Indian rupee

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Indian Rupee)

Indian rupee
Banknotes of the Indian RupeeCoins of the Indian rupee
ISO 4217
CodeINR (numeric: 356)
UnitRupee 50p
 Freq. used10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500
 Rarely used1, 2, 5 [note 1]
 Freq. used1, 2, 5, 10
 Rarely used20
Official user(s)
Unofficial user(s)
Central bankReserve Bank of India[6]
PrinterSecurity Printing and Minting Corporation of India Limited[7]
MintIndia Government Mint[7]
InflationDecrease5.02% (October 2023)[8]
 SourceRBI – Annual Inflation Report
 MethodConsumer price index (India)[10]
Pegged by Bhutanese ngultrum (at par)
Nepalese rupee (higher value) [1INR=1.6 Nepalese Rupee][9]

The Indian rupee (symbol ; code: INR) is the official currency in India. The rupee is subdivided into 100 paise (Hindi pl; singular: paisa). The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. The Reserve Bank manages currency in India and derives its role in currency management on the basis of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.


Pāṇini (6th to 4th century BCE) mentions rūpya (रूप्य). While Shankar Goyal mentions it is unclear whether Panini was referring to coinage,[11] other scholars conclude that Panini uses the term rūpa to mean a piece of precious metal (typically silver) used as a coin, and a rūpya to mean a stamped piece of metal, a coin in the modern sense.[12] The Arthashastra, written by Chanakya, prime minister to the first Maurya emperor Chandragupta Maurya (c. 340–290 BCE), mentions silver coins as rūpyarūpa. Other types of coins, including gold coins (suvarṇarūpa), copper coins (tāmrarūpa), and lead coins (sīsarūpa), are also mentioned.[13] The immediate precursor of the rupee is the rūpiya—the silver coin weighing 178 grains minted in northern India, first by Sher Shah Suri during his brief rule between 1540 and 1545, and later adopted and standardized by the Mughal Empire. The weight remained unchanged well beyond the end of the Mughals until the 20th century.[14]


Silver punch mark coin of the Maurya empire, known as Rūpyarūpa, 3rd century BCE.
Silver coin of Skandagupta of Gupta Empire known as Rūpaka(रूपक) in Sanskrit, in the style of the Western Satraps, with peacock on reverse, 455-467 CE
Silver coins with raised writing
Rupiya issued by Sher Shah Suri, 1540–1545 CE

The history of the Indian rupee traces back to ancient India in circa 6th century BCE: ancient India was one of the earliest issuers of coins in the world,[15] along with the Chinese wen and Lydian staters.[16]

Arthashastra, written by Chanakya, prime minister to the first Maurya emperor Chandragupta Maurya (c. 340–290 BCE), mentions silver coins as rūpyarūpa, other types including gold coins (suvarṇarūpa), copper coins (tamrarūpa) and lead coins (sīsarūpa) are mentioned. Rūpa means 'form' or 'shape'; for example, in the word rūpyarūpa: rūpya 'wrought silver' and rūpa 'form'.[17]

The Gupta Empire produced large numbers of silver coins clearly influenced by those of the earlier Western Satraps by Chandragupta II.[18] The silver Rūpaka (Sanskrit: रूपक) coins were weighed approximately 20 ratis (2.2678g).[19]

In the intermediate times there was no fixed monetary system as reported by the Da Tang Xi Yu Ji.[20]

During his five-year rule from 1540 to 1545, Sultan Sher Shah Suri issued a coin of silver, weighing 178 grains (or 11.53 grams), which was also termed the rupiya.[21][22] During Babur's time, the brass to silver exchange ratio was roughly 50:2.[23] The silver coin remained in use during the Mughal period, Maratha era as well as in British India.[24] Among the earliest issues of paper rupees include; the Bank of Hindustan (1770–1832), the General Bank of Bengal and Bihar (1773–1775, established by Warren Hastings), and the Bengal Bank (1784–91).[citation needed]


Chart showing exchange rate of Indian silver rupee coin (blue) and the actual value of its silver content (red), against British pence. (From 1850 to 1900)

Historically, the rupee was a silver coin. This had severe consequences in the nineteenth century when the strongest economies in the world were on the gold standard (that is, paper linked to gold). The discovery of large quantities of silver in the United States and several European colonies caused the panic of 1873 which resulted in a decline in the value of silver relative to gold, devaluing India's standard currency. This event was known as "the fall of the rupee". In Britain the Long Depression resulted in bankruptcies, escalating unemployment, a halt in public works, and a major trade slump that lasted until 1897.[26]

India was unaffected by the imperial order-in-council of 1825, which attempted to introduce British sterling coinage to the British colonies. India, at that time, was controlled by the British East India Company. The silver rupee coin continued as the currency of India through the British Raj and beyond. In 1835, British India adopted a mono-metallic silver standard based on the rupee coin; this decision was influenced by a letter written by Lord Liverpool in 1805 extolling the virtues of mono-metallism.

Following the First war of Independence in 1857, the British government took direct control of India. From 1851, gold sovereigns were produced en masse at the Royal Mint in Sydney. In an 1864 attempt to make the British gold sovereign the "imperial coin", the treasuries in Bombay and Calcutta were instructed to receive (but not to issue) gold sovereigns; therefore, these gold sovereigns never left the vaults. As the British government gave up hope of replacing the rupee in India with the pound sterling, it realised for the same reason it could not replace the silver dollar in the Straits Settlements with the Indian rupee (as the British East India Company had desired). Since the silver crisis of 1873, several nations switched over to a gold exchange standard (wherein silver or banknotes circulate locally but with a fixed gold value for export purposes), including India in the 1890s.[27]

India Council Bill[edit]

In 1870, India was connected to Britain by a submarine telegraph cable. Around 1875, Britain started paying India for exported goods in India Council (paper) Bills (instead of silver).

If, therefore, the India Council in London should not step in to sell bills on India, the merchants and bankers would have to send silver to make good the (trade) balances. Thus a channel for the outflow of silver was stopped, in 1875, by the India Council in London.[28]

The great importance of these (Council) Bills, however, is the effect they have on the Market Price of Silver : and they have in fact been one of the most potent factors in recent years in causing the diminution in the Value of Silver as compared to Gold.[29]

The Indian and Chinese products for which silver is paid were and are, since 1873–74, very low in price, and it there fore takes less silver to purchase a larger quantity of Eastern commodities. Now, on taking the several agents into united consideration, it will certainly not seem very mysterious why silver should not only have fallen in price[28]

The great nations had recourse to two expedients for replenishing their exchequers, – first, loans, and, second, the more convenient forced loans of paper money۔[28]

Fowler Committee (1898)[edit]

Government of India - 5 Rupee note (1858)

The Indian Currency Committee or Fowler Committee was a government committee appointed by the British-run Government of India on 29 April 1898 to examine the currency situation in India.[30] They collected a wide range of testimony, examined as many as forty-nine witnesses, and only reported their conclusions in July 1899, after more than a year's deliberation.[25]

The prophecy made before the Committee of 1898 by Mr. A. M. Lindsay, in proposing a scheme closely similar in principle to that which was eventually adopted, has been largely fulfilled. "This change," he said, "will pass unnoticed, except by the intelligent few, and it is satisfactory to find that by this almost imperceptible process the Indian currency will be placed on a footing which Ricardo and other great authorities have advocated as the best of all currency systems, viz., one in which the currency media used in the internal circulation are confined to notes and cheap token coins, which are made to act precisely as if they were bits of gold by being made convertible into gold for foreign payment purposes.[31] The committee concurred in the opinion of the Indian government that the mints should remain closed to the unrestricted coinage of silver, and that a gold standard should be adopted without delay...they recommended (1) that the British sovereign be given full legal tender power in India, and (2) that the Indian mints be thrown open to its unrestricted coinage (for gold coins only).

These recommendations were acceptable to both governments, and were shortly afterwards translated into laws. The act making gold a legal tender was promulgated on 15 September 1899; and preparations were soon thereafter undertaken for the coinage of gold sovereigns in the mint at Bombay.[25]

Silver, therefore, has ceased to serve as standard; and the Indian currency system of to-day (that is 1901) may be described as that of a "limping" gold standard similar to the systems of France, Germany, Holland, and the United States.[25]

The Committee of 1898 explicitly declared themselves to be in favour of the eventual establishment of a gold currency.
This goal, if it was their goal, the Government of India have never attained.[31]


Government of India1 rupee (1917)

In 1913, John Maynard Keynes writes in his book Indian Currency and Finance that during financial year 1900–1901, gold coins (sovereigns) worth £6,750,000 were given to the Indian people in the hope that they would circulate as currency. But against the expectation of Government, not even half of that was returned to Government, and this experiment failed spectacularly, so Government abandoned this practice (but did not abandon the narrative of the gold standard). Subsequently, much of the gold held by the Government of India was shipped to the Bank of England in 1901 and held there.[32]

During the World War II, Subhas Chandra Bose led Indian National Army (INA) liberated Mizoram, Manipur and parts of Nagaland from the colonial British control with the help of Japanese forces, British Indian rupee was banned and Japanese rupee (1942-44) was introduced.[33]

Problems caused by the gold standard[edit]

At the onset of the First World War, the cost of gold was very low and therefore the pound sterling had high value. But during the war, the value of the pound fell alarmingly due to rising war expenses. At the end of the war, the value of the pound was only a fraction of what it had been before the war. It remained low until 1925, when the then Chancellor of the Exchequer (finance minister) of the United Kingdom, Winston Churchill, restored it to pre-war levels. As a result, the price of gold fell rapidly. While the rest of Europe purchased large quantities of gold from the United Kingdom, there was little increase in her gold reserves. This dealt a blow to an already deteriorating British economy. The United Kingdom began to look to its possessions as India to compensate for the gold that was sold.[34]

However, the price of gold in India, on the basis of the official exchange rate of the rupee around 1s. 6d., was lower than the price prevailing abroad practically throughout[clarification needed]; the disparity in prices made the export of the metal profitable; and this continued for almost a decade. Thus, in 1931–32, there were net exports of 7.7 million ounces, valued at Rs. 57.98 crore. In the following year, both the quantity and the price rose further: net exports totalled 8.4 million ounces, valued at Rs. 65.52 crore. In the ten years ended March 1941, total net exports were of the order of 43 million ounces (1337.3 tons) valued at about Rs. 375 crore, or an average price of Rs. 32-12-4 per tola.[35]

In the autumn of 1917 (when the silver price rose to 55 pence), there was danger of uprisings in India (against paper currency) which would handicap seriously British participation in the war. Inconvertibility (of paper currency into coin) would lead to a run on Post Office Savings Banks. It would prevent the further expansion of (paper currency) note issues and cause a rise of prices, in paper currency, that would greatly increase the cost of obtaining war supplies for export; to have reduced the silver content of this historic [rupee] coin might well have caused such popular distrust of the Government as to have precipitated an internal crisis, which would have been fatal to British success in the war.[36]

From 1931 to 1941, the United Kingdom purchased large amounts of gold from India and its many other colonies just by increasing price of gold, as Britain was able to pay in printable paper currency. Similarly, on 19 June 1934, Roosevelt made[clarification needed] Silver Purchase Act (which increased the price of silver) and purchased about 44,000 tons of silver, paying with paper silver certificates.[37]

In 1939, Dickson H. Leavens wrote in his book Silver Money: "In recent years the increased price of gold, measured in depreciated paper currencies, has attracted to the market (of London) large quantities (of gold) formerly hoarded or held in the form of ornaments in India and China".[36]

In their respective former colonies, the Indian rupee replaced the Danish Indian rupee in 1845, the French Indian rupee in 1954 and the Portuguese Indian escudo in 1961. Following the independence of India in 1947 and the accession of the princely states to the new Union, the Indian rupee replaced all the currencies of the previously autonomous states (although the Hyderabadi rupee was not demonetised until 1959).[38] Some of the states had issued rupees equal to those issued by the British (such as the Travancore rupee). Other currencies (including the Hyderabadi rupee and the Kutch kori) had different values.

The values of the subdivisions of the rupee during British rule (and in the first decade of independence) were:

Subdivisions of the rupee during 20th century
Value (in anna) Popular name Value (in paise)
16 anna 1 rupee 100 paise
8 anna 1 ardharupee / 1 athanni (dheli) 50 paise
4 anna 1 pavala / 1 chawanni 25 paise
2 anna 1 beda / 1 duanni 12 paise
1 anna 1 ekanni 6 paise
12 anna 1 paraka / 1 taka / 1 adhanni 3 paise
14 anna 1 kani (pice) / 1 paisa (old paise) 112 paise
18 anna 1 dhela 34 paisa
112 anna 1 pie 12 paisa
  • In 1957, the rupee was decimalised and divided into 100 naye paise (Hindi for "new paise"); in 1964, the initial naye was dropped.
  • Many still refer to 25-, 50- and 75-paise coins as 4, 8, and 12 annas, respectively; compare the expression "two bits" in colloquial American English for a quarter-dollar coin.

New currency sign for the Indian rupee[edit]

In 2010, a new rupee sign () was officially adopted. As its designer explained, it was derived from the combination of the Devanagari consonant "" (ra) and the Latin capital letter "R" without its vertical bar.[39] The parallel lines at the top (with white space between them) are said to make an allusion to the flag of India,[40] and also depict an equality sign that symbolises the nation's desire to reduce economic disparity. The first series of coins with the new rupee sign started in circulation on 8 July 2011. Before this, India used "" and "Re" as the symbols for multiple rupees and one rupee, respectively.

Digitization of Indian rupee[edit]

The Digital Rupee (e₹)[41] or eINR or E-Rupee is a tokenised digital version of the Indian Rupee, issued by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) as a central bank digital currency (CBDC).[42] The Digital Rupee was proposed in January 2017 and launched on 1 December 2022.[43] Digital Rupee is using blockchain distributed-ledger technology.[44]

Like banknotes it will be uniquely identifiable and regulated by Central Bank. Liability lies with RBI. Plans include online and offline accessibility.[45] RBI launched Digital Rupee for Wholesale (e₹-W) catering to financial institutions for interbank settlements and Digital Rupee for Retail (e₹-R) for consumer and business transactions.[46] The implementation of the Digital Rupee aims to remove the security printing cost borne by the general public, businesses, banks, and RBI on physical currency which amounted to ₹49,848,000,000.[47] [4984.8 X1,00,00,000 = ~5000 Crores]

Legal framework[edit]

British East India Company (EIC) was given right in 1717 CE to mint coins in the name of the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar on the island of Bombay. By 1792 CE the EIC demonatized all other coins till they were reduced to only 3 types of coins, i.e. EIC, Mughal & Maratha coins. After EIC expanded its control over India, it brought the "Coinage Act of 1835" and started to mint coins in the name of British king. EIC rule was replaced by British Crown raj which brought the "Paper Currency Act of 1861" and the "Uniform Coinage Act of 1906".[48]

After 2021, the government of independent India amended "The Coinage Act, 2011",[49] the "Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), 1999," the "Information Technology Act, 2000" and the "Crypto-currency and Regulation of Official Digital Currency Bill, 2021".[50][51]


Post-independence issues[edit]

Independent pre-decimal issues, 1950–1957[edit]

India's first coins after independence were issued in 1950 in denominations of 1 pice, 12, one and two annas, 14, 12 and one-rupee. The sizes and composition were the same as the final regal issues, except for the one-pice (which was bronze, but not holed).

Independent decimal issues, 1957–present[edit]

Row of six differently-shaped aluminium coins, arranged by size
In 1964, India introduced aluminium coins for denominations up to 20p.

The first decimal-coin issues in India consisted of 1, 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 naye paise, and 1 rupee. The 1 naya paisa was bronze; the 2, 5, and 10 naye paise were cupro-nickel, and the 25 naye paise (nicknamed chawanni; 25 naye paise equals 4 annas), 50 naye paise (also called athanni; 50 naye paise equalled 8 old annas) and 1-rupee were nickel. In 1964, the words naya/naye were removed from all coins. Between 1957 and 1967, aluminium one-, two-, three-, five- and ten-paise coins were introduced. In 1968 nickel-brass 20-paise coins were introduced, and replaced by aluminium coins in 1982. Between 1972 and 1975, cupro-nickel replaced nickel in the 25- and 50-paise and the 1-rupee coins; in 1982, cupro-nickel two-rupee coins were introduced. In 1988 stainless steel 10-, 25- and 50-paise coins were introduced, followed by 1- and 5-rupee coins in 1992. Five-rupee coins, made from brass, are being minted by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).

In 1997 the 20 paise coin was discontinued, followed by the 10 paise coin in 1998, and the 25 paise in 2002.

Between 2005 and 2008 new, lighter fifty-paise, one-, two-, and five-rupee coins were introduced, made from ferritic stainless steel. The move was prompted by the melting-down of older coins, whose face value was less than their scrap value. The demonetisation of the 25-paise coin and all paise coins below it took place, and a new series of coins (50 paise – nicknamed athanni – one, two, five, and ten rupees with the new rupee sign) were put into circulation in 2011. In 2016 the 50 paise coin was last minted. Coins commonly in circulation are one, two, five, ten, and twenty rupees.[52][53] Although it is still legal tender, the 50-paise (athanni) coin is rarely seen in circulation.[54]

Circulating coins[52][55]
Value Technical parameters Description Year of
Diameter Mass Composition Shape Obverse Reverse First minting Last minting
50 paise 19 mm 3.79 g Ferritic stainless steel Circular Emblem of India Value, the word "PAISE" in English and Hindi, floral motif and year of minting 2011 2016
50 paise 22 mm 3.79 g Ferritic stainless steel Circular Emblem of India Value, hand in a fist 2008
1 25 mm 4.85 g Ferritic stainless steel Circular Emblem of India, value Value, two stalks of wheat 1992 2004
1 25 mm 4.95 g Ferritic stainless steel Circular Unity from diversity, cross dividing 4 dots Value, Emblem of India, Year of minting 2004 2007
1 25 mm 4.85 g Ferritic stainless steel Circular Emblem of India Value, hand showing thumb (an expression in the Bharata Natyam Dance) 2007 2011
1 22 mm 3.79 g Ferritic stainless steel Circular Emblem of India Value, new rupee sign, floral motif and year of minting 2011 2018
2 26 mm 6 g Cupro-Nickel Eleven-sided Emblem of India, Value National integration 1982 2004
2 26.75 mm 5.8 g Ferritic stainless steel Circular Unity from diversity, cross dividing 4 dots Value, Emblem of India, Year of minting 2005 2007
2 27 mm 5.62 g Ferritic stainless steel Circular Emblem of India, year of minting Value, hand showing two fingers (Hasta Mudra – hand gesture from the dance Bharata Natyam) 2007 2011
2 25 mm 4.85 g Ferritic stainless steel Circular Emblem of India Value, new rupee sign, floral motif and year of minting 2011 2018
2 23 mm 4.07 g Ferritic stainless steel Circular Emblem of India Value, rupee sign, year of issue, grains depicting the agricultural dominance of the country 2019
5 23 mm 9 g Cupro-Nickel Circular Emblem of India Value 1992 2006
5 23 mm 6 g Ferritic stainless steel Circular Emblem of India Value, wavy lines 2007 2009
5 23 mm 6 g Brass Circular Emblem of India Value, wavy lines 2009 2011
5 23 mm 6 g Nickel-Brass Circular Emblem of India Value, new rupee sign, floral motif and year of minting 2011 2018
5 25 mm 6.74 g Nickel-Brass Circular Emblem of India Value, rupee sign, year of issue, grains depicting the agricultural dominance of the country 2019
10 27 mm 7.62 g Bimetallic Circular Emblem of India and year of minting Value with outward radiating pattern of 15 spokes 2006 2010
10 27 mm 7.62 g Bimetallic Circular Emblem of India and year of minting Value with outward radiating pattern of 10 spokes, new rupee sign 2011 2018
10 27 mm 7.74 g Bimetallic Circular Emblem of India Value, rupee sign, year of issue, grains depicting the agricultural dominance of the country 2019
20 27 mm 8.54 g Bimetallic Dodecagonal Emblem of India Value, rupee sign, year of issue, grains depicting the agricultural dominance of the country 2020

The coins are minted at the four locations of the India Government Mint. The 1, 2, and 5 coins have been minted since independence. The Government of India is set to introduce a new 20 coin with a dodecagonal shape, and like the 10 coin, also bi-metallic, along with new designs for the new versions of the 1, 2, 5 and 10 coins, which was announced on 6 March 2019.[56]


A postcard depicting the Bombay Mint.

The Government of India has the only right to mint the coins and one rupee note. The responsibility for coinage comes under the Coinage Act, 1906 which is amended from time to time. The designing and minting of coins in various denominations is also the responsibility of the Government of India. Coins are minted at the four India Government Mints at Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, and Noida.[57] The coins are issued for circulation only through the Reserve Bank in terms of the RBI Act.[58]

Commemorative coins[edit]

After independence, the Government of India Mint, minted numismatics coins imprinted with Indian statesmen, historical and religious figures. In the years 2010 and 2011, for the first time ever, 75, 150 and 1000 coins were minted in India to commemorate the Platinum Jubilee of the Reserve Bank of India, the 150th birth anniversary of the birth of Rabindranath Tagore and 1000 years of the Brihadeeswarar Temple, respectively. In 2012, a 60 coin was also issued to commemorate 60 years of the Government of India Mint, Kolkata. 100 coin was also released commemorating the 100th anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi's return to India.[59] Commemorative coins of 125 were released on 4 September 2015 and 6 December 2015 to honour the 125th anniversary of the births of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and B. R. Ambedkar, respectively.[60][61]

Pre-independence issues[edit]

1835 East India Company 2 Mohurs
1840 East India Company rupee. It was minted in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras
Indian rupee (from 1862)
India 1 rupee 1884 Victoria (obverse)
Obverse: Crowned bust of Queen Victoria
India 1 rupee 1884 Victoria (reverse)
Reverse: Face value, country and year of issue
Coin made of 91.7% silver
1862 Indian One Mohur
Silver Rupee of Sayajirao Gaekwad III of Baroda State (ruled 1875–1939), showing his profile. This coin is dated 1955 in the Vikrami calendar (1897 CE)
Regal issue minted during the reign of King/Emperor George V
1 Indian rupee (1947) featuring George VI on obverse and Indian Lion on reverse
Both sides of copper-coloured coin
Indian one pice, minted in 1950
1 Indian rupee (1905) featuring Edward VII
One Rupee coin issued by Mir Mahbub Ali Khan of Hyderabad State, 1329 AH (1911)
1 Indian rupee (1918) featuring George V

East India Company, 1835[edit]

The three Presidencies established by the British East India Company (Bengal, Bombay and Madras) each issued their own coinages until 1835. All three issued rupees and fractions thereof down to 18- and 116-rupee in silver. Madras also issued two-rupee coins.

Copper denominations were more varied. Bengal issued one-pie, 12-, one- and two-paise coins. Bombay issued 1-pie, 14-, 12-, 1-, 112-, 2- and 4-paise coins. In Madras there were copper coins for two and four pies and one, two and four paisa, with the first two denominated as 12 and one dub (or 196 and 148) rupee. Madras also issued the Madras fanam until 1815.

All three Presidencies issued gold mohurs and fractions of mohurs including 116, 12, 14 in Bengal, 115 (a gold rupee) and 13 (pancia) in Bombay and 14, 13 and 12 in Madras.

In 1835, a single coinage for the EIC was introduced. It consisted of copper 112, 14 and 12 anna, silver 14, 13 and 1 rupee and gold 1 and 2 mohurs. In 1841, silver 2 annas were added, followed by copper 12 pice in 1853. The coinage of the EIC continued to be issued until 1862, even after the company had been taken over by the Crown.

Regal issues, 1862–1947[edit]

In 1862, coins were introduced (known as "regal issues") which bore the profile of Queen Victoria and the designation "India". Their denominations were 112 anna, 12 pice, 14 and 12 anna (all in copper), 2 annas, 14, 12 and one rupee (silver),[62] and five and ten rupees and one mohur (gold). The gold denominations ceased production in 1891, and no 12-anna coins were issued after 1877.

In 1906, bronze replaced copper for the lowest three denominations; in 1907, a cupro-nickel one-anna coin was introduced. In 1918–1919 cupro-nickel two-, four- and eight-annas were introduced, although the four- and eight-annas coins were only issued until 1921 and did not replace their silver equivalents. In 1918, the Bombay mint also struck gold sovereigns and 15-rupee coins identical in size to the sovereigns as an emergency measure during the First World War.

In the early 1940s, several changes were implemented. The 112 anna and 12 pice ceased production, the 14 anna was changed to a bronze, holed coin, cupro-nickel and nickel-brass 12-anna coins were introduced, nickel-brass was used to produce some one- and two-annas coins, and the silver composition was reduced from 91.7 to 50 percent. The last of the regal issues were cupro-nickel 14-, 12- and one-rupee pieces minted in 1946 and 1947, bearing the image of George VI, King and Emperor on the obverse and an Indian lion on the reverse.


Post-independence issues[edit]

First banknote of independent India, one rupee (1949)

After independence, new designs were introduced to replace the portrait of George VI. The government continued issuing the Re1 note, while the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) issued other denominations (including the 5,000 and 10,000 notes introduced in 1949). All pre-independence banknotes were officially demonetised with effect from 28 April 1957.[63][64]

During the 1970s, 20 and 50 notes were introduced; denominations higher than 100 were demonetised in 1978. In 1987, the 500 note was introduced, followed by the 1,000 note in 2000 while 1 and 2 notes were discontinued in 1995.

10 Rupees banknote from the 1990s

The design of banknotes is approved by the central government, on the recommendation of the central board of the Reserve Bank of India.[6] Currency notes are printed at the Currency Note Press in Nashik, the Bank Note Press in Dewas, the Bharatiya Reserve Bank Note Mudran (P) Ltd at Salboni and Mysore and at the Watermark Paper Manufacturing Mill in Narmadapuram. The Mahatma Gandhi Series of banknotes are issued by the Reserve Bank of India as legal tender. The series is so named because the obverse of each note features a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi. Since its introduction in 1996, this series has replaced all issued banknotes of the Lion Capital Series. The RBI introduced the series in 1996 with 10 and 500 banknotes. The printing of 5 notes (which had stopped earlier) resumed in 2009.

As of January 2012, the new '' sign has been incorporated into banknotes of the Mahatma Gandhi Series in denominations of 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000.[65][66][67][68] In January 2014 RBI announced that it would be withdrawing from circulation all currency notes printed prior to 2005 by 31 March 2014. The deadline was later extended to 1 January 2015. The dead line was further extended to 30 June 2016.[69]

On 8 November 2016, the RBI announced the issuance of new 500 banknotes in a new series after demonetisation of the older 500 and 1000 notes.The new 500 banknote has a stone grey base colour with an image of the Red Fort along with the Indian flag printed on the back. Both the banknotes also have the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan logo printed on the back. The banknote denominations of 200, 100 and 50 have also been introduced in the new Mahatma Gandhi New Series intended to replace all banknotes of the previous Mahatma Gandhi Series.[70] On 13 June 2017, RBI introduced new 50 notes, but the old ones continue being legal tender. The design is similar to the current notes in the Mahatma Gandhi (New) Series, except they will come with an inset 'A'.

On 8 November 2016, the Government of India announced the demonetisation of 500 and 1,000 banknotes[71][72] with effect from midnight of the same day, making these notes invalid.[73] A newly redesigned series of 500 banknote, in addition to a new denomination of 2,000 banknote is in circulation since 10 November 2016.[74][75]

From 2017 to 2019, the remaining banknotes of the Mahatma Gandhi New Series were released in denominations of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200.[76][77] The 1,000 note has been suspended.[70]

Current circulating banknotes[edit]

As of 20 May 2023, current circulating banknotes are in denominations of5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 from the Mahatma Gandhi Series and in denominations of ₹10, ₹20,[78] ₹50, 100, 200, 500 from the Mahatma Gandhi New Series.

Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of issue Circulation
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark
₹1 97 mm × 63 mm Pink New ₹1 coin Sagar Samrat oil rig National Emblem of India 2020 Limited
5 117 mm × 63 mm Green Mahatma Gandhi Tractor Mahatma Gandhi and
electrotype denomination
2002 / 2009 Limited
New series banknotes
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of issue Circulation
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark
10 123 mm × 63 mm Brown Mahatma Gandhi Konark Sun Temple Mahatma Gandhi and
electrotype denomination
2017 Wide
20 129 mm × 63 mm Greenish Yellow Ellora Caves 2019 Wide
50 135 mm × 66 mm Cyan Hampi with Chariot 2017 Wide
100 142 mm × 66 mm Lavender Rani ki vav 2018 Wide
200 146 mm × 66 mm Orange Sanchi Stupa 2017 Wide
500 150 mm × 66 mm Stone grey Red Fort 2016 Wide
For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Micro printing[edit]

The new Indian banknote series feature a few micro printed texts on various locations. The first one lies on the inner surface of the left temple of Gandhi's spectacles that reads "भारत" (Bhārata) which means India. The next one (which are printed only on 10 and 50 denominations) is placed on the outer surface of the right temple of Gandhi's spectacles near his ear and reads "RBI" (Reserve Bank of India) and the face value in numerals "10" or "50". The last one is written on both sides of Gandhi's collar and reads "भारत" and "INDIA" respectively. Currency notes have 17 languages on the panel which appear on the reverse of the notes.

Micro printed texts on Gandhi's spectacles
Micro printed texts on Gandhi's collar

Pre-independence issues[edit]

Government of India10 rupees (1910)
Old 1 rupee note
British Indian one rupee note

In 1861, the Government of India introduced its first paper money: 10 note in 1864, 5 note in 1872, 10,000 note in 1899, 100 note in 1900, 50 note in 1905, 500 note in 1907 and 1,000 note in 1909. In 1917, 1 and 212 notes were introduced. The Reserve Bank of India began banknote production in 1938, issuing 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, 1,000 and 10,000 notes while the government continued issuing 1 note but demonetized the 500 and 2 12 notes.


Most traded currencies by value
Currency distribution of global foreign exchange market turnover[79]
Rank Currency ISO 4217
Symbol or
Proportion of daily volume
April 2019 April 2022
1 U.S. dollar USD US$ 88.3% 88.5%
2 Euro EUR 32.3% 30.5%
3 Japanese yen JPY ¥ / 円 16.8% 16.7%
4 Sterling GBP £ 12.8% 12.9%
5 Renminbi CNY ¥ / 元 4.3% 7.0%
6 Australian dollar AUD A$ 6.8% 6.4%
7 Canadian dollar CAD C$ 5.0% 6.2%
8 Swiss franc CHF CHF 4.9% 5.2%
9 Hong Kong dollar HKD HK$ 3.5% 2.6%
10 Singapore dollar SGD S$ 1.8% 2.4%
11 Swedish krona SEK kr 2.0% 2.2%
12 South Korean won KRW ₩ / 원 2.0% 1.9%
13 Norwegian krone NOK kr 1.8% 1.7%
14 New Zealand dollar NZD NZ$ 2.1% 1.7%
15 Indian rupee INR 1.7% 1.6%
16 Mexican peso MXN $ 1.7% 1.5%
17 New Taiwan dollar TWD NT$ 0.9% 1.1%
18 South African rand ZAR R 1.1% 1.0%
19 Brazilian real BRL R$ 1.1% 0.9%
20 Danish krone DKK kr 0.6% 0.7%
21 Polish złoty PLN 0.6% 0.7%
22 Thai baht THB ฿ 0.5% 0.4%
23 Israeli new shekel ILS 0.3% 0.4%
24 Indonesian rupiah IDR Rp 0.4% 0.4%
25 Czech koruna CZK 0.4% 0.4%
26 UAE dirham AED د.إ 0.2% 0.4%
27 Turkish lira TRY 1.1% 0.4%
28 Hungarian forint HUF Ft 0.4% 0.3%
29 Chilean peso CLP CLP$ 0.3% 0.3%
30 Saudi riyal SAR 0.2% 0.2%
31 Philippine peso PHP 0.3% 0.2%
32 Malaysian ringgit MYR RM 0.2% 0.2%
33 Colombian peso COP COL$ 0.2% 0.2%
34 Russian ruble RUB 1.1% 0.2%
35 Romanian leu RON L 0.1% 0.1%
36 Peruvian sol PEN S/ 0.1% 0.1%
37 Bahraini dinar BHD .د.ب 0.0% 0.0%
38 Bulgarian lev BGN BGN 0.0% 0.0%
39 Argentine peso ARS ARG$ 0.1% 0.0%
Other 1.8% 2.3%
Total[note 3] 200.0% 200.0%

Officially, the Indian rupee has a market-determined exchange rate. However, the Reserve Bank of India trades actively in the USD/INR currency market to impact effective exchange rates. Thus, the currency regime in place for the Indian rupee with respect to the US dollar is a de facto controlled exchange rate. This is sometimes called a "managed float". On 9 May 2022, Indian Rupee traded at ₹77.41 against the US dollar, hitting an all-time low.[80] Other rates (such as the EUR/INR and INR/JPY) have the volatility typical of floating exchange rates, and often create persistent arbitrage opportunities against the RBI.[81] Unlike China, successive administrations (through RBI, the central bank) have not followed a policy of pegging the INR to a specific foreign currency at a particular exchange rate. RBI intervention in currency markets is solely to ensure low volatility in exchange rates, and not to influence the rate (or direction) of the Indian rupee in relation to other currencies.[82]

Also affecting convertibility is a series of customs regulations restricting the import and export of rupees. Legally, only up to 25000 can be imported or exported in cash at a time, and the possession of 200 and higher notes in Nepal is prohibited.[83][84] The conversion of currencies for and from rupees is also regulated.

RBI also exercises a system of capital controls in addition to (through active trading) in currency markets. On the current account, there are no currency-conversion restrictions hindering buying or selling foreign exchange (although trade barriers exist). On the capital account, foreign institutional investors have convertibility to bring money into and out of the country and buy securities (subject to quantitative restrictions). Local firms are able to take capital out of the country to expand globally. However, local households are restricted in their ability to diversify globally. Because of the expansion of the current and capital accounts, India is increasingly moving towards full de facto convertibility.

There is some confusion regarding the interchange of the currency with gold, but the system that India follows is that money cannot be exchanged for gold under any circumstances due to gold's lack of liquidity;[citation needed] therefore, money cannot be changed into gold by the RBI. India follows the same principle as Great Britain and the US.

Reserve Bank of India clarifies its position regarding the promissory clause printed on each banknote:

"As per Section 26 of Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934, the Bank is liable to pay the value of banknote. This is payable on demand by RBI, being the issuer. The Bank's obligation to pay the value of banknote does not arise out of a contract but out of statutory provisions. The promissory clause printed on the banknotes i.e., "I promise to pay the bearer an amount of X" is a statement which means that the banknote is a legal tender for X amount. The obligation on the part of the Bank is to exchange a banknote for coins of an equivalent amount."[85]


  • 1991 – India began to lift restrictions on its currency. A number of reforms removed restrictions on current account transactions (including trade, interest payments and remittances and some capital asset-based transactions). Liberalised Exchange Rate Management System (LERMS) (a dual-exchange-rate system) introduced partial convertibility of the rupee in March 1992.[86]
  • 1997 – A panel (set up to explore capital account convertibility) recommended that India move towards full convertibility by 2000, but the timetable was abandoned in the wake of the 1997–1998 East Asian financial crisis.
  • 2006 – Prime Minister Manmohan Singh asked the Finance Minister and the Reserve Bank of India to prepare a road map for moving towards capital account convertibility.[87]
  • 2016 – the Government of India announced the demonetisation of all ₹500/- and ₹1,000/- banknotes of the Mahatma Gandhi Series.[88] The government claimed that the action would curtail the shadow economy and crack down on the use of illicit "black money" and counterfeit cash to fund illegal activity and terrorism.[89][90]
  • 2023 – Reserve Bank of India issued a circular on 19 May stating currency notes of ₹ 2000 denomination will be withdrawn from circulation[91] The reason given for this withdrawal is the decline in the number of currency notes in circulation. According to the circular there were only 10.8% of Notes in Circulation on March 31, 2023.[92]

Exchange rates[edit]

Historic exchange rates[edit]


Graph of exchange rates of Indian rupee (INR) per USD 1, GBP 1, EUR 1, JPY 100 averaged over the month, from September 1998 to May 2013. Data source: Reserve Bank of India reference rate

For almost a century following the Great Recoinage of 1816, and adoption of the Gold Standard, until the outbreak of World War I, the silver backed Indian rupee lost value against a basket of Gold pegged currencies, and was periodically devalued to reflect the then current gold to silver reserve ratios, see above. In 1850 the official conversion rate between a pound sterling and the rupee was £0 / 2s / 0d (or £1:₹10), while between 1899 and 1914 the official conversion rate was set low at £0 / 1s / 4d (or £1:₹15), for comparison during this period the US dollar was pegged at £1:$4.79. However, this was just half of market exchange rates during 1893–1917.

The gold/silver ratio expanded during 1870–1910. Unlike India, Britain was on the gold standard. To meet the Home Charges (i.e., expenditure in the United Kingdom) the colonial government had to remit a larger number of rupees and this necessitated increased taxation, unrest and nationalism.

Between the wars the rate improved to 1s 6d (or £1:₹13.33), and remained pegged at this rate for the duration of the Breton Woods agreement, to its devaluation and pegging to the US dollar, at $1:7.50, in 1966.[93][94]


Post Independence India followed Par value system of exchange until 1971. The country switched to pegged system in 1971 and graduated to basket peg againstfive major currencies from 1975. After the 1991 Economic liberalisation in India the currency exchange rates became market controlled.[95]

The first major impact on exchange rate after Independence was the devaluation of sterling against the US dollar in 1949, this impacted currencies that maintained a peg to the sterling, such as the Indian rupee.[96] The next major episode was in 1966 when Indian rupee was devaluated by 57% against United States dollar. Correspondingly the rates against Pound sterling too suffered depreciation.[97] In 1971 August, when the Bretton Woods system India initially announced that it will maintain a fixed rate of US$1 = Rs. 7.50 and leave Pound sterling floating.[98] However, by the end of 1971, following Smithsonian Agreement and subsequent devaluation of United States dollar, India pegged Indian rupee with Pound sterling once again with a rate of £1 = Rs. 18.9677.[99] In the above period India had a non - commercial exchange rate with Soviet Union. The Ruble - Rupee rates were announced by Soviet Union since Ruble was not a freely traded currency and the commercial trade between both nations use to take place in rupee trade account following the India–Soviet Trade Treaty 1953.

In September 1975, exchange rate of Indian rupee started to be determined on the basis of basket peg. The details of currencies which forms the basket and its weightage were kept confidentially by Reserve Bank of India and the exchange rate of rupee on the basis of market fluctuation of these currencies were periodically announced by RBI.[100][101]

The next major change that occurred to Indian Rupee was devaluation by about 18% in July 1991 following the Balance of payment crisis.[102] Thereafter, in March 1992, Liberalized Exchange Rate Management System was introduced.

Indian rupees per currency unit averaged over the year[103][104]
Currency ISO code 1947 1966 1995 1996 2000 2004 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Australian dollar AUD 5.33 27.69 26.07 33.28 34.02 34.60 36.81 38.22 42.00 56.36 54.91 48.21 49.96 49.91 50.64 50.01 56.30
Bahraini dinar BHD 13.35 91.75 91.24 117.78 120.39 120.40 109.59 115.65 128.60 121.60 155.95 164.55 170.6 178.3 169.77
Bangladeshi taka BDT 0.84 0.84 0.77 0.66 0.63 0.57 0.71 0.66 0.68 0.80 0.88 0.84 0.85 0.76
Canadian dollar CAD 5.90 23.63 26.00 30.28 34.91 41.09 42.92 44.59 52.17 44.39 56.88 49.53 47.94 52.32 50.21 51.38
Renminbi CNY 5.80 9.93 10.19 10.15 9.81
Emirate dirham AED 17.47 18.26 17.73 17.80
Euroa EUR 42.41 44.40 41.52 56.38 64.12 68.03 60.59 65.69 70.21 72.60 75.84 73.53 79.52
Israeli shekelb ILS 13.33 21.97 11.45 10.76 10.83 17.08 16.57 17.47 18.36
Japanese yenc JPY 6.6 2.08 32.66 32.96 41.79 41.87 38.93 35.00 42.27 51.73 52.23 60.07 57.79 53.01 62.36 56
Kuwaiti dinar KWD 17.80 115.5 114.5 144.9 153.3 155.5 144.6 161.7 167.7 159.2 206.5 214.3 213.1 222.4 211.43
Malaysian ringgit MYR 1.55 2.07 12.97 14.11 11.84 11.91 12.36 11.98 13.02 13.72 14.22 18.59 18.65 16.47 16.37 15.72
Maldivian rufiyaa MVR 1.00 1.33 2.93 2.91 4.58 4.76 5.01 5.23 4.13
Pakistani rupee PKR 1.00 1.33 1.08 0.95 0.80 0.77 0.75 0.67 0.61 0.59 0.53 0.57 0.60 0.62 0.64 0.57 0.46 0.45
Pound sterling GBP 13.33 17.76 51.14 55.38 68.11 83.06 80.63 76.38 71.33 83.63 70.63 91.08 100.51 98.11 92.00 83.87 90.37
Russian rubled RUB 6.60 15.00 7.56 6.69 1.57 1.05 0.99 1.10
Saudi riyal SAR 1.41 17.11 17.88 17.02
Singapore dollar / Brunei dollare SGD / BND 1.55 2.07 23.13 25.16 26.07 26.83 30.93 33.60 34.51 41.27 33.58 46.84 45.86 46.67 48.86 47.70
Sri Lankan rupee LKR 1.33 0.63 0.64 0.58 0.47 0.46 0.45 0.46 0.41 0.39 0.39
Swiss franc CHF 1.46 27.48 43.95 66.95 66.71 66.70 68.40 65.48
US dollar USD 3.30 7.50 32.45 35.44 44.20 45.34 43.95 39.50 48.76 45.33 45.00 68.80 66.07 66.73 67.19 65.11 72.10
a Before 1 January 1999, the European Currency Unit (ECU)
b Before 1980, the Israeli pound (ILP)
c 100 Japanese yen
d Before 1993, the Soviet ruble (SUR), in 1995 and 1996 – per 1000 rubles
e Before 1967, the Malaya and British Borneo dollar

Current exchange rates[edit]

Current INR exchange rates

Worldwide rupee usage[edit]

As the Straits Settlements were originally an outpost of the British East India Company, the Indian rupee was made the sole official currency of the Straits Settlements in 1837, as it was administered as part of British India. This attempt was resisted by the locals. However, Spanish dollars continued to circulate and 1845 saw the introduction of coinage for the Straits Settlements using a system of 100 cents = 1 dollar, with the dollar equal to the Spanish dollar or Mexican peso. In 1867, administration of the Straits Settlements was separated from India and the Straits dollar was made the standard currency, and attempts to reintroduce the rupee were finally abandoned.[105]

After the Partition of India, the Pakistani rupee came into existence, initially using Indian coins and Indian currency notes simply overstamped with "Pakistan". Previously the Indian rupee was an official currency of other countries, including Aden, Oman, Dubai, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the Trucial States, Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda, the Seychelles and Mauritius.

The Indian government introduced the Gulf rupee as a replacement for the Indian rupee for circulation outside the country with the Reserve Bank of India (Amendment) Act of 1 May 1959.[106] The creation of a separate currency was an attempt to reduce the strain on India's foreign reserves from gold smuggling. After India devalued the rupee on 6 June 1966, those countries still using it – Oman, Qatar, and the Trucial States (which became the United Arab Emirates in 1971) – replaced the Gulf rupee with their own currencies. Kuwait and Bahrain had already done so in 1961 with Kuwaiti dinar and in 1965 with Bahraini dinar, respectively.[107]

The Bhutanese ngultrum is pegged at par with the Indian rupee; both currencies are accepted in Bhutan. The Nepalese rupee is pegged at 0.625; the Indian rupee is accepted in Bhutan and Nepal, except 500 and 1000 banknotes of the Mahatma Gandhi Series and the 200, 500 banknotes of the Mahatma Gandhi New Series, which are not legal tender in Bhutan and Nepal and are banned by their respective governments, though accepted by many retailers.[108] On 29 January 2014, Zimbabwe added the Indian rupee as a legal tender to be used.[109][110]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ ₹2000 is discontinued but still legal tender[1]
  2. ^ Alongside Zimbabwean dollar (suspended indefinitely from 12 April 2009), the Pound sterling, Euro, United States dollar, South African rand, Botswana pula, Indian rupee, Chinese yuan, and Japanese yen have been adopted as official currencies for all government transactions.
  3. ^ The total sum is 200% because each currency trade is counted twice: once for the currency being bought and once for the one being sold. The percentages above represent the proportion of all trades involving a given currency, regardless of which side of the transaction it is on. For example, the US dollar is bought or sold in 88% of all currency trades, while the euro is bought or sold in 31% of all trades.



  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 May 2023. Retrieved 20 May 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  3. ^ "Nepal writes to RBI to declare banned new Indian currency notes legal". The Economic Times. Times Internet. 6 January 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  4. ^ "Indian Rupee to be legal tender in Zimbabwe". Deccan Herald. 29 January 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  5. ^ Hungwe, Brian (29 January 2014). "Zimbabwe's multi-currency confusion". BBC. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
  6. ^ a b "FAQ – Your Guide to Money Matters". Reserve Bank of India. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  7. ^ a b Ministry of FinanceDepartment of Economic Affairs (30 April 2010). Sixth Report, Committee on Public Undertakings – Security Printing and Minting Corporation of India Limited (PDF). Lok Sabha Secretariat. p. 8. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  8. ^ "Instant View: India's retail inflation eases to 5.02% in September". Reuters. 12 October 2023. Archived from the original on 12 October 2023. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  9. ^ "Nepal to keep currency pegged to Indian rupee". Business Line. 11 January 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  10. ^ "Reserve Bank of India - Annual Report". Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  11. ^ Goyal, Shankar (1999), "The Origin and Antiquity of Coinage in India", Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 80 (1/4): 144, JSTOR 41694581, Panini makes the statement (V.2.120) that a 'form' (rüpa) when 'stamped' (ahata) or when praise-worthy (prašamsa) takes the ending ya (i.e. rupya). ... Whether Panini was familiar with coins or not, his Astadhyayi does not specifically state.
  12. ^ Mookerji, Chandragupta Maurya and His Times 1966, p. 214.
  13. ^ R Shamasastry (1915), Arthashastra Of Chanakya, pp. 115, 119, 125, retrieved 15 April 2021
  14. ^ "Mogul Coinage". RBI Monetary Museum. Reserve Bank of India. Archived from the original on 5 October 2002. Sher Shah issued a coin of silver which was termed the Rupiya. This weighed 178 grains and was the precursor of the modern rupee. It remained largely unchanged till the early 20th Century
  15. ^ Kapoor, Subodh (January 2002). The Indian encyclopaedia: biographical, historical, religious ..., Volume 6. Cosmo Publications. p. 1599. ISBN 81-7755-257-0.
  16. ^ Schaps, David M. (2006), "The Invention of Coinage in Lydia, in India, and in China" (PDF), XIV International Economic History Congress, Helsinki: International Economic History Association
  17. ^ "A short history of ancient Indian coinage". Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  18. ^ Allan & Stern (2008)
  19. ^ "Rupaka, Rūpaka: 23 definitions". Wisdom Library. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  20. ^ Da Tang Xiyu Ji. Great Tang Dynasty Records of the Western World. Trübner's Oriental Series. Vol. 1–2. Translated by Samuel Beal (First ed.). London: Kegan Paul, Trench Trubner & Co. 1906 [1884].
  21. ^ "Etymology of rupee". Online Etymology Dictionary. 20 September 2008. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
  22. ^ "Mughal Coinage". RBI Monetary Museum. Reserve Bank of India. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008.
  23. ^ Dughlat, Mirza Muhammad Haidar. "CXII". In Elias, N. (ed.). The Tarikh-I-Rashidi. Translated by Ross, E. Denison. Ebook Version 1.0 Edited and Presented By Mohammed Murad Butt. Karakoram Books – via Internet Archive.
  24. ^ "Pre-Colonial India & Princely States: Coinage". RBI Monetary Museum. Reserve Bank of India. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  25. ^ a b c d Andrew, A. Piatt (August 1901). "Indian Currency Problems of the Last Decade". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. pp. 483–514. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  26. ^ W. B. Sutch, The Long Depression, 1865–1895. (1957)
  27. ^ "Chapter II" . Indian Currency and Finance  – via Wikisource.
  28. ^ a b c Moore, J S (23 October 2016). "The Silver Question". The North American Review. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  29. ^ MacLeod, Henry Dunning (1883). "The Theory and Practice of Banking". Retrieved 18 April 2018 – via Google Books.
  30. ^ Chishti, M. Anees (2001), Committees and commissions in pre-independence India 1836–1947, Volume 3, Mittal Publications, ISBN 978-81-7099-803-7, ... The Indian Currency Committee was appointed by the Royal Warrant of 29 April 1898 ... by the closing of the Indian Mints to what is known as the free coinage of Silver ...
  31. ^ a b John Maynard Keynes (1913). "Chapter I" . Indian Currency and Finance  – via Wikisource.
  32. ^ "Chapter IV" . Indian Currency and Finance  – via Wikisource.
  33. ^ Did Bose hide in Nagaland? People remember a bearded ‘North Indian’ with Gandhi spectacles, The Print, 27 noc 2023.
  34. ^ Balachandran, G. (1996). John Bullion's Empire: Britain's Gold Problem and India Between the Wars. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7007-0428-6., p. 6
  35. ^ S. L. N. Simha, ed. (2005) [1970]. "2. Currency, Exchange and Banking Prior to 1935" (PDF). History of the Reserve Bank of India. The Reserve Bank of India. pp. 40–81.
  36. ^ a b Leavens, Dickson H (1939). "Silver Money" (PDF). Cowles Foundation.
  37. ^ Four Years of the Silver Program. 14 December 1937. CQ Press.
  38. ^ Razack, Rezwan; Jhunjhunwalla, Kishore (2012). The Revised Standard Reference Guide to Indian Paper Money. Coins & Currencies. ISBN 978-81-89752-15-6.
  39. ^ Kumar, D. Udaya. "Currency Symbol for Indian Rupee" (PDF). IDC School of Design. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  40. ^ "Indian Rupee Joins Elite Currency Club". 17 July 2010.
  41. ^ "Issuance of Concept Note on Central Bank Digital Currency" (PDF). Reserve Bank of India. FinTech Department. 7 October 2022. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  42. ^ "The e₹ is on the way as RBI gears up for a pilot launch of its own digital currency". Moneycontrol. 10 October 2022. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  43. ^ Delhi, PIB (12 December 2022). "PIB press release". pib. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  44. ^ Anand, Nupur (7 December 2022). "India cenbank says digital currency transactions to stay largely anonymous". Reuters. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  45. ^ Bhardwaj, Shashank. "India's Central Bank Plans Graded Implementation Of CBDC". Forbes India. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  46. ^ Delhi, PIB (12 December 2022). "PIB press release". pib. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  47. ^ Kaushal, Teena Jain (1 November 2022). "RBI's Digital Rupee pilot launch today: Here are 10 things to know". Business Today. Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  48. ^ East India Company fought hard for its coins in India. Even Aurangzeb’s fury couldn’t stop it, The Print, 27 July 2023.
  49. ^ "THE COINAGE ACT, 2011" (PDF). Reserve Bank of India. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  50. ^ Bhattacharya, Saurya (25 July 2021). "Cryptocurrency, CBDC and the RBI Act". Business Line. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  51. ^ Variath, Adithya Anil (26 November 2021). "Cryptocurrency Bill | India's First Step To Exercise Its Sovereignty Over Digital Currency". Moneycontrol. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  52. ^ a b "Issue of new series of Coins". RBI. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  53. ^ "This numismatist lays hands on coins with Rupee symbol". The Times of India. 29 August 2011. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  54. ^ "Coins of 25 paise and below will not be Legal Tender from June 30, 2011 : RBI appeals to Public to Exchange them up to June 29, 2011". RBI. 18 May 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
  55. ^ "Reserve Bank of India – Coins". Archived from the original on 19 November 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  56. ^ "PM releases new series of visually impaired friendly coins". Prime Minister's Office. 7 March 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  57. ^ About Us – Dept. of Commerce. Reserve Bank of India.
  58. ^ Reserve Bank of India – Coins. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  59. ^ Gaikwad, Rahi (9 January 2015). "India, South Africa discuss UNSC reforms". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  60. ^ "Teachers' day: PM Narendra Modi releases Rs 125 coin in honour of Dr S Radhakrishnan". The Financial Express. 4 September 2016. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  61. ^ "PM Narendra Modi releases Rs 10, Rs 125 commemorative coins honouring Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar". The Financial Express. 6 December 2016. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  62. ^ J. Franklin Campbell (13 October 2004). "VICTORIA | The Coins of British India One Rupee: Mint Mark Varieties (1874–1901)". Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  63. ^ "Currency Notes without Asoka Pillar Emblem to Cease to be Legal Tender" (PDF). Press Information Bureau of India – Archive.
  64. ^ "Legal Tender of Currency and Bank Notes" (PDF). Press Information Bureau of India – Archive.
  65. ^ "Issue of ' 10/- Banknotes with incorporation of Rupee symbol (')". RBI. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
  66. ^ "Issue of ' 500 Banknotes with incorporation of Rupee symbol". RBI. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
  67. ^ "Issue of ' 1000 Banknotes with incorporation of Rupee symbol". RBI. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
  68. ^ "Issue of '100 Banknotes with incorporation of Rupee symbol". RBI. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
  69. ^ "Withdrawal of Currencies Issued Prior to 2005". Press Information Bureau. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  70. ^ a b "RBI to issue ₹1,000, ₹100, ₹50 with new features, design in coming months". Business Line. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  71. ^ Mukherjee, Amrita (14 November 2016). "How I feel super rich with Rs 100 and Rs 10 in my purse". Asia Times. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  72. ^ "India's demonetization takes its toll on major sectors". Asia Times. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  73. ^ Killawala, Alpana (8 November 2016). "Withdrawal of Legal Tender Status for ₹ 500 and ₹ 1000 Notes: RBI Notice" (Press release). Reserve Bank of India. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  74. ^ Killawala, Alpana (8 November 2016). "Issue of ₹500 Banknotes (Press Release)" (PDF) (Press release). Reserve Bank of India. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  75. ^ Killawala, Alpana (8 November 2016). "Issue of ₹2000 Banknotes (Press Release)" (PDF) (Press release). Reserve Bank of India. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  76. ^ "RBI Introduces ₹ 200 denomination banknote". Reserve Bank of India. 24 August 2017.
  77. ^ "RBI to Issue New Design ₹ 100 Denomination Banknote". Reserve Bank of India. 19 July 2018.
  78. ^ "Reserve Bank of India – Press Releases". Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  79. ^ "Triennial Central Bank Survey Foreign exchange turnover in April 2022" (PDF). Bank for International Settlements. 27 October 2022. p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2022. Retrieved 29 October 2022.
  80. ^ "Indian Rupee falls to all-time low against US dollar". Business Today. 9 May 2022. Retrieved 12 May 2022.
  81. ^ "Convertibility: Patnaik, 2004" (PDF). Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations.
  82. ^ Chandra, Shobhana (26 September 2007). "'Neither the government nor the central bank takes a view on the rupee (exchange rate movements), as long as the movement is orderly', says Indian Minister of Finance". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  83. ^ "RBI Master Circular on Import of Goods and Services". Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  84. ^ "RBI Master Circular on Export of Goods and Services". Archived from the original on 17 August 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  85. ^ Reserve bank of India Frequently Asked Questions Archived 12 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 27 August 2013
  86. ^ Rituparna Kar and Nityananda Sarkar: Mean and volatility dynamics of Indian rupee/US dollar exchange rate series: an empirical investigation in Asia-Pacific Finan Markets (2006) 13:41–69, p. 48. doi:10.1007/s10690-007-9034-0 .
  87. ^ "The 'Fuller Capital Account Convertibility Report'" (PDF). 31 July 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
  88. ^ "Withdrawal of Legal Tender Status for ₹ 500 and ₹ 1000 Notes: RBI Notice (Revised)". Reserve Bank of India. 8 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  89. ^ "Here is what PM Modi said about the new Rs 500, Rs 2000 notes and black money". India Today. 8 November 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  90. ^ "Notes out of circulation". The Times of India. 8 November 2016.
  91. ^ ET Online. "Rs 2,000 notes to be withdrawn from circulation, exchange window open till September 30". The Economic Times. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  92. ^ "Rs 2,000 notes withdrawn from circulation, RBI says will remain legal tender". India Today. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  93. ^ Chandra, Saurabh (21 August 2013). "The fallacy of 'dollar = rupee' in 1947". Retrieved 22 August 2013.
  94. ^ "Historical exchange rates from 1953 with graph and charts". Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  95. ^ "Reserve Bank of India - Publications". Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  96. ^ "Pound devalued 30 per cent". The Guardian. Guardian Century 1940-1949. 19 September 1949. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  97. ^ Gupta, Sujay (7 June 2016). "Forgotten legacy of 6/6/66". The Times of India. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  98. ^ Verghese, S. K. (1973). "International Monetary Crises and the Indian Rupee". Economic and Political Weekly. 8 (30): 1342–1348. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4362898.
  99. ^ Wadhva, Charan D.; Paul, Samuel (1973). "The Dollar Devaluation and India's Balance of Payments". Economic and Political Weekly. 8 (10): 517–522. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4362402.
  100. ^ Tikku, M. K. (7 April 2015). "High-powered Indian team of financial experts to visit Moscow to sort out rouble-rupee exchange rate differences". India Today. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  101. ^ Verghese, S. K. (1979). "Exchange Rate of Indian Rupee since Its Basket Link". Economic and Political Weekly. 14 (28): 1160–1165. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4367782.
  102. ^ "Reserve Bank of India". Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  103. ^ "FXHistory: historical currency exchange rates" (database). OANDA Corporation. Archived from the original on 3 April 2006. Retrieved 1 September 2009.
  104. ^ "The fallacy of 'dollar = rupee' in 1947". DNA. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  105. ^ "Straits Settlements (1867–1946)". 13 May 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  106. ^ Kamalakaran, Ajay (14 September 2021). "Gulf rupee: When the Reserve Bank of India played central banker in West Asia". Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  107. ^ Ranjan, Rajiv; Prakash, Anand (April 2010). "Internationalisation of currency: the case of the Indian rupee and Chinese renminbi" (PDF). RBI Staff Studies. Department of Economic Analysis and Policy, Reserve Bank of India. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
  108. ^ "Don't take 1,000 and 500 Indian rupee notes to Nepal". RBI Staff Studies. Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
  109. ^ "Indian Rupee to be legal tender in Zimbabwe". Deccan Herald. The Printers Mysore. 29 January 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  110. ^ Hungwe, Brian (6 February 2014). "Zimbabwe's multi-currency confusion". BBC News.


External links[edit]