Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church

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Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church
(Indian Orthodox Church)
Malankara Emblem.png
Catholicate Emblem
Classification Oriental Orthodox
Theology Miaphysitism
Polity Episcopal
Primate Catholicos of the East and the Malankara Metropolitan present Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II
Region India, Canada, Africa, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, United Kingdom, Australia and the United States
Language Malayalam, Syriac, English, Hindi, Konkani, Kannada, Tamil
Headquarters Kottayam, Kerala, India
Founder Saint Thomas the Apostle in 52[1]
Members 2.5 million[2][3]
Official website http://www.mosc.in
Part of a series on
Saint Thomas Christians
Saint Thomas Christian cross
History
Saint Thomas · Thomas of Cana · Mar Sabor and Mar Proth · Tharisapalli plates · Synod of Diamper · Coonan Cross Oath
Religion
Ancient crosses · Churches · Shrines · Liturgical language · Church music
Prominent persons
Abraham Malpan · Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar · Kayamkulam Philipose Ramban · Kuriakose Elias Chavara · Mar Thoma I · Saint Alphonsa · Sadhu Kochoonju Upadesi · Kariattil Mar Ousep · Geevarghese Mar Dionysius of Vattasseril · Gheevarghese Mar Gregorios of Parumala · Geevarghese Mar Ivanios · Saint Alphonsa · Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly · Euphrasia Eluvathingal · Thoma of Villarvattom
Culture

Margamkali · Parichamuttukali · Cuisine · Suriyani Malayalam

Saint Thomas Christians - Divisions - History in a nutshell

The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church[4] also known as the Indian Orthodox Church[5] is an autocephalous[6][7] Oriental Orthodox church centered in the Indian state of Kerala. It is one of the churches of India's Saint Thomas Christian community, which has its origin in the evangelical activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.[1] The church is headed by the autocephalous[8] Catholicos of the East and the Malankara Metropolitan, presently Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II.

It is believed that Saint Thomas Christians of Malabar were in communion with the Church of the East from 496 to 1599.[9] They got episcopal support from Persian bishops, who traveled to Kerala in merchant ships through the spice route, while the local leader of the Saint Thomas Christians held the rank of Archdeacon and was a hereditary office held by the Pakalomattam family. In the 16th century, the overtures of the Portuguese padroado to bring the Saint Thomas Christians into Latin Rite Catholicism led to the first of several rifts in the community by Portuguese colonialists and the establishment of the Catholic and the Malankara Church factions. Since then, further splits have occurred, and the Saint Thomas Christians are now divided into several fragments,due to western interferences. The Malankara Church is still remains as a part of Oriental Orthodoxy (the other being the Jacobite Church).

Saint Thomas Christians were administratively under the single native dynastic leadership of an Archdeacon (അർക്കദിയൊക്കൊൻ) (a native ecclesiastical head with spiritual and temporal powers, deriving from Greek term arkhidiākonos) and were in communion with the Church of the East, centered in Persia, from at least 496.[10][11] The indigenous Church of Malabar/Malankara followed the faith and traditions handed over by the Apostle St. Thomas. During 16th century, the Portuguese Jesuits began deliberate attempts to annex the native Christians to the Catholic Church, and in 1599 they succeeded through the Synod of Diamper. Resentment against these forceful measures led the majority of the community under the Archdeacon Thomas to swear an oath never to submit to the Portuguese, known as the Coonan Cross Oath, in 1653. The Malankara Church consolidated under Mar Thoma I welcomed Gregorios Abdal Jaleel, who regularized the canonical ordination of Mar Thoma as a Bishop.

Meanwhile, the Dutch East India Company defeated the Portuguese in supremacy of the spice trade in Malabar in 1663. The Malankara church used this opportunity to escape from Catholic persecution with the Dutch East India Company's help. At the request of the Malankara Church, the Dutch brought Gregorios Abdal Jaleel of Jerusalem, a bishop of the Syriac Orthodox Church, in their trading vessel in 1665. Mar Thoma I forged a relationship with the Syriac Orthodox Church and gradually adopted West Syrian liturgy and practices.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Please see

Church Constitution[edit]

The church had no written constitution until 1934, but was governed by consensus, traditions and precedence. It was the vision of Mor Dionysius, Vattasseril, to have a clearly defined uniform constitution to govern the church administration. He initiated action and appointed a sub-committee with O.M. Cherian as convener to submit a draft constitution. The committee members had discussed the fundamental issues with the Metropolitan in several rounds, but it was not finalized and passed (materialized) in Cherian's lifetime.

After his demise, the constitution was presented in the Malankara Christian Association meeting of 26 December 1934, held at M. D. Seminary. It was adopted and brought to force. The constitution has been amended three times to meet specific situations and needs. The validity of the constitution was challenged by the Patriarch party in the Court, but the Supreme Court's final verdict declared the validity of the Constitution. Every member of the Church is bound by the rules and regulations laid down in the Constitution.

The Constitution upholds the autonomy and autocephaly of the Malankara Orthodox Church. It is Episcopal in its (polity) and not congregational. At the same time it upholds democratic principles by safeguarding the rights and privileges of the lay men. The constitution enshrines the fundamental features of the Church, provides direction for its internal administration, and preserves its integrity and autonomy. The essential features of the Church are provided in the preamble.

The first article emphasizes the bond of relationship between the Orthodox Syrian Church and the Malankara Church. It defines Malankara Church as a division of the Orthodox Syrian Church and the head of the Orthodox Syrian Church as the Patriarch of Antioch.[12] The second article says about the foundation of the Malankara Church by St. Thomas and the primate of the Orthodox Syrian Church of the East as the Catholicos. The third article refers to the name of the church and the fourth about their faith traditions. The fifth is about the canons governing the administration of the Church.

The whole constitution conceives the Malankara Church as self-sufficient in all her requirements, be it temporal, ecclesiastical, or spiritual in nature, and upholds that the Malankara Orthodox church is rightly autocephalous in character.

20th Century[edit]

Geevarghese Mar Dionysius of Vattasseril, who ascended the throne of Malankara Metropolitan in 1908, played a significant role with the other clerical and lay leaders of Malankara in re-establishing the Catholicos of the East in India in 1912. The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church wanted to retain its autocephalous nature. It appealed to the deposed Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, Mor Ignatius Abdul Masih II. He ordained Murimattathil Paulose Mar Ivanios as Baselios Paulose I, as Catholicos of the East on the Apostolic throne of St. Thomas. The ceremony was held at St. Mary's Church, Niranam on 15 September 1912.[13] The church in the 20th century remained the most favored and strong denomination to be fully eligible for St. Thomas heritage. The lineage of St. Thomas is preserved based on two grounds. Firstly, the founder and first primate of the Church is St. Thomas, the Apostle of Jesus Christ; and secondly, the church has no dependence on nor is under any foreign churches outside India (in short, autonomous and autocephalous).

St.Thomas Indian Orthodox Church, Maryland, United States
St.Mary's Indian Orthodox Church, Ras al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates

The history of immigrant community of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church of the East in the United States begins approximately in the mid-20th century. During this period a number of priests and laity came to the US for higher studies and training. Mathews Mar Coorilos Metropolitan (later Moran Mar Baselius Mar Thoma Mathews II) stayed at the General Theological Seminary in 1963 and returned to India in 1964. Mar Coorilos celebrated Holy Qurbana occasionally during his stay there. Fr. K.M. Simon looked after the Church service after Mar Coorilos left for India. This service was ecumenical in nature; Malayalees of any denomination participated.

In 1965, the United States Congress passed a bill which cleared the way for thousands of professionally qualified individuals to immigrate to the US.[citation needed] Many Malankara Orthodox Christians came to the United States during this time. In 1968 Fr. G. John (John Geevarghese), an Ecumenical Fellow at Union Theological Seminary in New York City, started celebrating the Holy Qurbana every Sunday in the Seminary chapel, thus organizing the first congregation on America soil. After 1970, the Malankara Orthodox Church gradually spread to many major US cities with increasing numbers of clergy and laity. In 1976, the Holy Synod decided to establish more dioceses in various parts of the world. At this time, the numerous churches in America were placed under the authority of the Metropolitan of the Bombay Diocese, Thomas Mar Makarios. On 14 July 1979, Mar Makarios was given authority over the new American Diocese under the authority of the Catholicos of the East, Baselius Mar Thoma Mathews I. In 1991, Mathews Mar Barnabas took charge of the Diocese. In 2002, Zacharias Mar Nicholovos joined the Diocese. In 2009, the 'American Diocese' was split into the Northeast American Diocese and the Southwest American Diocese. As of 2013, the Northeast American Diocese had more than fifty parishes, more than forty priests, and fourteen deacons and seminarians.

Hierarchy, distribution and doctrine[edit]

The spiritual regional head of the church is the Catholicos of the East and the temporal head over church assets is the Malankara Metropolitan. Since 1934, both the titles vest in one person. The official title of the head of the Church is the "Catholicos of the East and the Malankara Metropolitan". Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II was enthroned as Catholicos of the East on 1 November 2010 at Parumala Church by the Holy Synod, the 91st Catholicos of the East in the lineage of Apostle Thomas, the eighth after reinstatement in India, and the twentieth Malankara Metropolitan.

Oriental Orthodox Churches, including the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, accept only the first three Ecumenical Synods.

The church primarily uses the liturgy of Saint James, as does its sister church, the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch. The Church in India was connected to the Church of East through the Catholicos of the East, existed in Edessa, Selucia, Tigris and Mosul at various times. Today the Church conducts liturgy in West Syriac, Malayalam, Hindi and English.

The church has theological seminaries at Kottayam and Nagpur, and dioceses and churches in most parts of India, the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Western Europe, Africa, Persian Gulf nations, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia and New Zealand.

The name Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church refers to St. Thomas Christians of India that come under the Catholicate of the East whose supreme head is the Catholicos of the East and Malankara Metropolitan, with its headquarters at Devalokam, Kottayam, Kerala, India.

Liturgy[edit]

Divine Liturgy of Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church at St. James' Orthodox Church in Delhi

Since the 17th century, the Malankara Church uses the Malankara Rite, which belongs to the Antiochene liturgical tradition. The East Syrian (Persian), Byzantine, Armenian, Georgian and Maronite liturgies also belong to the same liturgical family. In the first half of the 5th century, the Antiochene Church adopted the anaphora of Jerusalem, known under the name of St James the disciple. In the 4th and 5th centuries, the liturgical language of Jerusalem and Antioch was Greek. Therefore, the original form of St James liturgy was composed in Greek.

Following the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the Eastern Church was divided into two, one group accepting the council and the other opposing it. Both groups continued to use the Greek version of St James. The Byzantine emperor Justin (518–527) expelled the non-Chalcedonians from Antioch, and they took refugees in the Syriac speaking Mesopotamia on the Roman–Persian Border (modern Eastern Syria, Iraq and South East Turkey). Gradually, the Antiochene liturgical rites were translated into Syriac. New elements such as Syriac hymns were introduced into it.

Mar Gregorios of Jerusalem came to Malankara in 1665 and introduced Syriac Orthodox liturgical rites. The most striking characteristic of the Antiochene liturgy is the large number of anaphoras (Order of the celebration of the Eucharist). About eighty are known and about a dozen are used in India. All of them have been composed following the model of Liturgy of St James.[14]

  • The ritual service (liturgy) is called the Holy Qurbana, which is derived from the Aramaic word korban (Hebrew: קרבן), meaning "sacrifice".
  • The Holy Qurbana is mostly conducted and prayers recited in Malayalam. However, some parts of the Holy Qurbana are sung in Syriac. During the 20th century the 'Qurbana-kramam' (i.e. the 'book containing the order of worship') was translated into English, for the benefit of worshipers who lived outside Kerala, who did not know to read or write Malayalam.

The Catholicate[edit]

The word "Catholicos" means "The General Head". It can be considered as equivalent to "Universal Bishop". There were only three ranks of priesthood in the early Church: Episcopos (Bishop), Priest and Deacon. By the end of the 3rd century, certain bishops of certain important cities in the Roman Empire gained pre-eminence over other bishops and they came to be known as Metropolitans. The Ecumenical councils of the 4th century recognized the supreme authority of these Metropolitans. By the 5th century the bishops in major cities such as Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria and Antioch gained control over the churches in the surrounding cities. Gradually they became the heads of each independent regional church and were called Patriarch, which means common father. The same rank in the Churches outside the Roman Empire was called Catholicos. There were four ancient Catholicates in the Church before the 5th century. They were the Catholicate of the East, the Catholicate of Armenia, the Catholicate of Georgia and the Catholicate of Albania. None of these ranks and titles are the monopoly of any church. In Orthodox tradition, any Apostolic and autonomous national church (often referred to as local Church) has the authority to declare and call its head Catholicos, Pope or Patriarch.

The reign of the Archdeacons started from the 4th century and lasted until the 16th century. The third stage started when the archdeacon was elevated to the position of a Bishop by the community with the name Marthoma I in 1653. Since then the head of the community was the Marthoma Metrans and later the position was developed to Malankara Metropolitan with more recognition.

In 1912, the Catholicate of the East was relocated to India, and Baselios Paulose I was seated on the Honorary Apostolic Throne of St. Thomas as the Catholicos of the East. The Headquarters of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church is the Catholicate Palace located at Devalokam, Kottayam, in Kerala state of India. It is the official headquarters of the Catholicos of the East who reigns on the Supreme Throne of St. Thomas the Apostle. This seat of the Primate of the Church was consecrated on 31 December 1951. Mar Elia Cathedral, Kottayam is the Thronal Cathedral of the Catholicos of the East.

The new Aramana (palace) which was built in 1961 was inaugurated by the visiting Armenian Catholicos Vazgen I.

Holy relics of St. Thomas the Apostle are kept in the Catholicate Chapel. The mortal remains of Baselios Geevarghese II, Baselios Augen I, Baselios Mar Thoma Mathews I and Thomas Mar Makarios Metropolitan are entombed in this chapel.

List of Catholicos of the East[edit]

The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church was founded by St. Thomas, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ, who came to India in 52 AD.

At least from the fourth century the Indian Church entered into a close relationship with the Persian or East Syrian Church. From the Persians, the Indians inherited East Syrian language and liturgies and gradually came to be known as Syrian Christians.

In the sixteenth century Roman Catholic missionaries came to Kerala. They tried to unite the Syrian Christians to the Roman Catholic Church and this led to a split in the community. Those who accepted Catholicism are the present Syro-Malabar Catholics. Later, Western Protestant missionaries came to Kerala and worked among Syrian Christians; the first few decades of cooperation was cordial, but dogmatic differences and colonial nature of the missionaries created splits in the community.

In the seventeenth century, the Church came to a relationship with the Antiochene Church which again caused divisions. As a result of this relationship the Church adopted West Syrian liturgies and practices.

The Church entered into a new phase of its history by the establishment of the Catholicate in 1912.

At present the Church is using the West Syrian liturgy. The faith of the Church is that which was established by the three Ecumenical Councils of Nicea (325 AD), Constantinople (381 AD) and Ephesus (431 AD).

The Church is in communion with the other Oriental Orthodox Churches namely, Coptic, Armenian, Syriac, Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox Churches. The Church is in good ecumenical relationship with the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches.

At present the Church has over 2 million faithful with 30 dioceses all over the world.

Saints of the Church[edit]

Saint Geevarghese Mar Dionysius of Vattasseril Malankara Sabha Bhasuran (The Sun of Malankara) Saint Geevarghese Mar Dionysius of Vattasseril

Current Metropolitans[edit]

  • Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II (Catholicos of the East and Malankara Metropolitan)
  • Thomas Mar Athanasius -Chengannur
  • Dr. Thomas Mar Athanasius - Kandanad East
  • Dr.Yuhanon Mar Meletius - Thrissur
  • Kuriakose Mar Clemis - Thumbamon
  • Zachariah Mar Anthonios - Kollam
  • Geevarghese Mar Coorilos - Bombay
  • Zecharias Mar Nicholovos - North East America
  • Mathews Mar Severios - Kandanad West
  • Yacob Mar Irenaios - Kochi
  • Gabriel Mar Gregorios -Trivandrum
  • Zachariah Mar Theophilos - Malabar
  • Yuhanon Mar Chrysostomos - Niranam
  • Yuhanon Mar Policarpos - Ankamali
  • Mathews Mar Theodosius - Idukki
  • Joseph Mar Dionysius - Calcutta
  • Abraham Mar Ephiphanios - Sulthan Bethery
  • Mathews Mar Thimothios - U.K,Europe,Africa
  • Alexios Mar Eusebius - South-West America
  • Yuhanon Mar Dioscoros - Madras, Kottayam
  • Yuhanon Mar Dimitrios - Delhi
  • Yuhanon Mar Thevodoros - Kottarakara - Punalur
  • Yakob Mar Elias - Brahmavar
  • Joshua Mar Nicodimos - Nilackal
  • Zacharias Mar Aprem - Adoor – Kadampanadu
  • Geevarghese Mar Julius - Ahmedabad
  • Abraham Mar Seraphim - Banglore

Theological seminaries[edit]

A number of seminaries are present in the Church. Most of them which currently serve as monasteries functioned in full capacities at one time or the other. At present, the two seminaries that offer bachelor's and master's degrees in theology include:

Ecumenical relations[edit]

The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church was a founding member of the World Council of Churches.[15]

Various theologians were involved in negotiations between the Oriental Orthodox and the Byzantine churches. The Indian Orthodox Church participated in the Ecumenical Council of Oriental Orthodox Churches held in Addis Ababa, in 1965. The contributions of theologians including Paulos Mar Gregorios, Geevarghese Mar Osthathios, Fr. Dr. V. C. Samuel to ecumenism and theological dialogue are respected across the Christian world.

Other organizations to which the church belongs are

Churches with historical importance[edit]

Dioceses[edit]

Malankara Association[edit]

The Malankara Association is the elected body consisting of members from parishes which manages and controls the religious and social concerns of the church. Traditionally convened as the Malankara Palli-yogam (മലങ്കര പള്ളി യോഗം, meaning Parish assembly of Malankara), the modern form of the Association is believed to have been established in 1873 by Pulikkottil Joseph Mar Dionysious II by convening a meeting of the parish representatives in Parumala. In 1876, Mulanthuruthy Synod, an elected body in the name of the Malankara Association officially took charge.[22] Church constitution details the powers and responsibilities of the Association.

The Malankara Metropolitan is the president, and the Diocesan Metropolitans are the vice-presidents of the association. The Association elects the Malankara Metropolitan, Catholicos of the East, Metropolitans, priest trustee, lay trustee, Association Secretary and Managing Committee Members. Each parish is represented in the Association by a priest, and lay people elected by the parish general body, proportionate to the membership strength of each parish.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 5 by Erwin Fahlbusch. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing - 2008. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-8028-2417-2.
  2. ^ Official Website
  3. ^ Paul Varghese (Paulose Mar Gregorios), "The Syrian Orthodox Church," in The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of india, Ed. George Menachery, Vol. 2, 1973, pp.75-78
  4. ^ Thomas Arthur Russell (2010). Comparative Christianity: A Student's Guide to a Religion and Its Diverse Traditions. Universal-Publishers. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-59942-877-2. The Malankara(Indian)Orthodox Church of India(also called by a variety of names, such as the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, or the Syrian Church in India). It is located in Kerala, India. 
  5. ^ John; Anthony McGuckin (November 2010). The Encyclopedia Of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, 2 Volume Set. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwells. p. 878. ISBN 978-1-4443-9254-8. The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, also known as Indian Orthodox Church, is one of the major and oldest churches in India. The church is believed to have been founded by the Apostle St.Thomas in 52 
  6. ^ Lucian N. Leustean (2010). Eastern christianity and the cold war, 1945-91. New York: Routeledge Taylor&Francis Group. p. 317. ISBN 0-203-86594-4. India has two main Orthodox churches, the autocephalous Malankara Syrian Church and autonomous Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church under jurisdiction of Syrian Patriarchate. However, in 1912 there was a split in the community when one part declared itself an autocephalous church and announced the re-establishment of the ancient Catholicosate of the East in India. This was not accepted by those who remained loyal to the Syrian Patriarch. The two sides were reconciled in 1958 when the Indian Supreme Court declared that only the autocephalous Catholicos and bishops in communion with him had legal standing. But in 1975 the Syrian Patriarch excommunicated and deposed the Catholicos and appointed a rival, an action that resulted in the community splitting yet again. On 21 January 1995 the Supreme Court of India stated the existence of one orthodox church in India divided into two groups and recognised spiritual authority of the Syrian Patriarchate, acknowledging at the same time the rights of the autocephalous Church 
  7. ^ Fahlbusch; Lochman; Mbiti; Pelikan (November 2010). The Encyclopedia Of Christianity, Volume 5 S-Z. Gittingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck&Rupercht. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-8028-2417-2. The autocephalous Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church is governed by Holy Episcopal Synod of 24 Bishops presided over by His Holiness Moran Mar Baselios Mar Thoma Didimos catholicos of the east 
  8. ^ http://www.cnewa.org/default.aspx?ID=9&pagetypeID=9&sitecode=hq&pageno=1 |quote= However, in 1912 there was a split in the community when one part declared itself an autocephalous church and announced the re-establishment of the ancient Catholicosate of the East in India. This was not accepted by those who remained loyal to the Syrian Patriarch. The two sides were reconciled in 1958 when the Indian Supreme Court declared that only the autocephalous Catholicos and bishops in communion with him had legal standing. But in 1975 the Syrian Patriarch excommunicated and deposed the Catholicos and appointed a rival, an action that resulted in the community splitting yet again.In June 1995 the Supreme Court of India rendered a decision that (a) upheld the Constitution of the church that had been adopted in 1934 and made it binding on both factions, (b) stated that there is only one Orthodox church in India, currently divided into two factions, and (c) recognized the Syrian Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch as the spiritual head of the universal Syrian Church, while affirming that the autocephalous Catholicos has legal standing as the head of the entire church, and that he is custodian of its parishes and properties. This decision did not, however, result in a reconciliation between the two groups, which in 2007 remained separate and antagonistic.
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ Frykenberg, p. 93.
  11. ^ Wilmshurst, EO, 343
  12. ^ MOSC. Constitution:First clause and second clause. 1. The Malankara Church is a division of the Orthodox Syrian Church. The Primate of the Orthodox Syrian Church is the Patriarch of Antioch. 2. The Malankara Church was founded by St.Thomas the Apostle and is included in the Orthodox Syrian Church of the East and the Primate of the Orthodox Syrian Church of the East is the Catholicos. 
  13. ^ "About the church". Niranam St. Mary's Orthodox Syrian Church. 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010. 
  14. ^ "Malankara Orthodox Church - Holy Qurbana". Malankaraorthodoxchurch.in. Retrieved 23 October 2012. 
  15. ^ The Encyclopedia of Christianity by FAHLBUSCH, Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley page 285
  16. ^ [2] Archived 18 April 2012 on Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ "Pilgrim center of St. Mary (St.Mary's Orthodox Church Kallooppara)". Kalloopparachurch.com. Retrieved 23 October 2012. 
  18. ^ "Puthuppally Pally - Welcome to official website of St. George Orthodox Church, Puthuppally". Puthuppallypally.in. Retrieved 23 October 2012. 
  19. ^ [3] Archived 12 February 2015 on Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ [4] Archived 16 January 2011 on Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ "St. John's Orthodox Church, Kadammanitta". Kadammanittapally.com. 15 September 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012. 
  22. ^ "Malankara Association". malankaraorthodoxchurch.in. Retrieved 22 October 2012. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]