Ordnance Factories Board

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Indian Ordnance Factories)
Jump to: navigation, search
Ordnance Factories Board
Native name
आयुध निर्माणी बोर्ड
Government Organisation
Industry Defence
Founded 1775[1]
Headquarters Ayudh Bhawan, Kolkata
Area served
Key people
S. C. Bajpai, IOFS
(Director General Ordnance Factories & Chairman, OFB)
Products Small arms, Aircraft weapons, Anti-aircraft warfare, Naval weapons, Anti-ship warfare, Anti-submarine warfare, Anti-tank warfare, Missiles, Missile launchers, Rockets, Rocket launchers, Bombs, Grenades, Mortars, Mines, Military vehicles, Engines, Armoured vehicles, Chemical warfare, Clothing, Artillery, Ammunition, Propellants, Explosives.
Revenue $3 billion (19982.71 crores)
Number of employees
Website ofb.gov.in

Ordnance Factories Board (OFB) (Hindi: आयुध निर्माणी बोर्ड; IAST: Āyudh nirmāṇī borḍ) consisting of the Indian Ordnance Factories (भारतीय आयुध निर्माणियाँ; Bhāratīya āyudh nirmāṇiyān), is an industrial organisation, functioning under the Department of Defence Production of Ministry of Defence, Government of India. It is engaged in research, development, production, testing, marketing and logistics of a comprehensive product range in the areas of air, land and sea systems. OFB comprises forty-one Ordnance Factories, nine Training Institutes, three Regional Marketing Centres and four Regional Controllerates of Safety, which are spread all across the country.[6][7]

OFB is the world's largest government-operated production organisation,[8] and the oldest organisation run by the Government of India.[9][10] It has a total workforce of about 164,000.[5] It is often called the "Fourth Arm of Defence",[11][12][13] and the "Force Behind the Armed Forces" of India.[14][15] It is amongst the top 50 defence equipment manufacturers in the world.[3][16] Its total sales were at $3 billion (19982.71 crores) in 2015-'16.[2] Every year, 18 March is celebrated as the Ordnance Factories' Day in India.[17][18]



The history and development of the Indian Ordnance Factories is directly linked with the British reign in India. The East India Company considered military hardware to be a vital element for securing their economic interest in India and increasing their political power. In 1775, the British East India company accepted the establishment of the Board of Ordnance at Fort William, Calcutta. This marks the official beginning of the Army Ordnance in India.

In 1787, a gunpowder factory was established at Ichapore; it began production in 1791, and the site was later used as a rifle factory, beginning in 1904. In 1801, Gun Carriage Agency (now known as Gun & Shell Factory, Cossipore) was established at Cossipore, Calcutta, and production began on 18 March 1802. This is the oldest ordnance factory in India still in existence.[19]


The growth of the Ordnance Factories Board leading to its present setup has been continuous but sporadic. There were eighteen ordnance factories before India became independent in 1947 and twenty-three factories have been established after independence, mostly in the wake of defence preparedness imperatives brought about by the wars involving India.

Main Events
  • 1801 – Establishment of Gun Carriage Agency at Cossipore, Kolkata.
  • 1802 – Production begins at Cossipore on 18 March.
  • 1906 – The Administration of Indian Ordnance Factories comes under a separate charge as "IG of Ordnance Factories".
  • 1933 – Charged to "Director of Ordnance Factories".
  • 1948 – Placed under direct control of Ministry of Defence.
  • 1962 – Department of Defence Production was set up at Ministry of Defence.
  • 1979 – Ordnance Factories Board is established on 2 April.

Infrastructure and leadership[edit]


  • Armoured Vehicles Headquarters, Chennai (AVHQ)
  • Ordnance Equipment Factories Headquarters, Kanpur (OEFHQ)
  • Ordnance Factory Cell, New Delhi (OFBDEL)
  • Ordnance Factory Cell, Mumbai (OFBMUM)
  • Ordnance Factories Recruitment Board, Nagpur (OFRB)
  • Ordnance Factory Board, Kolkata (OFBHQ)

Apex Board[edit]

The Apex Board is headed by the Director General of Ordnance Factories (DGOF), who acts as the Chairman of the Board (ex officio Secretary to Government of India) and consists of nine other Members, who each hold the rank of Additional DGOF. Ordnance Factories are divided into 5 operating divisions, depending upon the type of the main products/technologies employed. These are :

  • Ammunition and Explosives (A&E)
  • Weapons, Vehicles & Equipment (WV&E)
  • Materials and Components (M&C)
  • Armoured Vehicles (AV)
  • Ordnance Equipment Group of Factories (OEF)

Each of the above group of factories is headed by a Member/Additional DGOF. The four remaining Members are responsible for staff functions, viz Personnel (Per), Finance (Fin), Planning & Material Management (P&MM), Technical Services (TS) and they operate from Kolkata.

Ordnance factories[edit]

Each Ordnance Factory is headed by a General Manager who is in the rank of Additional Secretary to Government of India.

Training Institutes[edit]

  • National Academy of Defence Production, Nagpur (NADP)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ambajhari, Nagpur (OFILAJ)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ambernath, Mumbai (OFILAM)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Avadi, Chennai (OFILAV)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Dehradun (OFILDD)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ishapore, Kolkata (OFILIS)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Khamaria, Jabalpur (OFILKH)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Kanpur (OFILKN)
  • Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning, Medak (OFILMK)

Each OFIL is headed by a Principal Director, and NADP by a Senior Principal Director. NADP provides training to Group A officers, whilst the other eight institutes impart training to Group B and Group C employees of the ordnance factories.

Regional Marketing Centres[edit]

  • Regional Marketing Centre, Avadi, Chennai (RMCAV)
  • Regional Marketing Centre, Delhi (RMCDL)
  • Regional Marketing Centre, Pune (RMCPU)

Each Regional Marketing Centre is headed by a Regional Director.

Regional Controllerates of Safety[edit]

  • Regional Controllerate of Safety Ambajhari, Nagpur (RCSAJ)
  • Regional Controllerate of Safety Avadi, Chennai (RCSAV)
  • Regional Controllerate of Safety, Kanpur (RCSKN)
  • Regional Controllerate of Safety, Pune (RCSPU)

Each Regional Controllerate of Safety is headed by a Regional Controller of Safety.

Indian Ordnance Factories Service (IOFS)[edit]

The Indian Ordnance Factories Service (IOFS) (Hindi: भारतीय आयुध निर्माणी सेवा) is a civil service of the Government of India. IOFS officers are Gazetted (Group A) defence-civilian officers under the Ministry of Defence. IOFS is a multi-disciplinary composite cadre consisting of technical – engineers (Civil, Electrical, Mechanical, Electronics), technologists (Chemical, Metallurgical, Textile, Leather) and non-technical/administrative (Science, Law, Commerce, Management and Arts graduates). Technical posts comprise about 87% of the total cadre. The doctors (Surgeons and Physicians) serving in OFB belong to a separate service known as the Indian Ordnance Factories Health Service (IOFHS). IOFHS officers are responsible for the maintenance of health of the employees, and the hospitals of OFB. They report directly to the IOFS officers. IOFS and IOFHS are the only two civil services under the Department of Defence Production.[20]


The recruitment in the Indian Ordnance Factories as a Group A officer is done by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) based on the performance in the rigorous and prestigious Engineering Services Examination (ESE) and the Civil Services Examination (CSE).[21] Engineering posts are filled through the Engineering Services Examination, while technologists are selected through interviews by UPSC. Posts in the non technical streams are filled through the Civil Services Examination. IOFS is the only cadre in which candidates are selected by all four means – CSE, ESE, interviews and promotions. IOFHS officers are selected through the Combined Medical Services Examination, conducted by UPSC.[22][23][24] All appointments to the Group A Civil Services are made by the President of India.[25]

Hierarchy (Group A)
Grade Designation in the field Designation in Headquarters Pay Scale
Junior Time Scale Assistant Works Manager Assistant Director 15,600-39,100 plus grade pay of 5400
Senior Time Scale Works Manager Deputy Director 15,600-39,100 plus grade pay of 6600
Senior Time Scale (Non Functional) Deputy General Manager Joint Director 15,600-39,100 plus grade pay of 7600
Junior Administrative Grade (Functional) Joint General Manager Director 37,400-67,000 plus grade pay of 8700
Senior Administrative Grade Addl. GM / General Manager / Principal Director / Regional Director / Regional Controller of Safety Deputy Director General 37,400-67,000 plus grade pay of 10000
Higher Administrative Grade Senior General Manager / Senior Principal Director Senior Deputy Director General 67,000-79,000 plus grade pay-Nil
Higher Administrative Grade (+) Nil Addl. Director General & Member of the Board 75,500-80,000 plus grade pay -Nil
Apex Scale Nil Director General Ordnance Factories (DGOF) & Chairman of the Ordnance Factories Board 80,000 (fixed) plus grade pay-Nil[26]


The type of ordnance material produced is very diverse, ranging from various small arms to missiles, rockets, bombs, grenades, military vehicles, armoured vehicles, chemicals, optical devices, parachutes, mortars, artillery pieces plus all associated ammunition, propellants, explosives and fuzes.[27]

Products available to civilians[edit]

Civilians are required to hold Arms License (issued only for non-prohibited bore category weapons) in order to buy firearms in India. The following products of the Indian Ordnance Factories Board are available for civilians:



  • Cartridge Rimfire .22" Ball
  • Cartridge SA .32" Revolver
  • Cartridge SA .315" and 30 06 Ball
  • Cartridge SA 12 Bore 70mm
  • Cartridge SA 12 Bore 65mm Special

Products not available to civilians[edit]

These products are exclusively manufactured for use by the armed forces and are not sold to the civilians.

Small arms
Pistol Auto 9mm 1A, manufactured by RFI 
Multi Caliber Individual Weapon System (MCIWS) 
84mm Shoulder-fired Rocket Launcher / Recoilless Gun 
SAF Carbine 1A1 
AGS-30 Automatic Grenade Launcher 
Rocket Propelled Grenade Launcher 
Towed & Rocket Artillery
Pinaka rockets manufactured by OFAJ 
155mm artillery gun in L39, L45 and L52 caliber configurations 
Smerch rockets to be produced at OFAJ and launcher at VFJ 
Self-Propelled Artillery
General Staff and Logistics Vehicles
Specialist role Vehicles
Armoured Vehicles and Engines
Arjun Mark-II 
Bhishma of the Indian Army built at HVF Avadi 
Ajeya of the Indian Army built by HVF 
Arjun MBT Mark-I, manufactured by HVF Avadi 
Bhishma's engine at Engine Factory Avadi 
Missile Launchers
Aerial Weapons
IAF Hind Akbar's rockets, bombs and armaments 
IAF Su-30MKI's rockets, bombs, missiles, armaments and parachutes 
Indian Army's Dhruv's anti-tank, air-to-air and anti-ship missiles, rockets and torpedoes 
Naval Weapons
AK-230 anti-aircraft gun 
RBU 6000 anti-submarine rocket launcher and its depth charges such as RGB-12 and RGB-60 


Armed Forces[edit]

The prime customers of Indian Ordnance Factories are the Indian Armed Forces viz. Indian Army, Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force.[28][29] Apart from supplying armaments to the Armed Forces, Ordnance Factories also meet the requirements of other customers viz. the Central Armed Police Forces, State Armed Police Forces, Paramilitary Forces of India and the Special Forces of India in respect of arms, ammunition, clothing, bullet proof vehicles, mine protected vehicles etc.[30][31]

Civil trade[edit]

Customers are in the civil sector, central/state government organisations and departments such as Indian Railways, Indian Space Research Organisation, Defence Research and Development Organisation, Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre, Aeronautical Development Agency, Department of Telecommunications, and State Electricity Boards.[32][33][34][35] Public Sector Undertakings in India (PSUs) such as HMT Limited, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Bharat Dynamics Limited,[36] private companies and individuals etc. who purchase industrial chemicals, explosives, arms, ammunition, brass ingots, aluminium alloy products for aircraft, steel castings and forgings, vehicles, clothing and leather goods, cables and opto-electronic instruments.[37]


Arms and ammunition, weapon spares, chemicals and explosives, parachutes, leather and clothing items are exported to more than 30 countries worldwide.


In spite of highly skilled manpower, latest technologies and huge investments, the Ordnance Factories and their management have often been criticised for their inefficiency,[41] delay in supplies,[42][43][44] obsolete and substandard products of much higher costs than those manufactured by their foreign competitors,[45] corruption at all levels including top management[46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54] and a small volume of exports. The ministerial and bureaucratic hassles, lack of decision making and accountability of the people concerned are often blamed.

To counter the above, talks were held to privatise the Ordnance Factories[55][56] after witnessing the turnaround of other Indian companies that were converted into PSUs. The Ministry of Defence has always ruled out such a possibility[57][58] since the Ordnance Factories are the backbone of the Indian Armed Forces[59][60] and should be controlled solely by the Government of India.

Efforts are being made by the Ordnance Factories to run them at their full capacities, employ and train skilled manpower, efficient usage of the available resources, update and induct new products, provide more sophisticated products, increase and diversify product categories, supply them to the forces on time, stringent quality assurance, JV with foreign and other domestic manufacturers and to increase their overseas presence and exports.[18][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71]


Dating back to more than two centuries and being a manpower extensive, multi-location organisation spread across India, huge number of people from all parts of the country have been associated with the Indian Ordnance Factories. Some families have a history of up to five generations serving the organisation. Few of the people associated with OFB over the centuries:







  1. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: History". Ofb.gov.in. 1 April 1999. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  2. ^ a b "About Department of Defence Production - Department of Defence Production". ddpmod.gov.in. Retrieved 5 May 2017. 
  3. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 2012-05-13. 
  4. ^ "Antony reviews Ordnance Factory Board work". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2012-04-17. 
  5. ^ a b "Trends in Defence Production: Case of Ordnance Factories". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  6. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: Our Factories". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  7. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: OFB in Brief". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  8. ^ "Factories of graft". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  9. ^ "Ministry of Defence, Govt of India". Mod.nic.in. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  10. ^ John Pike. "Ordnance Factories". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  11. ^ "Two Centuries of Guns and Shells". Mod.nic.in. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  12. ^ "WHAT". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  13. ^ "Gun Carriage Factory". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  14. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: About Us". Ofb.gov.in. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  15. ^ "Page Not Found". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  16. ^ IANS (27 February 2012). "Three Indian entities – HAL, BEL and OFB among world's top 100 arms manufacturers – Economic Times". Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  17. ^ "The Hitavada: Latest News from India,Politics,Bollywood,Business,Sport". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  18. ^ a b Our Bureau. "Business Line : Industry & Economy News : Ordnance Factory to invest Rs 15,000 cr for modernisation". Thehindubusinessline.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  19. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: Gun and Shell Factory". Ofb.gov.in. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  20. ^ http://www.persmin.nic.in/DOPT/CSWing/CRDivision/Mail%20List%20of%20Secretaries.htm
  21. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: Recruitment Rules". Ofb.gov.in. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  22. ^ "Union Public Service Commission". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  23. ^ "UPSC announces CMSE 2010 results". The Times Of India. 2010-09-03. 
  24. ^ http://www.upsconline.nic.in/ora/candidate/Detail.php?name=13070910113%20&%20post=516&%20case=289&id=1
  25. ^ "Sorry for the inconvenience.". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  26. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: Employees in different pay bands with grade pay". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  27. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: Products". Ofb.gov.in. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  28. ^ "Weapons – Indian Navy". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  29. ^ "Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis: IHS Jane's – IHS". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  30. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: OFB in Brief". Ofb.gov.in. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  31. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: Small Arms Factory". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  32. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: Grey Iron Foundry". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  33. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: Ordnance Factory Ambajhari". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  34. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: Ordnance Cable Factory Chandigarh". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  35. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: Ordnance Factory Itarsi". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  36. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: Heavy Alloy Penetrator Project". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  37. ^ a b "Indian Ordnance Factories: Customers". Ofb.gov.in. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  38. ^ Pratim Ranjan Bose (29 September 2011). "Business Line : OTHERS / EDITORIAL FEATURE : We're making Ordnance factories future ready, says OFB Chairman Dimri". Thehindubusinessline.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  39. ^ "Indian defence exports valued at Rs.997 crore". Yahoo News India. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  40. ^ http://armstrade.sipri.org/armstrade/html/export_toplist.php
  41. ^ "The Reality of Defence Procurement | Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses". Idsa.in. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  42. ^ "Defence News – Three Service Chiefs To Address Parliament". Defencenews.in. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  43. ^ "Sluggish defence acquisition: A case study of Artillery Gun procurement : Prabhakar Gupta". Defenceinfo.com. 5 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  44. ^ Sanjeev, Dr. "INDIA'S TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY (Dr Sanjeev Bhadauria) - Academia.edu". Allduniv.academia.edu. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  45. ^ "India's Independent Weekly News Magazine". Tehelka. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  46. ^ TNN 4 Jan 2012, 04.40AM IST (4 January 2012). "Ordnance factory Jt GM, two managers in CBI net – Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  47. ^ "OFB scam: CBI urges MoD to blacklist 6 firms – The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  48. ^ http://www.deccanchronicle.com/130222/news-current-affairs/article/defence-scam%E2%80%88cbi-set-arrest-medak-factory-gm
  49. ^ Press Trust of India (26 September 2012). "CBI raids Grey Iron Foundry GM's office in Jabalpur". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  50. ^ "Bags' purchase in OFI under CBI scanner – The Times of India". The Times Of India. 
  51. ^ "Orissa HC order exposes favouritism in Ordnance Factory". The Times Of India. 2010-08-29. 
  52. ^ The Hindu. Chennai, India http://www.hindu.com/businessline/2000/05/30/stories/043020su.htm.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  53. ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India – Opinions". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  54. ^ "172 govt officials penalised for corruption". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  55. ^ "Ordnance factory workers to go on strike – Deccan Herald". Archive.deccanherald.com. 29 March 2005. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  56. ^ PTI 6 Aug 2006, 02.19pm IST (6 August 2006). "Govt considering corporatisation of ordnance factories – Economic Times". Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  57. ^ Special Correspondent (13 November 2011). "States / Tamil Nadu : Ordnance Clothing Factories will not be privatised: DG". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  58. ^ TNN 8 Apr 2002, 01.42am IST (8 April 2002). "No plan to privatise, George assures unions – Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  59. ^ TNN 29 Oct 2009, 05.26am IST (29 October 2009). "'Privatisation of OFs will compromise nation's security' – Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  60. ^ "Welcome to India in Business : Industry & Services". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  61. ^ Prasad Kulkarni 10 May 2011, 11.45pm IST (10 May 2011). "Ordnance factories record 29% rise in annual turnover – Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  62. ^ Our Bureau. "Business Line : Companies News : Ordnance Factory modernisation plan". Thehindubusinessline.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  63. ^ Business Standard (16 October 2003). "Ordnance Factory Board to invest in modernisation". Business-standard.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  64. ^ "Gear up for modernisation challenges, IOFS probationers told – PTI". Moneycontrol.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  65. ^ Special Correspondent (17 April 2012). "News / National : Antony reviews Ordnance Factory Board work". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  66. ^ Defence IQ (19 June 2012). "Indian Army Generals to meet in New Delhi next week to explore artillery procurement strategy". PRLog. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  67. ^ John Pike. "Ordnance Factories". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  68. ^ "Press Information Bureau English Releases". Pib.nic.in. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  69. ^ Damien. "Indian Army To Get 100 Artillery Guns From OFB". Indian Defence. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  70. ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India – Nation". Tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  71. ^ "MACHINIST – Rs 2141.93 cr Modernization plan for Ordnance Factories over next 5 years". Machinist.in. 10 December 2009. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  72. ^ a b "The Tribune - Windows - Main Feature". www.tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 5 May 2017. 
  73. ^ "How India missed another Nobel Prize". Retrieved 5 May 2017. 
  74. ^ "First Indian group to scale Mt Everest feted". 9 April 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2017. 
  75. ^ "Youngest and first: Indian Everest conquerors meet". Retrieved 5 May 2017. 
  76. ^ "Rifle Factory Ishapore welcomes you". rfi.nic.in. Retrieved 5 May 2017. 
  77. ^ "Padma Shri Awardees - Padma Awards - My India, My Pride - Know India: National Portal of India". archive.india.gov.in. Retrieved 5 May 2017. 
  78. ^ "Obituary: Maharishi Mahesh Yogi". BBC News. 6 February 2008. 
  79. ^ Coplin (1990) Ch.2, fn 74