IIT Bombay

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Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
भारतीय प्रौद्योगिकी संस्थान बॉम्बे
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Logo.svg
Motto in English
Knowledge is the Supreme Goal.[1]
TypePublic[2]
Established1958; 64 years ago (1958)
Budget3,822 crore (US$480 million)[3]
ChairmanAkhil Arya[4]
DirectorSubhasis Chaudhuri[5]
Academic staff
603[6]
Students10,775[6]
Undergraduates4,529[6]
Postgraduates2,936[6]
3,310[6]
Address
Adi Shankaracharya Marg
, ,
India

Coordinates: 19°08′01.09″N 72°54′55.29″E / 19.1336361°N 72.9153583°E / 19.1336361; 72.9153583
CampusUrban, 550 acres (220 ha)
Colours   Sky-blue & silver
Websitewww.iitb.ac.in
IITB2.png

The Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT Bombay or IITB) is an internationally acclaimed autonomous public research university and technical institute in Powai, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

IIT Bombay was founded in 1958.[7] In 1961, the Parliament decreed IITs as Institutes of National Importance.[8] A committee formed by the Government of India recommended the establishment of four higher institutes of technology to set the direction for the development of technical education in the country in 1946. Planning began in 1957 and the first batch of 100 students was admitted in 1958.[8] Since its establishment in Powai, the institute has physically expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 2.2 square kilometers.

IIT Bombay is considered as one of the foremost engineering universities in Asia, and as the most reputed and the most competitive institute in India to get into and has been the first-preferred destination of top rank holders in the science and engineering disciplines. It is known for its 4-year, 5-year & 2-year programmes for which the entrance is through the Joint Entrance Examinations (JEE), Joint Admission Test for Masters (JAM) and Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE). Degrees offered in the university include the four-year Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech.), the two- or three-year Master of Technology (M.Tech.), the four-year Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.), the two-year Master of Science (M.Sc.) and the five-year Inter-Disciplinary Dual-Degree Programme (IDDDP) among many others. It also has a comprehensive graduate program offering doctoral degrees in science, technology, engineering and mathematics.[8] It currently has a total of 15 academic departments, 20 additional education centres, a school of excellence and four interdisciplinary programmes including a management programme and industrial design programmes.[9]

History[edit]

IIT Bombay was the second Indian Institute of Technology to be established in 1958 with assistance from UNESCO and with funds contributed by the Soviet Union. UNESCO agreed to provide equipment and technical experts mainly from the Soviet Union, while the Government of India accepted the responsibility for all other expenses including the cost of the building project and recurring expenses. The site chosen for the institute was Powai with an area of 550 acres (2.2 km2) which was given by the then Bombay State Government. While construction was being completed, the first academic session of the Institute opened on 25 July 1958, in its temporary home at the Synthetic and Art Silk Mills Research Association (SASMIRA) building in Worli with 100 students. The following is the present position regarding the assistance received from UNESCO under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance:

  • Equipment costing Rs.57,35,000 has so far been received (USSR—Rs.55,50,000; UK—Rs.1,50,000; USA—Rs.18,000 and Germany—Rs.19,000)
  • 12 Progressors (10 Russians, 1 American and 1 Yugoslavian) and 3 Russians Translators are working at the Institution.
  • For advanced training in USSR, 4 Indian teachers were deputed in 1958 and 6 more teachers was selected.[10]

These students were selected from over 3,400 applicants for admission to the first year undergraduate engineering programmes of Aerospace, Chemical, Civil, Computer, Electrical, Engineering Physics, Energy, Mechanical, Metallurgical Engineering, and MSc Chemistry. One of the main objectives of establishing the institute was to develop facilities for studies in a variety of specialized engineering and technological sciences. The need for establishing adequate facilities for postgraduate studies and research was kept uppermost in mind in the founding years. While the institute was functioning provisionally at Worli, an effort was made to expedite the progress of the building project at its permanent location and Jawaharlal Nehru laid the foundation stone of the Institute at Powai on 10 March 1959.

On July 9, 2018, IIT Bombay was conferred the status of Institute of Eminence by the Ministry of Human Resources & Development, along with 5 other institutes in India which would provide it additional autonomy and government funds.[11][12]

Campus[edit]

The IIT Bombay campus, having an area of about 545 acres, is located at Powai, in East Mumbai, between the Vihar and Powai lakes. The campus is divided into clusters of buildings. The academic area chiefly comprises the main building, various departmental annexes and auditoria. All department annexes are connected by a corridor named Infinite Corridor. Beyond the Convocation Hall lie most of the hostels. There are a total of 18 hostels, of which two hostels (Hostels 10 and 11) and a wing of the newly constructed hostel (Hostel 15) are for female students.

Due to its proximity to the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, the campus has significant green cover and is mostly untouched by the pollution of the rest of the city. The proximity of the campus to the national park has also led to occasional sightings of leopards and mugger crocodiles along the banks of the Powai lake. Sometimes they stray into the campus in search of prey.[13]

The campus has also recorded over 200 species of birds including Indian grey hornbill, Indian pitta, Vigors's sunbird, Ashy prinia, Indian paradise flycatcher, Rufous woodpecker, Oriental darter.[14]

The institute has two swimming pools; football, hockey and cricket grounds; and tennis, basketball, squash and volleyball courts. It also has a Students' Activity Center (SAC) for various cultural and other extracurricular activities. In addition to these facilities, the campus also houses two high schools, one of which is a Kendriya Vidyalaya and the other is called IIT Campus School.

Olympic-size Swimming Pool at IIT Bombay
View from Boat House, Powai lake, IIT Bombay
Powai Lake
Sunset at Powai Lake
View of IIT Bombay Hostels
Main road during early morning

Organization and administration[edit]

Governance[edit]

At the institutional level, IIT Bombay is governed by a Board of Governors[15] with its Chairman nominated by the Visitor (the President of India) guided by the IIT Council; the Director as a member; the Registrar as secretary.[16] Besides this, there are four persons having specialized knowledge or practical experience in respect of education, engineering or science nominated by the council. Two professors are nominated by the Senate. Additionally, one technologist or industrialist of repute is nominated by the Government of each of the States of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.[17]

For all academic matters, the Senate is the authority having control and responsibility for the maintenance of standards of instruction, education and examinations and all other allied academic matters. The Senate is constituted of all the professors of the institute, a few nominated members and the Director, appointed by MHRD for a period of five years, the executive head of the institute is the chairman.

The key people in the execution of the institute's activities are the Director and two deputy directors (Academic & Infrastructural Affairs and Finance & External Affairs) who are assisted by seven Deans (Infrastructure Planning & Support, Research & Development, Academic Programmes, Students Affairs, Alumni & Corporate Relations, Faculty Affairs and International Relations) and the Heads of the Departments, Centres and Schools.[18] The other administrative functions are managed by the Registrar, with senior administrative officers being assigned for specific areas such as Estate Management, Materials Management, Personnel Management, Finance and Accounts, and Academic Affairs.

The Institute Advisory Council is a non-statutory body comprising eminent personalities from business, industry and academia, which reviews and makes suggestions on long-term policies and short-term goals.

Academic Office[edit]

The Academic Office of the Institute exists to facilitate, initiate and co-ordinate the academic work of the institute, particularly the teaching and assessment of students. It acts as the repository of grades and academic records of all students, both past and present. It provides administrative support to the Senate, which is the highest academic body of the institute.

The Head of the Academic Office is the Dean of Academic Programmes, who is a senior professor of the institute. The Dean is helped by a permanent administrative set-up headed by a Deputy Registrar (education). Academic Office closely interacts with the Dean of Student Affairs (DoSA), who looks after all non-academic problems of students. The DoSA, as the ex-officio President of the Student Gymkhana, coordinates various co-curricular activities of students.[19]

Departments, Centres, and Schools[edit]

Lecture hall complex

IIT Bombay has 15 departments, 36 multi-disciplinary centres, 3 school of excellence and 4 interdisciplinary programs.[20]

The academic departments in IIT Bombay include the following:

  1. Aerospace Engineering
  2. Biosciences and Bioengineering
  3. Chemical Engineering
  4. Chemistry
  5. Civil Engineering
  6. Computer Science & Engineering
  7. Earth Sciences
  8. Electrical Engineering
  9. Energy Science and Engineering
  10. Environmental Science and Engineering (ESED)
  11. Humanities & Social Science
  12. Mathematics
  13. Mechanical Engineering
  14. Metallurgical Engineering & Materials Science
  15. Physics

The following multi-disciplinary centres are located in IIT Bombay:

  • Application Software Centre (ASC)
  • Biomedical Engineering and Technology (Incubation) Centre (BETiC)
  • Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science (CRNTS)
  • Centre for Aerospace Systems Design and Engineering (CASDE)
  • Computer Centre (CC)
  • Centre for Computational Engineering and Science
  • Centre for Distance Engineering Education Programme (CDEEP)
  • Centre of Excellence in Nanoelectronics
  • Centre for Excellence in Steel Technology (CEST)
  • Centre of Excellence in Oil, Gas and Energy (CoE-OGE)
  • Ashank Desai Centre for Policy Studies (CPS)
  • Centre for Machine Intelligence and Data Science (C-MInDS)
  • Centre of Studies in Resources Engineering (CSRE)
  • Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas (CTARA)
  • Centre for Formal Design and Verification of Software (CFDVS)
  • Centre of Propulsion Technology (CoPT)
  • Centre for Urban Science and Engineering (C-USE)
  • Centre for Liberal Education (CLE)
  • Forbes Marshall Energy Efficiency Laboratory
  • Geospatial Information Science and Engineering
  • IITB-Monash Research Academy
  • Koita Centre for Digital Health (KCDH)
  • National Centre for Aerospace Innovation and Research (NCAIR)
  • National Centre of Excellence in Carbon Capture and Utilization (NCoE-CCU)
  • National Center of Excellence in Technology for Internal Security (NCETIS)
  • National Centre for Mathematics (NCM)
  • National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE)
  • National Mission on Education Through ICT
  • National Solar Thermal Research, Testing and Simulation Technology
  • Parimal and Pramod Chaudhari Centre for Learning and Teaching (PPCCLT)
  • Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility (SAIF)
  • Tata Centre for Technology and Design (TCTD)
  • Tata Teleservices - IITB Centre for Excellence in Telecommunication
  • Technocraft Centre for Applied Artificial Intelligence (TCAAI)
  • Wadhwani Research Centre for Bioengineering (WRCB)
  • Water Innovation Centre: Technology, Research and Education

Additional Centre:

  • IITB-WashU Aerosol and Air Quality Research Center

Schools of excellence in IIT Bombay are:

In addition to the above, IIT Bombay also offers Inter-disciplinary programmes:

  • Climate Studies
  • Educational Technology
  • Industrial Engineering and Operations Research (IEOR)
  • Systems and Control Engineering

Academics[edit]

Programmes[edit]

IIT Bombay offers a wide range of educational programmes[21] include Physical sciences, Engineering, Designs, Humanities and Social sciences such as Economics, English, Philosophy, Psychology and Sociology and Management studies with a primary focus on engineering.[22] Over the years, the institute has also created a niche for its innovative short-term courses through continuing education and distance education programmes.[23] The university is a member of Links to Asia by Organizing Traineeship and Student Exchange (LAOTSE), an international network of leading universities in Europe and Asia exchanging students and senior scholars.

The institute conducts educational programmes leading to the degree of Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech.), Bachelor of Sciences (B.S.), Dual Degree (B.Tech. and M.Tech. in 5 years), Master of Science (MSc.), Master of Technology (M.Tech.), Bachelor of Design (B.Des.), Master of Design (M.Des.), Master of Business Administration (MBA), formerly Master of Management, Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD.) in various subject domains.

Every year, IIT Bombay awards degrees, B.Tech., M.Tech., Dual Degree (B.Tech. and M.Tech.), M.Mgmt, MSc and Ph.D. to more than 1,000 students. The undergraduate students at IIT Bombay are selected through the Joint Entrance Examination of the IITs. The graduate students are selected through Joint Admission Test for Masters (JAM) and Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) conducted by IIT's and IISc on behalf of MHRD [Ministry of Human Resource Development]. At a given time, the campus is home to more than 6,000 people: students, professors, and non-academic staffs.

In 2015 the National Virtual Academy for Indian Agriculture launched a free online agriculture course in collaboration with ICRISAT Hyderabad and IIT Bombay.[24] From July 2016, IIT Bombay is planning to offer a four-year undergraduate programme in economics.[25]

In April 2015, IIT Bombay launched the first U.S.-India joint EMBA program alongside Washington University in St. Louis.[26]

Rankings[edit]

Academic rankings
General – international
QS (World) (2022)[27]177
QS (Asia) (2022)[28]42
General – India
NIRF (Overall) (2021)[29]3
Engineering – India
NIRF (2021)[30]3
Business/Management – India
NIRF (2021)[31]10

IIT Bombay has been consistently ranked as the number 1 University in India by the Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) world university ranking. It has ranked on 42nd position among the top 700 Universities in Asia category by the QS Asia Ranking 2022,[28] and ranked on 177th in QS World University Rankings in 2022.[27]

The National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) ranked it third among engineering colleges in 2021[30] and third overall.[29] NIRF also ranked it tenth in India in the management ranking.[31]

Development activities[edit]

The Shailesh J. Mehta School of Management (SJMSOM)

Faculty members from IIT Bombay undertake industry-sponsored research and consultancy projects that are made available through the institute. These are funded by various national agencies like the Department of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Department of Space, Aeronautical Development Agency, Department of Atomic Energy, and Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC). Many are also working on projects of national importance. A few projects are also being funded by international agencies. Typically in one year, there are about 400 on-going sponsored projects. The sponsored research has ushered in intense research activity leading to the formation of active research groups and has helped in the creation of modern research facilities in key areas.[32]

The office of the Dean (R&D) provides the necessary liaison with industry and sponsoring agencies. The office helps industry to identify faculty expertise and institutional facilities, and assists faculty in identifying industry problems.[33]


There are also a number of central facilities such as the Central Library, Central Workshop, and Printing Press. Many new research facilities have been acquired or developed in the last few years. One of the most important of them is the Computer Centre which started functioning in 1986 with facilities which have been continuously updated. The Computer Aided Design Centre with its own minicomputers and workstations, supplemented by additional computing facilities, caters to CAD activity in Chemical Engineering and Metallurgical Engineering. Research groups like VLSI Design, CAD/CAM also have computing facilities which are accessible to other departments for development activities. Recently, work on developing medical implants has been initiated. The OrthoCAD Network Research Cell was established in 2007 to jump-start indigenous research and development activities in orthopedic reconstruction systems. Important experimental facilities set up by various departments include laboratories for robotics, biotechnology, microelectronics, microprocessor applications, telematics, remote sensing, low-temperature physics, and aerodynamics. Earlier IIT Bombay announced the online classes for the batch 2020-21 from August 10. A fund raising campaign was launched in order to help the students in need. The batch of 1994 of IIT Bombay donated Rs. 1.25 crores to help the students and provide them with laptops and internet connections which will be helpful for the online classes. The director of IIT Bombay thanked the alumni members for their constant support towards their college.[34]

Student life[edit]

Cultural and non-academic activities[edit]

The annual Science & Technology festival of IIT Bombay, Techfest,[35] which was started in 1998,[36] is held in the month of December every year and is Asia's largest Science and Technology festival.[37]

NCC at IIT Bombay during Republic Day parade
Sign board near the NCC office

The Entrepreneurship Cell of IIT Bombay (also known as E-Cell, IITB), started in 1998,[38] organizes several activities throughout the year in order to promote entrepreneurship. Eureka! is Asia's largest business model competition conducted by E-Cell, IITB and receives participation from more than 12,500 startups.[39] E-Summit is a two-day entrepreneurship conclave organized in the campus of IIT Bombay by E-Cell to bring together all the stakeholders of the entrepreneurship ecosystem.[40]

The annual cultural festival Mood Indigo,[41] usually held in the month of December is an event hosted by the student body and is the Asia's largest college cultural festival.[42] The most attractive feature of this 4-day event are the influential personalities who have graced the festival like R D Burman, Aamir Khan, Sir Mark Tully, Sachin Tendulkar, Porcupine Tree,[43] Simple Plan,[44] Mike Portnoy[45] and many more.

These college festivals are organised, financially managed and conducted entirely by the students of this institute. All these festivals and organisations are sponsored by private enterprise.[46][41]

Abhyuday, the social body of IIT Bombay also hosts one of its kind two-day social fest started in 2013 to provide a link between the real-life problems faced by the people to the students who wish to bring about a change society. The two-day fest is home to Action Plan - a social entrepreneurship competition, movie screenings, workshops and events on varied social issues. Many eminent personalities and social workers like Sonam Wangchuk, Dia Mirza, Ashish Vidyarthi, Tukaram Munde and such have graced the social fest since its start.[47]

Apart from these festivals, various other engineering streams based festivals are also being organised to motivate students towards Science and Technology. These include Radiance (Mechanical Engineering), Zephyr (Aerospace Engineering), AZeotropy[48] (Chemical Engineering), Padarth(Metallurgy and Material Science Engineering), Aavriti (Electrical Engineering) and recently, Aakaar (Civil Engineering).

The institute has music clubs "Symphony" and "Roots" which pertain to western and Indian music respectively. It also has an LGBT alliance club called "Saathi".[49][50] The institute has an active NCC unit, the 2 Maharashtra Engineer Regiment[51] which is an attachment of the Bombay Sappers.

IIT Bombay's Diamond Jubilee was held in 2018, with Prime Minister Narendra Modi attending as the chief guest of the convocation function.[52]

Notable alumni and faculty members[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Official Facebook Page". IIT Bombay.
  2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2020. Retrieved 28 September 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "IITB Annual Report 20-21" (PDF). IIT Bombay. pp. 147–150.
  4. ^ "Board of Governors". IIT Bombay.
  5. ^ "Welcome To The New Director Of IIT Bombay Prof. Subhasis Chaudhuri". IIT Bombay. IIT Bombay. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d e "NIRF 2021" (PDF). Ministry of Education.
  7. ^ "How was IIT Bombay set up". IIT Bombay. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  8. ^ a b c "The Growth of an Institute for Higher Technological Education". IIT Bombay. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  9. ^ "IIT Bombay fee hike: Students' protests intensify; cite move as 'unfair'". 22 July 2022. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  10. ^ https://eparlib.nic.in/bitstream/123456789/1769/1/lsd_02_08_10-08-1959.pdf page 47
  11. ^ "IIT Bombay Declared As Institute of Eminence". IIT Bombay. 10 July 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  12. ^ "Government declares 6 educational 'Institutions of Eminence' ; 3 Institutions from Public Sector and 3 from Private Sector shortlisted". pib.gov.in (Press release). Ministry of Human Resource Development. 9 July 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  13. ^ "After 4 days of manhunt, leopard leaves IIT Bombay Campus". news.biharprabha.com. IANS. 26 July 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
  14. ^ "Illustrated Checklist - IIT Bombay, Mumbai Suburban County, MH, IN - eBird Hotspot". ebird.org. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  15. ^ "Board of Governors | IIT Bombay". www.iitb.ac.in. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  16. ^ "Statutes of IIT Bombay | IIT Bombay". www.iitb.ac.in. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  17. ^ "Institute Functionaries | IIT Bombay". www.iitb.ac.in. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  18. ^ "Division Functionaries | IIT Bombay". www.iitb.ac.in. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  19. ^ "Student Affairs Office | IIT Bombay". www.iitb.ac.in. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  20. ^ "Academic Divisions". Academic Divisions IIT Bombay. IIT Bombay.
  21. ^ "IIT BOMBAY - INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, MUMBAI [ IIT ]". Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  22. ^ "Present departments". IIT Bombay. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  23. ^ "The Institute grow at first hand". IIT Bombay. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  24. ^ Akbar, Syed (19 November 2015). "ICRISAT, IIT Bombay launches free online agriculture course". The Times of India. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  25. ^ Pathak, Kalpana (26 December 2015). "IIT Bombay to start Bachelor's prog in economics". Business Standard India.
  26. ^ Source, | The (23 April 2015). "First U.S.-India joint EMBA program begins". Global. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  27. ^ a b "QS World University Rankings 2022". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2021. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  28. ^ a b "QS Asia University Rankings 2022". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2021.
  29. ^ a b "National Institutional Ranking Framework 2021 (Overall)". National Institutional Ranking Framework. Ministry of Education. 9 September 2021.
  30. ^ a b "National Institutional Ranking Framework 2021 (Engineering)". National Institutional Ranking Framework. Ministry of Education. 9 September 2021.
  31. ^ a b "National Institutional Ranking Framework 2021 (Management)". National Institutional Ranking Framework. Ministry of Education. 9 September 2021.
  32. ^ "iitb.ac.in | IIT Bombay". iitb.ac.in. Archived from the original on 20 July 2009.
  33. ^ "iitb.ac.in | IIT Bombay". iitb.ac.in.
  34. ^ "Education News: IIT Bombay Alumni from 1994 Batch Donate Rs 1.25 Crore for Online Classes".
  35. ^ "Techfest Website".
  36. ^ "Article Window". epaper.timesofindia.com.
  37. ^ Saigal, Sonam Rakesh (27 December 2015). "Aisa's largest science and tech festival". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  38. ^ Release, ANI Press (13 October 2021). "Eureka! - E-Cell IIT Bombay's B-model competition hunts for the next unicorn". www.business-standard.com. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  39. ^ "Eureka 2021 | Asia's Largest Business Model Competition". www.nostops.org. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  40. ^ "About | E-Cell IIT Bombay". www.ecell.in. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  41. ^ a b "Mood Indigo IIT Bombay". moodi.org.
  42. ^ Correspondent, dna (18 December 2015). "Asia's largest college cultural fest "Mood Indigo" starts today". DNA India.
  43. ^ NH7. "Porcupine Tree to Play at Mood Indigo 09".
  44. ^ "Simple Plan To Headline Mood Indigo -". 9 October 2012.
  45. ^ "Neal Morse Band and Mike Portnoy to Play IIT Mood Indigo 2013 -". 30 August 2013.
  46. ^ "Techfest-Sponsors". Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  47. ^ "Abhyuday, IIT Bombay Organizing Annual Socio-Weekend Social Body addresses social issues in weekend of activities". The Statesman. 22 January 2022. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  48. ^ TOI. "Award at IIT fest". The Times of India.
  49. ^ Basu, Mihika (4 August 2011). "At IIT-Bombay, LGBTs now have a Saathi". Mumbai. The Indian Express. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  50. ^ "On IIT-B campus, you can be gay and happy". The Times of India. Mumbai. Times of India. 4 August 2011. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  51. ^ "National Cadet Corps IITB". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  52. ^ "Narendra Modi at IIT Bombay: PM announces Rs 1000 cr financial aid for institute, hails Indian start-ups for innovation". The Financial Express. 11 August 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2019.

External links[edit]