Prime Minister of India
|Prime Minister of India
Bhārat ke Pradhānamantrī
|Prime Minister's Office|
|Style||The Honourable (formal)|
His Excellency (in diplomatic correspondence)
Mr. Prime Minister (informal)
|Status||Head of government|
|Residence||Bungalow Number 5, Prime Minister's Estate, Lok Kalyan Marg, New Delhi, India|
|Seat||Prime Minister's Office, South Block, Central Secretariat, New Delhi, India
Camp Office: Bungalow Number 7, Prime Minister's Estate, Lok Kalyan Marg, New Delhi, India
|Appointer||President of India|
by convention, based on appointee's ability to command confidence in the Lok Sabha
|Term length||At the pleasure of the President|
Lok Sabha term is 5 years unless dissolved sooner
No term limits specified
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of India|
|Precursor||Vice President of the Executive Council|
|Inaugural holder||Jawaharlal Nehru|
|Formation||15 August 1947|
|Deputy||Vacant, Deputy Prime Minister of India|
|Salary||₹280,000 (US$3,900) (per month)|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The prime minister of India (IAST: Bhārat ke Pradhānamantrī) is the leader of the executive branch of the Government of India. The prime minister is the chief adviser to the president of India and the head of the Union Council of Ministers. They can be a member of any of the two houses of the Parliament of India—the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of the States); but has to be a member of the political party or coalition, having a majority in the Lok Sabha.
The prime minister is the senior-most member of cabinet in the executive of government in a parliamentary system. The prime minister selects and can dismiss members of the cabinet; allocates posts to members within the government; and is the presiding member and chairperson of the cabinet.
The Union Cabinet headed by the prime minister is appointed by the President of India to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive. Union cabinet is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha as per Article 75(3) of the Constitution of India. The prime minister has to enjoy the confidence of a majority in the Lok Sabha and shall resign if they are unable to prove majority when instructed by the president.
Origins and history
India follows a parliamentary system in which the prime minister is the presiding head of the government and chief of the executive of the government. In such systems, the head of state, or, the head of state's official representative (i.e., the monarch, president, or governor-general) usually holds a purely ceremonial position and acts—on most matters—only on the advice of the prime minister.
The prime minister—if they are not already—shall become a member of parliament within six months of beginning his/her tenure. A prime minister is expected to work with other central ministers to ensure the passage of bills by the parliament.
Since 1947, there have been 14 different prime ministers.[a] The first few decades after 1947 saw the Indian National Congress' (INC) almost complete domination over the political map of India. India's first prime minister—Jawaharlal Nehru—took oath on 15 August 1947. Nehru went on to serve as prime minister for 17 consecutive years, winning four general elections in the process. His tenure ended in May 1964, on his death. After the death of Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri—a former home minister and a leader of the Congress party—ascended to the position of Prime Minister. Shastri's tenure saw the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. Shashtri subsequently died of a reported heart attack in Tashkent, after signing the Tashkent Declaration.
After Shastri, Indira Gandhi—Nehru's daughter—was elected as the country's first woman prime minister. Indira's first term in office lasted 11 years, in which she took steps such as nationalisation of banks; end of allowances and political posts, which were received by members of the royal families of the erstwhile princely states of British India. In addition, events such as the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971; the establishment of a sovereign Bangladesh; accession of Sikkim to India, through a referendum in 1975; and India's first nuclear test in Pokhran occurred during Indira's first term. In 1975, President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed—on Indira's advice—imposed a state of emergency, therefore, bestowing the government with the power to rule by decree, the period is known for human right violations.
After widespread protests, the emergency was lifted in 1977, and a general election was to be held. All of the political parties of the opposition—after the conclusion of the emergency—fought together against the Congress, under the umbrella of the Janata Party, in the general election of 1977, and were successful in defeating the Congress. Subsequently, Morarji Desai—a former deputy prime minister—became the first non-Congress prime minister of the country. The government of Prime Minister Desai was composed of groups with opposite ideologies, in which unity and co-ordination were difficult to maintain. Ultimately, after two and a half years as PM; on 28 July 1979, Morarji tendered his resignation to the president; and his government fell. Thereafter, Charan Singh—a deputy prime minister in Desai's cabinet—with outside, conditional support from Congress, proved a majority in Lok Sabha and took oath as prime minister. However, Congress pulled its support shortly after, and Singh had to resign; he had a tenure of 5 months, the shortest in the history of the office.
In 1980, after a three-year absence, the Congress returned to power with an absolute majority. Indira Gandhi was elected prime minister a second time. During her second tenure, Operation Blue Star—an Indian Army operation inside the Golden Temple, the most sacred site in Sikhism—was conducted, resulting in reportedly thousands of deaths. Subsequently, on 31 October 1984, Gandhi was shot dead by Satwant Singh and Beant Singh—two of her bodyguards—in the garden of her residence at 1, Safdarjung Road, New Delhi.
After Indira, Rajiv—her eldest son and 40 years old at the time—was sworn in on the evening of 31 October 1984, becoming the youngest person ever to hold the office of prime minister. Rajiv immediately called for a general election. In the subsequent general election, the Congress secured an absolute majority, winning 401 of 552 seats in the Lok Sabha, the maximum number received by any party in the history of India. Vishwanath Pratap Singh—first finance minister and then later defence minister in Gandhi's cabinet—uncovered irregularities, in what became known as the Bofors scandal, during his stint at the Ministry of Defence; Singh was subsequently expelled from Congress and formed the Janata Dal and—with the help of several anti-Congress parties—also formed the National Front, a coalition of many political parties.
In the general election of 1989, the National Front—with outside support from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Left Front—came to power. V. P. Singh was elected prime minister. During a tenure of less than a year, Singh and his government accepted the Mandal Commission's recommendations. Singh's tenure came to an end after he ordered the arrest of BJP member Lal Krishna Advani, as a result, BJP withdrew its outside support to the government, V. P. Singh lost the subsequent vote-of-no-confidence 146–320 and had to resign. After V. P. Singh's resignation, Chandra Shekhar along with 64 members of parliament (MPs) floated the Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya), and proved a majority in the Lok Sabha with support from Congress. But Shekhar's premiership did not last long, Congress proceeded to withdraw its support; Shekhar's government fell as a result, and new elections were announced.
In the general election of 1991, Congress—under the leadership of P. V. Narasimha Rao—formed a minority government; Rao became the first PM of South Indian origin. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, India was on the brink of bankruptcy, so, Rao took steps to liberalise the economy, and appointed Manmohan Singh—an economist and a former governor of the Reserve Bank of India—as finance minister. Rao and Singh then took various steps to liberalise the economy, these resulted in an unprecedented economic growth in India. His premiership, however, was also a witness to the demolition of the Babri Masjid, which resulted in the death of about 2,000 people. Rao, however, did complete five continuous years in office, becoming the first prime minister outside of the Nehru—Gandhi family to do so.
After the end of Rao's tenure in May 1996, the nation saw four prime ministers in a span of three years, viz., two tenures of Atal Bihari Vajpayee; one tenure of H. D. Deve Gowda from 1 June 1996 to 21 April 1997; and one tenure of I. K. Gujral from 21 April 1997 to 19 March 1998. The government of Prime Minister Vajpayee—elected in 1998—took some concrete steps. In May 1998—after a month in power—the government announced the conduct of five underground nuclear explosions in Pokhran. In response to these tests, many western countries, including the United States, imposed economic sanctions on India, but, due to the support received from Russia, France, the Gulf countries and some other nations, the sanctions—were largely—not considered successful. A few months later in response to the Indian nuclear tests, Pakistan also conducted nuclear tests. Given the deteriorating situation between the two countries, the governments tried to improve bilateral relations. In February 1999, the India and Pakistan signed the Lahore Declaration, in which the two countries announced their intention to annul mutual enmity, increase trade and use their nuclear capabilities for peaceful purposes. In May 1999, All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam withdrew from the ruling National Democratic Alliance (NDA) coalition; Vajpayee's government, hence, became a caretaker one after losing a motion-of-no-confidence 269–270, this coincided with the Kargil War with Pakistan. In the subsequent October 1999 general election, the BJP-led NDA and its affiliated parties secured a comfortable majority in the Lok Sabha, winning 299 of 543 seats in the lower house.
Vajpayee continued the process of economic liberalisation during his reign, resulting in economic growth. In addition to the development of infrastructure and basic facilities, the government took several steps to improve the infrastructure of the country, such as, the National Highways Development Project (NHDP) and the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY; IAST: Pradhānamaṃtrī Grāma Saḍa़ka Yojanā; lit. Prime Minister Rural Road Scheme), for the development of roads. But during his reign, the 2002 Gujarat communal riots in the state of Gujarat took place; resulting in about 2,000 deaths. Vajpayee's tenure as prime minister came to an end in May 2004, making him the first non-Congress PM to complete a full five-year tenure.
In the 2004 election, the Congress emerged as the largest party in a hung parliament; Congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA)—with outside support from the Left Front, the Samajwadi Party (SP) and Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) among others—proved a majority in the Lok Sabha, and Manmohan Singh was elected prime minister; becoming the first Sikh prime minister of the nation. During his tenure, the country retained the economic momentum gained during Prime Minister Vajpayee's tenure. Apart from this, the government succeeded in getting the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005, and the Right to Information Act, 2005 passed in the parliament. Further, the government strengthened India's relations with nations like Afghanistan; Russia; the Gulf states; and the United States, culminating with the ratification of India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement near the end of Singh's first term. At the same time, the November 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks also happened during Singh's first term in office. In the general election of 2009, the mandate of UPA increased. Prime Minister Singh's second term, however, was surrounded by accusations of high-level scandals and corruption. Singh resigned as prime minister on 17 May 2014, after Congress' defeat in the 2014 general election.
In the general election of 2014, the BJP-led NDA got an absolute majority, winning 336 out of 543 Lok Sabha seats; the BJP itself became the first party since 1984 to get a majority in the Lok Sabha. Narendra Modi—the Chief Minister of Gujarat—was elected prime minister, becoming the first prime minister to have been born in an independent India.
Constitutional framework and position of prime minister
The Constitution envisions a scheme of affairs in which the president of India is the head of state; in terms of Article 53 with office of the prime minister being the head of Council of Ministers to assist and advise the president in the discharge of his/her constitutional functions. To quote, Article 53, 74 and 75 provide as under;
The executive powers of the Union shall be vested in the president and shall be exercised either directly or through subordinate officers, in accordance with the Constitution.— Article 53(1), Constitution of India
There shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the president who shall, in the exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice.— Article 74(1), Constitution of India
The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President and the other Ministers shall be appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.— Article 75(1), Constitution of India
Like most parliamentary democracies, the president's duties are mostly ceremonial as long as the constitution and the rule of law is obeyed by the cabinet and the legislature. The prime minister of India is the head of government and has the responsibility for executive power. The president's constitutional duty is to preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law per article 60. In the constitution of India, the prime minister is mentioned in only four of its articles (articles 74, 75, 78 and 366), however he/she plays a crucial role in the government of India by enjoying majority in the Lok Sabha.
Appointment, tenure and removal
According to Article 84 of the Constitution of India, which sets the principle qualification for member of Parliament, and Article 75 of the Constitution of India, which sets the qualifications for the minister in the Union Council of Ministers, and the argument that the position of prime minister has been described as primus inter pares (the first among equals), A prime minister must:
- be a citizen of India.
- be a member of the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha. If the person chosen as the prime minister is neither a member of the Lok Sabha nor the Rajya Sabha at the time of selection, they must become a member of either of the houses within six months.
- be above 25 years of age if they are a member of the Lok Sabha, or, above 30 years of age if they are a member of the Rajya Sabha.
- not hold any office of profit under the government of India or the government of any state or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said governments.
If however a candidate is elected as the prime minister they must vacate their post from any private or government company and may take up the post only on completion of their term.
Oaths of office and secrecy
The prime minister is required to make and subscribe in the presence of the President of India before entering office, the oath of office and secrecy, as per the Third Schedule of the Constitution of India.
Oath of office:
I, <name>, do swear in the name of God/solemnly affirm that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India, that I will faithfully and conscientiously discharge my duties as Prime Minister for the Union and that I will do right to all manner of people in accordance with the Constitution and the law, without fear or favour, affection or ill-will.— Constitution of India, Third Schedule, Part I
Oath of secrecy:
I, <name>, do swear in the name of God/solemnly affirm that I will not directly or indirectly communicate or reveal to any person or persons any matter which shall be brought under my consideration or shall become known to me as Prime Minister for the Union except as may be required for the due discharge of my duties as such Minister.— Constitution of India, Third Schedule, Part II
Tenure and removal from office
The prime minister serves on 'the pleasure of the president', hence, a prime minister may remain in office indefinitely, so long as the president has confidence in him/her. However, a prime minister must have the confidence of Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India.
However, the term of a prime minister can end before the end of a Lok Sabha's term, if a simple majority of its members no longer have confidence in him/her, this is called a vote-of-no-confidence. Three prime ministers, I. K. Gujral, H. D. Deve Gowda and Atal Bihari Vajpayee have been voted out from office this way. In addition, a prime minister can also resign from office; Morarji Desai was the first prime minister to resign while in office.
Role and power of the prime minister
The prime minister leads the functioning and exercise of authority of the government of India. The president of India—subject to eligibility—invites a person who is commanding support of majority members of Lok Sabha to form the government of India—also known as the central government or Union government—at the national level and exercise its powers. In practice the prime minister nominates the members of their council of ministers to the president. They also work upon to decide a core group of ministers (known as the cabinet), as in charge of the important functions and ministries of the government of India.
The prime minister is responsible for aiding and advising the president in distribution of work of the government to various ministries and offices and in terms of the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961. The co-ordinating work is generally allocated to the Cabinet Secretariat. While the work of the government is generally divided into various Ministries, the prime minister may retain certain portfolios if they are not allocated to any member of the cabinet.
The prime minister—in consultation with the cabinet—schedules and attends the sessions of the houses of parliament and is required to answer the question from the Members of Parliament to them as the in-charge of the portfolios in the capacity as prime minister of India.
Some specific ministries/department are not allocated to anyone in the cabinet but the prime minister themself. The prime minister is usually always in charge/head of:
- Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions (as Minister of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions)
- Cabinet Secretariat
- Appointments Committee of the Cabinet
- Cabinet Committee on Security
- Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs
- NITI Aayog
- Department of Atomic Energy
- Department of Space
- Nuclear Command Authority
The prime minister represents the country in various delegations, high level meetings and international organisations that require the attendance of the highest government office, and also addresses to the nation on various issues of national or other importance.
Per Article 78 of the constitution, the official communication between the union cabinet and the president are through the prime minister. Other wise constitution recognises the prime minister as a member of the union cabinet only outside the sphere of union cabinet.
Administrative and appointment powers
The prime minister recommends to the president—among others—names for the appointment of:
- Chief Election Commissioner of India (CEC) and other Election Commissioners of India (ECs)
- Comptroller and Auditor General of India (C&AG)
- Chairperson and members of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC)
- Chief Information Commissioner of India (CIC) and Information Commissioners of India
- Chairperson and members of the finance commission (FC)
- Attorney General of India (AG) and Solicitor General of India (SG)
As the chairperson of Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC), the prime minister—on the non-binding advice of the Cabinet Secretary of India led-Senior Selection Board (SSB)—decides the postings of top civil servants, such as, secretaries, additional secretaries and joint secretaries in the government of India. Further, in the same capacity, the PM decides the assignments of top military personnel such as the Chief of the Army Staff, Chief of the Air Staff, Chief of the Naval Staff and commanders of operational and training commands. In addition, the ACC also decides the posting of Indian Police Service officers—the All India Service for policing, which staffs most of the higher level law enforcement positions at federal and state level—in the government of India.
Also, as the Minister of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, the PM also exercises control over the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), the country's premier civil service, which staffs most of the senior civil service positions; the Public Enterprises Selection Board (PESB); and the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), except for the selection of its director, who is chosen by a committee of: (a) the prime minister, as chairperson; (b) the leader of the opposition in Lok Sabha; and (c) the chief justice.
Unlike most other countries, the prime minister does not have much influence over the selection of judges, that is done by a collegium of judges consisting of the Chief Justice of India, four senior most judges of the Supreme Court of India and the chief justice—or the senior-most judge—of the concerned state high court. The executive as a whole, however, has the right to send back a recommended name to the collegium for reconsideration, this, however, is not a full Veto power, and the collegium can still put forward rejected name.
The prime minister acts as the leader of the house of the chamber of parliament—generally the Lok Sabha—he/she belongs to. In this role, the prime minister is tasked with representing the executive in the legislature, he/she is also expected to announce important legislation, and is further expected to respond to the opposition's concerns. Article 85 of the Indian constitution confers the president with the power to convene and end extraordinary sessions of the parliament, this power, however, is exercised only on the advise of the prime minister and his/her council, so, in practice, the prime minister does exercise some control over affairs of the parliament.
Compensation and benefits
Article 75 of the Constitution of India confers the parliament with the power to decide the remuneration and other benefits of the prime minister and other ministers are to be decided by the Parliament. and is renewed from time to time. The original remuneration for the prime minister and other ministers were specified in the Part B of the second schedule of the constitution, which was later removed by an amendment.
In 2010, the prime minister's office reported that he/she does not receive a formal salary, but was only entitled to monthly allowances. That same year The Economist reported that, on a purchasing power parity basis, the prime minister received an equivalent of $4106 per year. As a percentage of the country's per-capita GDP (gross domestic product), this is the lowest of all countries The Economist surveyed.
|October 2009||₹100,000 (US$1,400)|
|October 2010||₹135,000 (US$1,900)|
|July 2012||₹160,000 (US$2,200)|
The 7, Lok Kalyan Marg—previously called the 7, Race Course Road—in New Delhi, currently serves as the official place of residence for the prime minister of India.
The first residence of the Indian prime minister was Teen Murti Bhavan. His successor Lal Bahadur Shastri chose 10, Janpath as an official residence. Indira Gandhi resided at 1, Safdarjung Road. Rajiv Gandhi became the first prime minister to use 7, Race Course Road as his residence, which was used by his successors.
For ground travel, the prime minister uses a highly modified, armoured version of a Range Rover. The prime minister's motorcade comprises a fleet of vehicles, the core of which consists of at least three armoured BMW 7 Series sedans, two armoured Range Rovers, at least 8-10 BMW X5s, six Toyota Fortuners/Land Cruisers and at least two Mercedes-Benz Sprinter ambulances.
For air travel, Boeing 777-300ERs—designated by the call sign Air India One (AI-1 or AIC001), and maintained by the Indian Air Force—are used. Apart from aircraft, there are several helicopters used such as Mi-8 for carrying the prime minister for travelling a short distance. These aircraft and helicopters are operated by the Indian Air Force.
The prime minister's Office (PMO) acts as the principal workplace of the prime minister. The office is located at South Block, and is a 20-room complex, and has the Cabinet Secretariat, the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of External Affairs adjacent to it. The office is headed by the Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister of India, generally a former civil servant, mostly from the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and rarely from the Indian Foreign Service (IFS).
The prime minister's spouse sometimes accompany him/her on foreign visits. The prime minister's family is also assigned protection by the Special Protection Group.
Former prime ministers are entitled to a bungalow, former prime ministers are also entitled the same facilities as those given to a serving cabinet minister, this includes a fourteen-member secretarial staff, for a period of five years; reimbursement of office expenses; six domestic executive-class air tickets each year; and security cover from the Special Protection Group.
In addition, former prime ministers rank seventh on the Indian order of precedence, equivalent to chief ministers of states (within their respective states) and cabinet ministers As a former member of the parliament, the prime minister also receives pension after they leave office. In 2015, a former MP receives a minimum pension of ₹20,000 (US$280) per month, plus—if he/she served as an MP for more than five years—₹1,500 (US$21) for every year served.[needs update]
Some prime ministers have had significant careers after their tenure, including H. D. Deve Gowda, who remained a Member of the Lok Sabha until 2019, and Manmohan Singh continues to be a Member of the Rajya Sabha.
Several institutions are named after prime ministers of India. The birth-date of Jawaharlal Nehru is celebrated as children's day in India. Prime ministers are also commemorated on postage stamps of several countries.
Prime ministerial funds
The prime minister presides over various funds.
National Defence Fund
The National Defence Fund (NDF) was set up the Indian government in 1962, in the aftermath of 1962 Sino-Indian War. The prime minister acts as chairperson of the fund's executive committee, while, the ministers of defence, finance and home act as the members of the executive committee, the finance minister also acts the treasurer of the committee. The secretary of the fund's executive committee is a joint secretary in the prime minister's office, dealing with the subject of NDF. The fund—according to its website—is "entirely dependent on voluntary contributions from the public and does not get any budgetary support.". Donations to the fund are 100% tax-deductible under section 80G of the Income Tax Act, 1961.
Prime Minister's National Relief Fund
The Prime Minister's National Relief Fund (PMNRF) was set up by the first prime minister of India—Jawaharlal Nehru—in 1948, to assist displaced people from Pakistan. The fund, now, is primarily used to assist the families of those who are killed during natural disasters such as earthquakes, cyclones and flood and secondarily to reimburse medical expenses of people with chronic and deadly diseases. Donations to the PMNRF are 100% tax-deductible under section 80G of the Income Tax Act, 1961.
Deputy Prime Minister
The post of Deputy Prime Minister of India is not technically a constitutional post, nor is there any mention of it in an Act of the parliament. But historically, on various occasions, different governments have assigned one of their senior ministers as the deputy prime minister. There is neither constitutional requirement for filling the post of deputy PM, nor does the post provide any kind of special powers. Typically, senior cabinet ministers like the finance minister or the home minister are appointed as Deputy Prime Minister. The post is considered to be the senior most in the cabinet after the prime minister and represents the government in his/her absence. Generally, deputy prime ministers have been appointed to strengthen the coalition governments. The first holder of this post was Vallabhbhai Patel, who was also the home minister in Jawaharlal Nehru's cabinet.
- List of Prime Ministers of India
- List of Presidents of India
- Deputy Prime Minister of India
- List of Prime Ministers of India by longevity
- Air transports of heads of state and government
- Official state car
- Not including Gulzarilal Nanda who served, twice, as acting prime minister.
- as per Section 3 of "The Salaries and Allowances of Ministers Act 1952 and the rules made thereunder" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- "A Man Who, with All His Mind and Heart, Loved India". Life. 5 June 1964. p. 32.
- "India Mourning Nehru, 74, Dead of a Heart Attack; World Leaders Honor Him". The New York Times. 27 May 1964. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- Biswas, Soutik (27 August 2009). "Was Mr Shastri murdered?". BBC. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- Granville, Austin (2003). Working a democratic constitution: A history of the Indian experience. Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 215. ISBN 978-0195656107. OCLC 52992056.
- Christophe, Jaffrelot (2003). India's silent revolution: The rise of the lower castes in North India. London: C. Hurst & Co. pp. 131–142. ISBN 978-1850653981. OCLC 54023168.
- Hermann, Kulke; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India (4th ed.). New York City: Routledge. pp. 359. ISBN 978-0415329194. OCLC 57054139.
- David, Reynolds (2001). One world divisible: a global history since 1945. New York City: W. W. Norton. pp. 244–247. ISBN 978-0393321081. OCLC 46977934.
- Fisher, James F., ed. (1978). Himalayan Anthropology: The Indo-Tibetan Interface. The Hague: Mouton. p. 225. ISBN 978-3110806496. OCLC 561996779.
- Emma, Tarlo (2001). Unsettling memories: narratives of the emergency in Delhi. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520231207. OCLC 46421940.
- Jaitley, Arun (5 November 2007). "A tale of three Emergencies: real reason always different". The Indian Express. OCLC 70274541. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce (2009). Predictioneer's game: Using the logic of brazen self-interest to see and shape the future (1st ed.). New York City: Random House. pp. xxiii. ISBN 978-0-8129-7977-0. OCLC 290470064.
- Sanghvi, Vijay (2006). The Congress, Indira to Sonia Gandhi. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. pp. 114–122. ISBN 978-8178353401. OCLC 74972515.
- "Indira Gandhi becomes Indian Prime Minister – Jan 19, 1966". History. A&E Networks. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- Guidry, John A.; Kennedy, Michael D.; Zald, Mayer N. (2000). Globalizations and social movements: Culture, power, and the transnational public sphere. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. p. 319. ISBN 978-0472067213. OCLC 593248991.
- Crossette, Barbara (6 January 1989). "India Hangs Two Sikhs Convicted in Assassination of Indira Gandhi". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- "1984: Rajiv Gandhi wins landslide election victory". BBC. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Rajiv Gandhi takes oath as India's Prime Minister". Deseret News. New Delhi. Associated Press. 31 December 1984. ISSN 0745-4724. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Crossette, Barbara (18 September 1988). "New Opposition Front in India Stages Lively Rally". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Crossette, Barbara (2 December 1989). "Indian opposition chooses a premier". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Malhotra, Inder (23 March 2015). "Mandal vs Mandir". The Indian Express. Indian Express Group. OCLC 70274541. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Crossette, Barbara (30 October 1990). "India ready to bar Hindu move today". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Crossette, Barbara (8 November 1990). "India's Cabinet Falls as Premier Loses Confidence Vote, by 142–346, and Quits". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Crossette, Barbara (6 November 1990). "Dissidents Split Indian Prime Minister's Party". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Hazarika, Sanjoy (10 November 1990). "Rival of Singh Becomes India Premier". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Chandra Shekhar critical". The Hindu. New Delhi: The Hindu Group. Press Trust of India. 8 July 2007. ISSN 0971-751X. OCLC 13119119. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Narasimha Rao – a reforming PM". BBC. 23 December 2004. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- DeLong, J. Bradford (July 2001). "India Since Independence: An Analytic Growth Narrative". In Search of Prosperity: Analytic Narratives on Economic Growth. Retrieved 5 April 2018 – via Research Gate.
- "Timeline: Ayodhya holy site crisis". BBC. 6 December 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "India releases pictures of nuclear tests". Cable News Network. New Delhi: Turner Broadcasting System. 17 May 1998. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "US imposes sanctions on India". BBC. 13 May 1999. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Morrow, Daniel; Carriere, Michael (1 January 1999). "The economic impacts of the 1998 sanctions on India and Pakistan". The Nonproliferation Review. 6 (4): 1–16. doi:10.1080/10736709908436775. ISSN 1073-6700.
- Rai, Ajai K. (2009). India's nuclear diplomacy after Pokhran II. Foreword by Ved Prakash Malik. Delhi: Longman. ISBN 978-8131726686. OCLC 313061697.
- Khan, Feroz Hassan (2012). Eating grass: The making of the Pakistani bomb. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p. 281. ISBN 978-0804784801. OCLC 816041307.
- Iype, George (21 February 1999). "Vajpayee, Sharief sign Lahore Declaration". Lahore: Rediff.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Jayalalitha: Actress-turned-politician". BBC. 14 April 1999. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "India was ready to cross LoC, use nuclear weapons in Kargil war". Business Standard. BS Web Team. New Delhi: Business Standard Ltd. 3 December 2015. OCLC 496280002. Retrieved 5 April 2018.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Indian election: What they said". BBC. 8 October 1999. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee's five steps that changed India forever". The Economic Times. ET Online. New Delhi. 27 December 2017. OCLC 61311680. Retrieved 6 April 2018.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Panagariya, Arvind (25 December 2012). "A leader of substance: Along with Narasimha Rao, Atal Bihari Vajpayee laid the foundation of new India". The Times of India. OCLC 23379369. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Yakov, Gilinskiy; Gilly, Thomas Albert; Sergevnin, Vladimir (2009). The ethics of terrorism: Innovative approaches from an international perspective (17 lectures). Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publishers. p. 28. ISBN 978-0398079956. OCLC 731209878.
- "India swears in its first Sikh PM". BBC. 22 May 2004. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Grammaticas, Damian (24 January 2007). "Indian economy 'to overtake UK'". Delhi: BBC. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Drèze, Jean (23 August 2008). "Learning from NREGA". The Hindu. The Hindu Group. ISSN 0971-751X. OCLC 13119119. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "President gives assent to law on right to information". The Times of India. New Delhi. Press Trust of India. 25 June 2005. OCLC 23379369. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Bajoria, Jayshree (22 July 2009). "India-Afghanistan Relations". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "India announces more Afghan aid". BBC. 4 August 2008. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Roychowdhury, Amitabh (6 December 2005). "India, Russia sign agreements to strengthen ties". Moscow: Rediff.com. Press Trust of India. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Rajghatta, Chidanand (2 October 2008). "Finally, it's done: India back on the nuclear train". The Times of India. Washington D.C. OCLC 23379369. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Sirohi, Seema (9 October 2008). "A win-win situation for India". Outlook. BBC. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "Senate approves nuclear deal with India". Cable News Network. Washington D.C.: Turner Broadcasting Network. 1 October 2008. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Friedman, Thomas L. (17 February 2009). "No Way, No How, Not Here". The New York Times. New Delhi. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Schifrin, Nick (25 November 2009). "Mumbai Terror Suspects Charged a Year After Attacks". ABC News. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "More Congress, less UPA". Business Standard. B. S. Reporter. New Delhi: Business Standard Ltd. 17 May 2009. OCLC 496280002. Retrieved 6 April 2018.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Manmohan gets presidential invite to form govt". New Delhi: NDTV. Press Trust of India. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "Prime Minister Manmohan Singh directly responsible for coal scam: Arun Jaitley". The Economic Times. Indore. Press Trust of India. 19 August 2012. OCLC 61311680. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "2G scam: Disappointed over Manmohan Singh's refusal to appear before JPC, says Yashwant Sinha | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". Daily News and Analysis. Asian News International. 9 April 2013. OCLC 801791672. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Ghosh, Deepshikha, ed. (17 May 2014). "Prime Minister Manmohan Singh Resigns After 10 Years in Office". New Delhi: NDTV. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "Manmohan Singh to continue as PM till Modi assumes office". India Today. New Delhi: Aroon Purie. 17 May 2014. ISSN 0254-8399. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "Manmohan Singh resigns bringing to an end his 10-year tenure". The Times of India. New Delhi. Press Trust of India. 17 May 2014. OCLC 23379369. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "Narendra Modi appointed Prime Minister, swearing in on May 26". The Times of India. New Delhi. Press Trust of India. 20 May 2014. OCLC 23379369. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "Landslide win for Narendra Modi in India elections". BBC News. 23 May 2019.
- Basu, Durga Das; Manohar, V. R.; Banerjee, Bhagabati Prosad; Khan, Shakeel Ahmad (2008). Introduction to the Constitution of India (20th ed.). New Delhi: Lexis Nexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. p. 199. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9. OCLC 289009455.
- Gupta, Surajeet Das; Badhwar, Inderjit (15 May 1987). "Under the Constitution, does the President have the right to remove the Prime Minister?". India Today. Aroon Purie. ISSN 0254-8399. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "Sections 7 & 8k, The representation of the people act,1951" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Prime Minister and the Cabinet Ministers". pmindia.nic.in. Archived from the original on 20 April 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- "Ministers of State (Independent Charge)". pmindia.nic.in. Archived from the original on 20 April 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- "Ministers of State (without Independent Charge)". pmindia.nic.in. Archived from the original on 20 April 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- "(Allocation of Business) Rules 1961". cabsec.nic.in. Archived from the original on 30 April 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- "Cabinet Secretariat, Govt.of India". cabsec.gov.in. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- "PM's answers to Parliamentary Questions". pmindia.nic.in. Archived from the original on 20 April 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- "Recent Visit of the Prime Minister". pmindia.nic.in. Archived from the original on 20 April 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- "Recent National Messages of the PM". pmindia.nic.in. Archived from the original on 20 April 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- Laxmikanth, M. (2014). Governance in India (2nd ed.). Noida: McGraw-Hill Education (published 25 August 2014). pp. 3.16–3.17. ISBN 978-9339204785.
- Iype, George (31 May 2006). "What does the Cabinet Secretary do?". Rediff.com. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- "The Current System". Department of Personnel and Training, Government of India. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
- Unnithan, Sandeep (22 December 2016). "New chief on the block". India Today. Aroon Purie. ISSN 0254-8399. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- Laxmikanth, M. (2014). Governance in India (2nd ed.). Noida: McGraw-Hill Education (published 25 August 2014). p. 7.6. ISBN 978-9339204785.
- "Service Profile for the Indian Administrative Service" (PDF). Department of Personnel and Training, Government of India. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- Tummala, Krishna Kumar (1996). Public Administration in India. Mumbai: Allied Publishers. pp. 154–159. ISBN 978-8170235903. OCLC 313439426.
- Laxmikanth, M. (2014). Governance in India (2nd ed.). Noida: McGraw-Hill Education (published 25 August 2014). p. 7.37. ISBN 978-9339204785.
- "Organisation Under DOPT". Department of Personnel and Training, Government of India. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- "All about CBI director's appointment as PM Modi, CJI Kehar, Kharge meet to vet names". India Today. New Delhi: Aroon Purie. 16 January 2017. ISSN 0254-8399. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- Kirpal, Bhupinder N., ed. (2013). Supreme but not infallible: Essays in honour of the Supreme Court of India (6th impr. ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 97–106. ISBN 978-0-19-567226-8. OCLC 882928525.
- Iyer, V. R. Krishna (7 August 2001). "Higher judicial appointments - II". The Hindu. The Hindu Group. ISSN 0971-751X. OCLC 13119119. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- Thomas, K.T. (13 August 2014). "In defence of the collegium". The Indian Express. Indian Express Group. OCLC 70274541. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- Chhibber, Maneesh (24 March 2017). "MoP on appointments: SC puts its foot down, rejects Govt plan to veto postings on national security grounds". The Indian Express. New Delhi: Indian Express Group. OCLC 70274541. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "Supreme Court Rejects Government's Veto Power on Judges Appointment, Wants Reasons in Writing". NDTV. Press Trust of India. 27 March 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "Rajya Sabha – Role of The Leader of The House, Leader of the Opposition and Whips Brief History". Rajya Sabha. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- The Constitution of India, Article 75-6
- "A Raise for Prime Minister Manmohan Singh?". The Wall Street Journal. 23 July 2010. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Leaders of the fee world: How much a country's leader is paid compared to GDP per person". The Economist. 5 July 2010. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Pay & Allowances of the Prime Minister" (PDF). pmindia.nic.in/. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- "Modi ditches BMW, opts for a Range Rover". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. New Delhi: The Hindu Group. 15 August 2017. ISSN 0971-751X. OCLC 13119119. Retrieved 10 April 2018.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Sinha, Saurabh (8 January 2018). "New VVIP planes: Replacements for aged Air India One to arrive this month". The Times of India. New Delhi. OCLC 23379369. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Nayyar, Dhiraj (26 September 2010). "Air India One, Seat No 59G – Indian Express". The Indian Express. Indian Express Group. OCLC 70274541. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "The men who protect PM Narendra Modi". India Today. New Delhi: Aroon Purie. Mail Today Bureau. 16 August 2014. ISSN 0254-8399. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Prasad, S. (22 February 2018). "SPG takes over security arrangements for Modi". The Hindu. Puducherry. ISSN 0971-751X. OCLC 13119119. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Sahgal, Priya (7 June 2004). "Former presidents, Prime Ministers enjoy benefits at taxpayers expense". India Today. Aroon Purie. ISSN 0254-8399. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- "Perks for life". The Hindu. The Hindu Group. 1 May 2012. ISSN 0971-751X. OCLC 13119119. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- "Order of Precedence" (PDF). Rajya Sabha. President's Secretariat. 26 July 1979. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- "Table of Precedence" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. President's Secretariat. 26 July 1979. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- "Table of Precedence". Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. President's Secretariat. Archived from the original on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- Matthew, Liz (25 December 2015). "Government moves to double MPs' salary to Rs 2.8 lakh a month, hike pensions". The Indian Express. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee death: Several states declare public holiday". The Times of India. 17 August 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
- "National Defence Fund". Prime Minister of India, Government of India. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "Here's how you can avail tax deduction under Section 80G". Zee Business. 10 January 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Malhotra, Hansa (12 June 2018). "The Army Welfare Fund That You Might Think is a Hoax, But Isn't". The Quint. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "PM National Relief Fund". Prime Minister of India, Government of India. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Rajendran, S. (13 July 2012). "Of Deputy Chief Ministers and the Constitution". The Hindu. Bangalore: The Hindu Group. ISSN 0971-751X. OCLC 13119119. Retrieved 5 April 2018.