|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2015)|
|Indian Muntjac taken in Nagarahole Forest|
|Indian muntjac range|
It has soft, short, brownish or greyish hair, sometimes with creamy markings. This species is omnivorous, feeding on grass,fruits, shoots, seeds, birds' eggs as well as small animals. It sometimes displays even scavenging behavior, feeding on carrion. It gives calls similar to barking, usually upon sensing a predator (hence the common name for all muntjacs of barking deer).
The male Indian muntjac has small, unbranched antlers which grow to about 15 centimeters (5.9 in) in length. The antlers grow annually from a bony stalk on the top of the head. Males are extremely territorial and—despite their diminutive size—can be quite fierce. They will fight each other for territory using their antlers or their (more dangerous) tusk-like upper canine teeth, and can even defend themselves against certain predators such as dogs.
|This section does not cite any references (sources). (October 2015)|
The Indian muntjac has a short but very soft, thick, dense coat, especially those living in cooler regions. Coloration of the coat changes from dark brown to yellowish and grayish brown depending on the season. The muntjacs' coat is golden tan on the dorsal side and white on the ventral side of the body, the limbs are dark brown to reddish brown, and the face is dark brown. However, the ears have very little hair which barely covers them. Male muntjacs have antlers that are very short, about 1–2 inches, usually consisting of only two or three points at the most and protrude from long body hair covered pedicels on the forehead. Females have tufts of fur and small bony knobs where the antlers are located in males. Males also have slightly elongated upper canines about an inch long that curve slightly outward from the lips and have the capability to inflict serious injury upon other animals or to other members of the population while exhibiting aggression. Males are generally larger than females. The body length of muntjacs varies from 35–53 in long and their height ranges from 15-26 in tall.
Distribution and habitat
The Indian muntjac is among the most widespread but least known of all mammals in South Asia. It is found in Bangladesh, southern China, northeastern India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan, Cambodia, Vietnam, the Malay Peninsula, the Riau Archipelago, Sumatra, Bangka Island, Belitung, Java, Bali, and Borneo. This species is most densely located in Southeast Asia.
The Indian muntjac is found in tropical and subtropical deciduous forests, grasslands, savannas, and scrub forests, as well as in the hilly country on the slopes of the Himalayas. They are found at altitudes ranging from sea level up to 3,000 m (9,800 ft). They never wander far from water. Also, males usually have their own territory, which may overlap the territories of a few females but not of another male.
Distribution of subspecies
There are 15 subspecies:
- M. m. annamensis, Indochina
- M. m. aureus, peninsular India
- M. m. bancanus, Belitung and Bangka islands
- M. m. curvostylis, Thailand
- M. m. grandicornis, Burmese muntjac, Burma
- M. m. malabaricus, South India and Sri Lanka
- M. m. montanus, mountain muntjac, Sumatra
- M. m. muntjak, Javan muntjac, Java and south Sumatra
- M. m. nainggolani, Bali and Lombok Islands
- M. m. nigripes, black-footed or black-legged muntjac, Vietnam and Hainan Island
- M. m. peninsulae, Malaysia
- M. m. pleicharicus, South Borneo
- M. m. robinsoni, Bintan Island and Lingga Islands
- M. m. rubidus, north Borneo
- M. m. vaginalis, Burma to southwest China
Ecology and behavior
The Indian muntjac is called "barking deer" due to the bark-like sound that it makes as an alarm when danger is present. It is also called "Kakar". Sometimes these deer will bark for an hour or more.
Other than during the rut (mating season) and for the first six months after giving birth, the adult Indian muntjac is a solitary animal. Adult males in particular are well spaced and marking grass and bushes with secretions from their preorbital glands appears to be involved in the acquisition and maintenance of territory. Males acquire territories that they mark with scent markers by rubbing their preorbital glands (located on their face, just below the eyes) on the ground and on trees, scraping their hooves against the ground, and scraping the bark of trees with their lower incisors. These scent markers allow other muntjacs to know whether a territory is occupied or not. Males will often fight with each other over these territories, sufficient vegetation, and for primary preference over females when mating using their short antlers and an even more dangerous weapon, their canines. If a male is not strong enough to acquire his own territory he will most likely become prey to a leopard or some other predator. During the time of the rut, territorial lines are temporarily disregarded and overlap while males roam constantly in search of a receptive female.
These deer are highly alert creatures. When put into a stressful situation or if a predator is sensed, muntjacs will begin making a bark-like sound. Barking was originally thought of as a means of communication between the deer during mating season as well as an alert. However, in more recent studies it has been identified as a mechanism used solely in alarming situations meant to cause a predator to realize that it has been detected and move elsewhere or to reveal itself. The barking mechanism is used more frequently when visibility is reduced and can last for over an hour regarding one incident.
The Indian muntjacs are classified as omnivores. They are considered both browsers and grazers with a diet consisting of grasses, ivy, prickly bushes, low growing leaves, bark, twigs, herbs, fruit, sprouts, seeds, tender shoots, bird eggs and small warm-blooded animals. Indian muntjacs are typically found feeding at the edge of the forest or in abandoned clearings. The muntjac’s found in the Nilgiri-Wayand area of south India are always sited in the large tea estates, as they feed mostly the tea seeds. Their large canine teeth help in the processes of retrieving and ingesting food.
The Indian muntjacs are polygamous animals. Females sexually mature during their first to second year of life. These females are polyestrous, with each cycle lasting about 14 to 21 days and an estrus lasting for 2 days. The gestation period is six to seven months and they usually bear one offspring at a time but sometimes produce twins. Females usually give birth in dense growth so that they are hidden from the rest of the herd and predators. The young leaves its mother after about six months to establish its own territory. Males often fight between one another for possession of a harem of females. Indian muntjacs are distinguished from other even-toed ungulates in showing no evidence of a specific breeding season within the species.
Evolution and genetics
The female Indian muntjac deer is the mammal with the lowest recorded diploid number of chromosomes, where 2n = 6. The male has a diploid number of 7 chromosomes. The similar Reeves's Muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), in comparison, has a diploid number of 46 chromosomes.
They have played a major role in Southern Asia, being hunted for sport as well as for their meat and skin. Often these animals are hunted around the outskirts of agricultural areas as they are considered a nuisance for damaging crops and ripping bark from trees.
- Timmins, R. J., Duckworth, J. W., Hedges, S., Pattanavibool, A., Steinmetz, R., Semiadi, G., Tyson, M. & Boeadi (2008). "Muntiacus muntjak". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-3. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
- Grubb, P. (2005). "Muntiacus muntjak". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 667. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Eisenberg, JF; McKay, GM (1974). "Comparison of ungulate adaptations in the new world and the old world tropical forests with special reference to Ceylon and the rainforests of Central America". In Geist, V; Walther, F. The behaviour of ungulates and its relation to management (PDF). Morges, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. pp. 584–602.
- Kinnear, J.F. (2006). "Chromosomes: How Many?" Nature of Biology Third Edition. Book 2. Milton, Queensland: John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd.
- Doris H. Wurster and Kurt Benirschke (12 June 1970). Indian Momtjac, Muntiacus muntiak: A Deer with a Low Diploid Chromosome Number. Science 168(3937):1364-1366.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muntiacus muntjak.|
- Hutchins, Michael (ed.) (2004). Muntjacs. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 2nd ed. 15 vols. Detroit: The Gale Group Inc, 2004.
- Kurt, Fred (1990). Muntjac Deer. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. 1st ed. 5 vols. St. Louis: McGraw-Hill.
- Nowak, Ronald M. (1999). Muntjacs, or Barking Deer. Walker's Mammals of the World. 6th ed. 2 vols. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP.