Indian Union Muslim League

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Indian Union Muslim League
AbbreviationI.U.M.L.
PresidentK. M. Kader Mohideen
ChairpersonSayed Hyderali Shihab Thangal
SecretaryP. K. Kunhalikutty
Lok Sabha leaderE. T. Muhammed Basheer
Rajya Sabha leaderP. V. Abdul Wahab
FounderM. Muhammad Ismail
Founded
  • 10 March 1948 (73 years ago) (1948-03-10) (First Council)
  • 1 September 1951 (70 years ago) (1951-09-01) (Constitution)
Preceded byAll-India Muslim League
HeadquartersQuaid-e-Millath Manzil, No. 36, Maraikayar Lebbai Street, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.[1]
Newspaper(see below)
Student wingMuslim Students Federation
Youth wingMuslim Youth League (the Youth League) [1]
Women's wingIndian Union Women's League , Msf Haritha
Labour wingSwatantra Thozhilali Union (STU)
Peasant's wingSwathanthra Karshaka Sangam (Kerala)
IdeologyMuslim interest
Social conservatism
SloganUnity is Strength
Alliance
Seats in Lok Sabha
3 / 543
Seats in Rajya Sabha
1 / 245
Seats in Kerala Legislative Assembly
15 / 140
Election symbol
IUML Election Symbol
Party flag
Flag of the Indian Union Muslim League.svg

The Indian Union Muslim League or I. U. M. L. (commonly referred to as the League inside Kerala) is an Indian political party primarily based in the Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is recognized by the Election Commission of India as a State Party in Kerala.

The first Council of the IUML, which was at the time the Indian successor of the Muslim League, was held on 10 March 1948 at the south Indian city of Madras.[2] The 'Indian Union Muslim League' constitution was passed on 1 September 1951.[2]

The party is a major member of the United Democratic Front, the Indian National Congress -led pre-poll state level alliance in Kerala[3][4] and has always had a constant, albeit small, presence in the Lok Sabha.[3] The party is a part of the United Progressive Alliance at the national level.[3] The League got its first union minister (Minister of State for External Affairs) in the first Manmohan Singh ministry in 2004.[5]

The party currently has four members in Parliament - E. T. Mohammed Basheer, M. P. Abdussamad Samadani, and K. Navas Kani in the Lok Sabha and P. V. Abdul Wahab in the Rajya Sabha and nineteen members in State Legislative Assemblies of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

History[edit]

After the partition of India in 1947, the All-India Muslim League was virtually disbanded. It was succeeded by the Indian segment of the Muslim League in the new Dominion of India (first session on 10 March 1948 and constitution passed on 1 September 1951).[3] M. Muhammad Ismail, the then President of the Madras Muslim League (M. M. L.) was chosen as the Convener of the Indian segment of the League.[2] The Travancore League (the States' Muslim League) was merged with the Malabar League in November, 1956.[2]

Indian Union Muslim League contests General Elections under the Indian Constitution.[3] The party is normally represented by two members in the Indian Lower House (the Lok Sabha).[3] B. Pocker, elected from Malappuram Constituency, was a member of the First Lower House (1952–57) from the Madras Muslim League (M. M. L.).[3] The party currently has four members in Parliament.

Apart from Kerala and West Bengal, the League had Legislative Assembly members in Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Maharastra, Karanataka, Uttar Pradesh, and Assam.[6] In West Bengal, the League had won Assembly seats in the 1970s, and A. K. A. Hassanussaman was a member of the Ajoy Mukherjee cabinet.[7]

Indian Union Muslim League first gained a ministry in Kerala Government as part of the Communist Party of India Marxist-led United Front in 1967. The party switched fronts in 1969 and formed an alliance with the Congress in 1976.[8][4] It later became a chief constituent in a succession of Indian National Congress-lead ministries.[4]

Early years[edit]

  • First Council of the Indian segment of the Muslim League was held on 10 March 1948 at the south Indian city of Madras (now Chennai).[2]
  • On 1 September 1951 the 'Indian Union Muslim League' came into being in Madras (constitution was passed).[2]
  • B. Pocker Sahib, elected from Malappuram Constituency, was a member of the first Lok Sabha (1952–57).[3]
  • K. M Seethi Sahib served as the Speaker of the Kerala Assemby from 1960 to 1961.[9]

From the 1960s to the 80s[edit]

With the Congress Party[edit]

In the 1990s[edit]

From the 2000s[edit]

Former National Presidents of Indian Union Muslim League[edit]

No. Tenure Name State
1 1948-1972 Qaid e Millath Muhammed Ismail Sahib Tamil Nadu
2 1972-1973 Syed Abdurrahiman Bafaki Tangal Kerala
3 1973-1994 Ebrahim Sulaiman Sait Karnataka
4 1994-2008 G. M. Banatwalla Maharashtra
5 2008-2017 E. Ahamed Kerala
6 2017-present Prof. K.M. Kader Mohideen Tamil Nadu

Ideology[edit]

The [Indian Union Muslim League] party...has shown strands of identity politics, but largely remained communitarian; it has at times been conservative, but never communal. It has furthered Muslim aspirations without antagonising any other segment—and hence has retained its centrality in the larger Kerala polity

— Outlook [2]

The distinctive feature of the [Indian Union] Muslim League in Kerala is that it strove to keep the [Muslim] community at the centre of the [Kerala] state's politics, unlike other Muslim political formations elsewhere in India that revelled in confessional isolationism. As a result, the Kerala Muslims emerged as probably the only community of that faith in India that achieved genuine political empowerment on the one hand and, on the other, lived out the promise of equal citizenship enshrined in the [Indian] Constitution.

— Outlook [3]

If organising a religious community politically on the basis of antagonism to another is communalism, the IUML has never mobilised its cadre nor used its political and often administrative clout to create religious divides. On the contrary, whenever the state faced a communally sensitive situation, the party rose to the occasion and played a stellar role in dousing the flames....By practicing a brand of politics that could be termed communitarian rather than communal, the IUML succeeded in actualising the constitutional guarantee of equal citizenship for the Muslims in the state.

— The Indian Express [4]

IUML was formed "to preserve and promote the religious and cultural identities of Indian Muslims and other minorities and backward classes of the country". Even though the constitution of IUML has pledged allegiance to the secular Constitution of India, the party has opposed many constitutional verdicts by the Supreme Court of India like those allowing the entry of women of menstruating age to Sabarimala temple & abolishing Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, in which the court had upheld the constitutional right to equality above religious & cultural values.[18][19]

Composition[edit]

A postage stamp released in commemoration of Mohammed Ali Shihab Thangal (1936-2009).
The Prime Minister Manmohan Singh (2004-14) releasing a postage stamp in commemoration of Mohammed Ali Shihab Thangal (1936-2009). E. Ahamed, Hyder Ali Shihab Thangal and Sachin Pilot are also seen.
Designation Name
Chairman-Political Advisory Sayed Hyderali Shihab Thangal (Kerala)[20]
National President K. M. Kader Mohideen (Tamil Nadu)[21]
Vice-Presidents Iqbal Ahmed (Uttar Pradesh)
Dastagir Ibrahim Aga (Karnataka)
National General Secretary P. K. Kunhalikutty (Kerala)[22]
National Organising Secretary E. T. Mohammed Basheer (Kerala)
National Treasurer P. V. Abdul Wahab (Kerala)[23]
Secretaries Khorrum Anis Omer (Delhi)
M. P. Abdussamad Samadani (Kerala)
S. Naim Akthar (Bihar)
Siraj Ebrahim Sait (Karnataka)
Assistant Secretaries Abdul Basith (Tamil Nadu)
Kausar Hayat Khan (Uttar Pradesh)

Organizational structure[edit]

Kerala Legislative Assembly[edit]

Source: http://www.ceo.kerala.gov.in/electionhistory.html

Early years (1957 - 1979/80)[edit]

Election Seats Vote % Government/Opposition Ministers Sources
Won (Contested)
1957 8 (19)

As independents

4.72 Opposition (to Namboodiripad Ministry)

1957 - 59

[12][25]
1960 11 (12) 5.0 Government (Pattom Ministry)

1960 - 62

  • Formally left the coalition in 1961 as an abstaining Opposition.[26]
Excluded from the Pattom Ministry[26] [26][12][27]
Abstaining Opposition (to Shankar Ministry)[26]

1962 - 64

[26]
1965 6 (16) 3.71 Inconclusive (no government formed)[26] [27][12]
1967 14 (15) 6.75 Government[4] (Namboodiripad Ministry)

1967 - 69

[4][27]
Government (Achutha Menon Ministry)

1969 - 70

[28]
1970 11 (20) 7.7 Government (Achutha Menon Ministry)

1970 - 77

[28][29]
1977 13 (16) 6.65 Government (Karunakaran Ministry)

1977

[28][29]
Government (Antony Ministry)

1977 - 78

Government (PKV Ministry)

1978 - 79

Government (Koya Ministry)

1979

With the United Democratic Front (1979/80 - present)[edit]

Election Seats Vote % Government/Opposition[4] Ministers
Won (Contested)
1980 14 (21) 7.18 Opposition (to Nayanar Ministry)

1980 - 81

Government (Karunakaran Ministry)

1981 - 82

1982 14 (18) 6.17 Government (Karunakaran Ministry)

1982 - 87

1987 15 (23) 7.73 Opposition

(to Nayanar Ministry)

1987 - 91

1991 19 (22) 7.37 Government

(Karunakaran Ministry)

1991 - 95

Government

(Antony Ministry)

1995 - 96

2001 16 (21) 7.59 Government

(Antony Ministry)

2001 - 2004

Government

(Chandy Ministry)

2004 - 2006

2006 7 (21) 7.30 Opposition

(to Achuthanandan Ministry)

2006 - 11

2011 20 (23) 7.92 Government

(Chandy Ministry)

2011 - 16

2016 18 (23) 7.40 Opposition

(to Vijayan Ministry)

2016 - 2021

2021 15 (25) 8.27 Opposition

(to Vijayan Ministry)

Incumbent

Current members[edit]

Map of Kerala showing 2021 Assembly Election Results
Legislative Constituency Member
Kerala
Kasaragod
Manjeshwaram A. K. M. Ashraf
Kasaragod N. A. Nellikkunnu
Kozhikode
Koduvally M. K. Muneer
Malappuram
Kondotty T. V. Ibrahim
Eranad P. K. Basheer
Manjeri U. A. Latheef
Perinthalmanna

Najeeb Kanthapuram

Mankada Manjalamkuzhi Ali
Malappuram P. Ubaidulla
Vengara P. K. Kunhalikutty
Vallikkunnu P. Abdul Hameed
Tirurangadi K. P. A. Majeed
Tirur Kurukkoli Moideen
Kottakkal K. K. Abid Hussain Thangal
Palakkad
Mannarkkad N. Samsudheen

Lower House (the Lok Sabha)[edit]

Source: Loksabha

Council of States (the Rajya Sabha)[edit]

Source: Rajyasabha

Madras

Kerala

Tamil Nadu

  • A. K. A. Abdul Samad (1964–70)
  • S. A. Khwaja Mohideen (1968–74)
  • A. K. A. Abdul Samad (1970– 76)
  • A. K. Refaye (1972–78)
  • S. A. Khwaja Mohideen (1974-80)

Principal mass organisations of IUML[edit]

Controversies[edit]

Role in Marad massacre[edit]

The judicial commission which probed the Marad massacre concluded that IUML was directly involved in the conspiracy and execution of the massacre.[30]

Opposition to Child Marriage Act[edit]

IUML has consistently opposed the Child Marriage Act by saying that it contravenes Muslim personal law. A circular issued by Local Self Government Department of Kerala which was under IUML in 2013 asking to register marriages of Muslim women under the age of 18 had created controversy resulting in later withdrawal.[31]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Wright, T. (1966). The Muslim League in South India since Independence: A Study in Minority Group Political Strategies. The American Political Science Review, 60(3), 579-599.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Explained: History of Muslim League in Kerala and India". The Indian Express. 6 April 2019. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i James Chiriyankandath (1996) Changing Muslim politics in Kerala: identity, interests and political strategies, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 16:2, 257-271.
  5. ^ a b c d "E. Ahamed: Minister of State for External Affairs". Hindustan Times. Press Trust of India. 19 June 2004. Archived from the original on 7 June 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  6. ^ "History of Indian Union Muslim League". Indian Union Muslim League (website). Archived from the original on 17 February 2013.
  7. ^ Ameerudheen, T. A. (21 May 2017). "Will the Muslim League's decision to go national affect Asaduddin Owaisi plans for his party?". Scroll. Archived from the original on 12 June 2020.
  8. ^ a b Menon, Girish (22 March 2016). "How the Muslim League is at peace with itself". The Hindu. Trivandrum.
  9. ^ "SPEAKERS AND DEPUTY SPEAKERS OF KERALA LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY" (PDF). Kerala Legislative Assembly. Trivandrum: Secretariat of the Kerala Legislature. 2007.
  10. ^ a b c Wright (23 June 1948). "Muslims and the 1977 Indian Elections: A Watershed?". Asian Survey. 17 (12): 1207–1220. doi:10.2307/2643422. ISSN 0004-4687.
  11. ^ a b Chief Minister of Kerala (Official Website)
  12. ^ a b c d Radhakrishnan, M. G. (19 April 2019). "Revenge of the Dead Horse". Asianet News. Trivandrum. Archived from the original on 15 June 2020.
  13. ^ Pillai, Sreedhar (31 August 1985). "Indian Union Muslim League and All India Muslim League merge in Kerala". India Today. Kerala. Archived from the original on 13 June 2020.
  14. ^ a b IANS (2 August 2009). "Kerala mourns passing away of Panakkad Thangal". Gulf News. Malappuram.
  15. ^ a b Nair, Preetha (19 April 2019). "A Coloured Scheme of Things". Outlook. Archived from the original on 17 June 2020.
  16. ^ a b c Madampat, Shajahan (11 April 2019). "The importance of IUML". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 12 June 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  17. ^ Naha, Abdul Latheef (25 March 2014). "Muslim votes not a monolithic bloc". The Hindu. Malappuram. Archived from the original on 6 June 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  18. ^ "Sabarimala temple row: not only Hindu outfits, IUML too raises slogans to 'save Sabarimala' in Kerala". Times Now.
  19. ^ "Indian Union Muslim League opposes Supreme Court verdict, says it is against Indian culture". Times of India.
  20. ^ "Hyderali Shihab Thangal, chief of IUML in Kerala". The Hindu. 15 August 2009. Archived from the original on 19 August 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
  21. ^ "K M Khader Mohideen is IUML National President". India Today. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  22. ^ "P K Kunhalikutty is IUML national general secretary - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  23. ^ "Indian Union Muslim League national committee members". iuml.com. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  24. ^ "Faisal Babu is the All India General Secretary of the Youth League".
  25. ^ Jeffrey, Robin. "Politics, Women and Well-Being: How Kerala became a Model" Palgrave McMillan (1992); 112 and 114.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Wright, Theodore P. 'The Muslim League in South India since Independence.' American Political Science Review, vol. 60, no. 3, 1966, pp. 579–599., doi:10.2307/1952972.
  27. ^ a b c Malhotra, Inder. "The eternal Kerala pattern". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 24 June 2020.
  28. ^ a b c Nossiter, Thomas Johnson (1982). Communism in Kerala: A Study in Political Adaptation. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 5–6.
  29. ^ a b Kartha, G. S. (15 May 1977). "Kerala seems to be drifting towards instability". India Today. Archived from the original on 15 June 2020.
  30. ^ "Marad report slams Muslim League". Indian Express.
  31. ^ "Circular to legalise earlier marriages". New Indian Express.

External links[edit]

Media related to Indian Union Muslim League at Wikimedia Commons