizoram - 8,994 (+0.51%)[5]. Apart from this, there are additional speakers of languages such as Limbu (40,835), Rai (15,644), Sherpa (16,012) and Tamang (20,154). So the combined strength of Nepali and the other four Gorkha languages comes to 3,018,813[6].

As per the 2001 Census, a total of 2,871,749 people in India spoke Nepali as mother tongue. As per the 1991 Census, this figure was 2,076,645. The largest populations can be found in West Bengal - 1,022,725 (+18.87% from 1991 Census), Assam - 564,790 (+30.58%), Uttarakhand - 355,029 (+255.53%), Sikkim - 338,606 (+32.05%), Arunachal Pradesh - 94,919 (+16.93%), HP - 70,272 (+50.64%), Maharashtra - 63,480 (+59.69%), Meghalaya - 52,155 (+6.04%), Manipur - 45,998 (-1.08%), Nagaland - 34,222 (+6.04%), and Mizoram - 8,948 (+8.50%).

Arunachal Pradesh[edit]

As per the 2001 Census, districts with the largest Gorkha populations are West Kameng - 13,580 (18.2% of the total population) Lohit - 22,200 (15.77%), and Dibang Valley - 15,452 (26.77%). Tehsils with the largest proportion of Gorkhas are Koronu (55.35%), Kibithoo (50.68%), Sunpura (42.28%), Vijoynagar (42.13%), and Roing (32.39%).

As per the 2011 Census, districts with the largest Gorkha populations are West Kameng - 14,333 (17.1% of the total population) Lohit - 22,988 (13.77%), and Dibang Valley - 14,271 (22.99%). Tehsils with the largest proportion of Nepalis are Koronu (48.49%), Kibithoo (6.5%), Sunpura (34.47%), Vijoynagar (41.8%), and Roing (26.0%).

Assam[edit]

During the 1991 Census, the districts with the largest concentrations were Sonitpur - 91,631 (6.43%), Tinsukia - 76,083 (7.91%), and Karbi Anglong - 37,710 (5.69%)[7].

As per the 2001 Census, districts with the largest Gorkha populations are Sonitpur - 131,261 (7.81% of the total population) Tinsukia - 87,850 (7.64%), and Karbi Anglong - 46,871 (5.76%). Tehsils with the largest proportion of Gorkhas are Sadiya (27.51%), Na Duar (16.39%), Helem (15.43%), Margherita (13.10%), and Umrangso (12.37%).

As per the 2011 Census, districts with the largest Gorkha populations are Sonitpur - 135,525 (7.04% of the total population) Tinsukia - 99,812 (7.52%), and Karbi Anglong - 51,496 (5.38%). Tehsils with the largest proportion of Gorkhas are Sadiya (26.2%), Na Duar (14.88%), Helem (14.35%), Margherita (13.47%), and Umrangso (12.46%).

This is how the previous censuses counted the number of Nepali speaking Gorkhas in Assam[8]:

  • 1901: 21,347 (0.35%)
  • 1911: 47,654 (0.67%)
  • 1921: 70,344 (0.94%)
  • 1931: 88,306 (1.02%)
  • 1951: 101,338 (1.26%)
  • 1961: 215,213 (1.98%)
  • 1971: 349,116 (2.38%)
  • 1991: 432,519 (1.93%)
  • 2001: 564,790 (2.12%)
  • 2011: 596,210 (1.91%) & 600,287 including the other four Gorkha languages.

West Bengal[edit]

As per the 2001 Census, there are a total of 1,034,038 Gorkhas in WB, of which 1,022,725 are speakers of the Nepali language and 11,313 are speakers of languages such as Tamang and Sherpa. districts with the largest Gorkha populations are Darjeeling - 748,023 (46.48% of the total population) and Jalpaiguri - 234,500 (6.99%). About 7.56% of the Nepalis were Dalit, belonging to castes such as Kami and Sarki (population of 78,202 in 2001). The two tribes classified as Scheduled Tribe (Limbu and Tamang) constituted 16% of the Gorkha population according to the census. The remaining 76% belonged to general category.

As per the 2011 Census, there were a total of 1,161,807 speakers of various Nepalese languages. Out of this 7.24% was Dalit (84,110) and 16.62% (193,050) were tribal Tamang/Limbu. Remaining 76.14% were General category.

Sikkim[edit]

As per the 2011 Census, there were a total of 453,819 speakers of various Nepalese languages (Nepali - 382,200, Limbu - 38,733, Sherpa - 13,681, Tamang - 11,734 and Rai - 7,471). Out of this, 20.14% (91,399) were tribal Limbu/Tamang, 6.23% (28,275) were Dalit and 73.63% were General category.

According to the census, there are a total of 53,703 Limbu and 37,696 Tamang in Sikkim, of whom a majority speak the Nepali language as their mother tongue. Also, small numbers of Bhotia and Lepcha also speak the Nepali language as their mother tongue. As per the 2011 Census, there were a total of 69,598 Bhotia in Sikkim (including Sherpa, Tibetan.etc), but only 58,355 were speaking languages such as Sikkimese and Sherpa. Out of the 42,909 Lepcha there were only 38,313 speakers for the Lepcha language.

Manipur[edit]

As per the 2011 census, Tehsils with the largest proportion of Gorkhali's are Sadar Hills West (33.0%), Saitu-Gamphazol (9.54%), and Lamshang (10.85%). Districts with the largest Gorkha population are Senapati - 39,039 (8.15%), Imphal West - 10,391 (2.01%) and Imphal East - 6,903 (1.51%).

This is how the previous censuses counted the number of Nepali language speakers in Manipur:

  • 1961 Census: 13,571
  • 1971 Census: 26,381
  • 1981 Census: 37,046
  • 1991 Census: 46,500
  • 2001 Census: 45,998 (*)
  • 2011 Census: 63,756

Meghalaya[edit]

Gorkha population is mostly concentrated in the districts of East Khasi Hills (37,000 or 4.48%) and Ribhoi (10,524 or 4.07%). Tehsils with the largest concentration include Myliem (8.18%) and Umling (6.72%).

Among the cities, the highest concentration of Nepali speakers can be found in Shillong Cantonment (29.98%), Shillong (9.83%), Pynthormukhrah (7.02%), Nongmynsong (26.67%), Madanriting (17.83%), and Nongkseh (14.20%).

This is how the previous censuses counted the number of Nepali speaker Gorkhas in Meghalaya[9]:

  • 1961: 32,288
  • 1971: 44,445
  • 1981: 61,259
  • 1991: 49,186
  • 2001: 52,155
  • 2011: 54,716

Nagaland[edit]

Most of the Gorkha population are found in the districts of Dimapur (21,596 or 5.70%) and Kohima (9,812 or 3.66%). Tehsils with the largest concentration are Naginimora (7.48%), Merangmen (6.78%), Niuland (6.48%), Kuhoboto (7.04%), Chumukedima (7.07%), Dhansiripar (6.09%), Medziphema (9.11%), Namsang (8.81%), Kohima Sadar (6.27%), Sechu-Zubza (5.03%), and Pedi (7.61%).

Forced displacement[edit]

Nepalis in India have faced violence and ethnic cleansing, especially in the north-eastern states. In 1967, more than 8,000 Nepalis were driven out of Mizoram, while more than 2,000 in Manipur met with the same fate in 1980. Tens of thousands of Nepalis were banished from Assam (in 1979) and Meghalaya (in 1987) by the local militia groups[10]. The biggest displacement occurred in Meghalaya, when the Khasi Students' Union (KSU) targeted Nepalis living in the eastern part of the state. More than 15,000 Nepalis were driven out (mostly to Nepal), while about 10,000 were reduced to living in subhuman life in the refugee camps of Shillong[11]. In 2010, there were riots between Khasis and the Gorkhas, which left several Gorkhas dead. One elderly Gorkha man was burnt alive[12].

Notable persons[edit]

Actors[edit]

Cinematographers[edit]

Military[edit]

  • Lieutenant General Shakti Gurung, UYSM, AVSM, VSMA

Musicians[edit]

Tenzing Sherpa ( Mountainer Everester) Dhansingh Thapa ( Hockey) Ganu Giri Boxing

Athletics[edit]

Kickboxing[edit]

Archery[edit]

Boxing[edit]

  • Shiva Thapa - Boxer (youngest Indian boxer to qualify for the Olympic Games)

Cricket[edit]

Football[edit]

Hockey[edit]

  • Bharat Chettri – Hockey player (former captain of Indian hockey team)
  • Dhansingh Thapa

Shooting[edit]

Writers[edit]

Politicians[edit]

Others[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ India and Nepal. Treaty of Peace and Friendship. Signed at Kathmandu, on 31 July 1950. untreaty.un.org
  2. ^ "Gorkhaland: Gazette Notification on the Issue of Citizenship of Gorkhas". Gorkhaland. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  3. ^ http://www.darjeelingtimes.com/opinions/political/5163-flawed-media-reporting-hurts-gorkha-community-.html ‘Flawed’ media reporting hurts Gorkha community
  4. ^ Barun Roy (2012). Gorkhas and Gorkhaland. Darjeeling, India: Parbati Roy Foundation. Archived from the original on 2013-01-10.
  5. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011Census/Language-2011/Part-A.pdf
  6. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011Census/Language-2011/Part-B.pdf
  7. ^ http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/43386/8/08_chapter%202.pdf
  8. ^ http://www.isca.in/LANGUAGE/Archive/v3/i3/4.ISCA-RJLLH-2016-012.pdf
  9. ^ http://amanpanchayat.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/PEI_meghalaya.pdf
  10. ^ https://books.google.co.in/books?id=58WkvXaaPbEC&pg=PA234
  11. ^ https://www.indiatoday.in/magazine/indiascope/story/19880215-nepalis-in-meghalaya-face-tribal-wrath-amid-official-apathy-796950-1988-02-15
  12. ^ https://blog.com.np/2010/06/08/khasi-nepali-ethnic-conflict-in-meghalaya-india/