Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Indian Veterinary Research Institute (Hindi: भारतीय पशु अनुशंधान संस्थान) or IVRI is located at Izztnagar, Bareilly in Uttar Pradesh state. It is India's premier advanced research facility in the field of veterinary medicine and allied branches. It has regional campuses at Mukteshwar, Bangalore, Palampur, Bhopal, Kolkata and Srinagar. Formerly known as Imperial Bacteriological Laboratory, it was renamed in 1925 as Imperial Veterinary Research Institute. The name of the Institute was changed following independence to Indian Veterinary Research Institute. Administrative control of the Institute is currently under Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi. The Ministry of Education, Govt. of India on the recommendation of University Grants Commission conferred the status of the Deemed to be University on 16 November 1983 under Section 3 of UGC Act (1956).
The Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) at Izatnagar was initially established as the Imperial Bacteriological Laboratory in 1889 for conducting research for the protection of Indian livestock wealth from the dreaded diseases. The foundation stone of the laboratory was laid by the Governor of Bombay on 9 December 1889 in about 2.2. ha of land presented by a philanthropist, Sir Dinshaw Monock ji Petit Bart adjoining the College of Science at Pune.
Dr. Alfred Lingard, a distinguished medical bacteriologist was appointed in 1891 as in charge of the laboratory. The seriousness and danger of handling the micro-organisms of infectious diseases and pathological materials in the densely populated city of Pune was realised and consequently, the laboratory was shifted in 1893 to an isolated but beautiful site amidst the dense conifer forest of Mukteswar in Kumaon hills of the Himalayas situated at about 1500 m above the mean sea level in United Province. Lingard had studied bacteriology in Germany and was instrumental for the historical visit of three renowned bacteriologists, Drs. Robert Koch, Pfeiffer and Gaffky to Mukteswar in 1897 to advise on methods for the prevention and control of rinderpest. The work for production of the anti-rinderpest serum was started in the same year and the first batch was released in 1899. During 1901 to 1906, the Institute started production of antisera against anthrax, haemorrhagic septicaemia and tetanus, a vaccine against black quarter and a diagnostic against equine glanders. A sub-centre was established at Kargaina near Bareilly for conducting some experiments in the plains. Sir Leonard Rogers, Assistant Bacteriologist, also a medical personnel at Mukteswar was closely associated with Dr. Lingard in research. He made noted contributions at the schools of Tropical Medicine, Calcutta and London and officiated as Director from 1898-1900 and later returned to the Indian Medical Service. Lt. Col. J.D.E. Holmes, Assistant Bacteriologist since 1904, took over the reins of the institute in 1907. The land available at Kargaina was inadequate for further expansion of the work. On his recommendations, a large size plot of about 306 ha was purchased by the Government of India at Izatnagar adjacent to Rohilkhand Kumaon Railway Headquarters. A post of Physiological Chemist was created during his tenure and Sir Percival Hartley was appointed in 1909, who worked on the fractionation of immune bodies in the rinderpest serum.
After the death of Lt. Col. Holmes, Mr. A.W. Shilston, Assistant Bacteriologist officiated for a short period of 19 months from 20 March 1914. His classical contribution was the use of oxalate as anticoagulant for increasing the collection of serum. During the period a post of Pathologist was created and a medico Dr. G.H.K. MacAlister was appointed on 2 October 1914. Dr. R.V. Norris joined the post of Physiological Chemist. All the three officers joined the British Army. Dr. A.L. Sheather joined the post of Imperial Bacteriologist and the designation of the Head of the Institute was changed to Director. Mr.W. A. Pool and T.M. Timoney, joined the institute on 30 July 1919 and 15 March 1921, respectively as bacteriologists, Dr. Sheather contributed in the study of tuberculosis, Johne's Disease, bovine lymphangitis and reported buffalo malaria for the first time. Dr. A.L. Sheather was succeeded by Mr. W.A. Pool in the officiating capacity in 1920. During his tennure, work at Izatnagar was activated and small site at Kargaina was auctioned. On 19 November 1921, Dr. J.T. Edwards took over as permanent Director. Dr. Edwards was harbinger of a new era of diversification in veterinary research. During his period, Dr.T.M. Doyle, Veterinary Officer, reported Ranikhet disease of poultry for the first time.
The name of Imperial Bacteriological Laboratory was changed to the Imperial Institute of Veterinary Research in 1925. Some of the contributions of Dr. Edwards and his associates include the fixation of rinderpest virus in rabbit in 1924 and in goat in 1927, studies on piroplasmosis and theileriasis and improvement in treatment methods of Surra. He energised field workers all over the country and at the institute he introduced the procedure of systematic recording of experimental data, thorough post-mortem examination of animals as a routine, preservation and cataloguing of representative pathological specimens of all kinds collected from different parts of the country, enrichment of library facility and indexing and regular circulation of important scientific articles from the current literature of the world. During his time the substation at Izatnagar was developed as a centre of research and for round the year mass production of biologicals. The posts of Assistant Research Officer for Protozoology, Helminthology and Biochemistry were created. Mr. H. Cooper, Pathologist, described details of Ranikhet disease of Poultry. The institute's Director was made independent of the control of Agricultural Advisor in 1929. Dr. Edwards resigned from services on 31 March 1929 on personal grounds. With the powers of a departmental head delegated by the Government of India, Sir Frank Ware was a worthy replacement of Dr. Edwards. His recommendations received support of Central and Provincial Government. He worked in close association with the state departments and the Imperial Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and research activities at the institute were expanded through several schemes financed by ICAR. His creative vision strengthened by the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Agriculture led to the setting up of well integrated team of experts in different branches of Veterinary Sciences for carrying out basic and fundamental research essential for the development of livestock wealth. At this time a proposal was made by Sir Arthur Olver to start a Central Veterinary College at Izatnagar-Mukteswar which did not materialise.
In 1931, Ware organized research work at Mukteswar in three sections, viz. Pathology, Serology and Protozoology, each headed by a Veterinary Research Officer. On the basis of the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Agriculture, the establishment of the Sections of Animal Nutrition, Poultry Research and Animal Genetics was planned. A decision was taken to designate the new departments at Izatnagar as sections of the institute and their heads as Officers-in-charges. The Imperial Veterinary Serum Institute, Izatnagar thus became Biological Products Section. The mother institute then known as the Imperial Institute of Veterinary Research was renamed as Imperial Veterinary Research Institute in 1936. Major endeavour of Sir Ware was to develop a strong organization in the country to provide new technologies for all round development of livestock wealth and the divisions of Animal Nutrition and Poultry Research were created for carrying out research also on animal production. In 1938, Sir Frank Ware relinquished the office of the Director to take the responsibility of Animal Husbandry Commissioner with the Government of India.
During 1938-39, Mr. J.R. Haddow officiated as the Director of the institute but later on reverted to the post of Deputy Director of the institute after the joining of Dr. F.C. Minett as the Director from September, 1939 till 15 August 1947, when he opted for Pakistan to take the charge of the Animal Husbandry Commissioner of the new country. His major contribution was the establishment of an enduring school of Animal Genetics in 1944 and poultry farming was further expanded by Mr. A.J. MacDonald. During the period of Dr. Minett, new courses of training and Associateship of IVRI by research were started. In the position of Chairman of the ICAR Education Committee, he prepared ground for the teaching of veterinary science in different Indian universities.
At the dawn of independence of the country on 15 August 1947, the institute was renamed as Indian Veterinary Research Institute. Dr. S. Datta took over as the first regular Indian Director. During October, 1954 an intensive rinderpest eradication scheme through mass vaccination programme was launched by the Government of India.
|1947||Shifting of Headquarters of the Institute from Mukteswar to Izatnagar and renaming as Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) under Govt. of India|
|1958||Establishment of a Postgraduate College of Animal Sciences at Mukteswar, affiliated to Agra University|
|1966||Transfer of administrative control to Indian Council of Agricultural Research and recognition as a National Institute|
|1967||Establishment of Regional Station at Palampur (Himachal Pradesh)|
|1970||Establishment of a Regional Station at Kolkata (formerly Calcutta)|
|1971||Establishment of Regional Station at Bangalore|
|1973||Development of irradiated lung worm vaccine and establishment of Vaccine Production Centre at Srinagar|
|1983||Conferment of Deemed University status by University Grants Commission to IVRI, Izatnagar|
|1986||Establishment of a Centre for Animal Disease Research and Diagnosis (CADRAD) at Izatnagar|
|1988||Establishment of High Security Animal Disease Laboratory at Bhopal|
|2004||Establishment of Kisan Call Centre at Izatnagar|
|2005||Award of ISO 9001: 2000 Certificate by International Certificate Services Asia to CADRAD|
|2007||Establishment of video conferencing facility|
- Development of FMD vaccines with crystal violet tongue epithelium (1946-52)
- Development of anthrax spore vaccine (1951)
- FMD vaccine with goat kidney cell culture (1964-65),
- FMD vaccine with saponin and oil adjuvant (1968-70)
- FMD vaccine with BHK-21 monolayer and cell suspension (1971-78)
- Development of an irradiated sheep lung worm vaccine (1973)
- Development of Theileria schizont vaccine for bovine theileriosis (1979)
- Development of inactivated goat pox vaccine (1986-87)
- Development of thermostable IBD vaccine (2001)
- Development of CCPP vaccine for goats and sheep (2000)
- Development of an inactivated oil emulsified vaccine against IBH-HPS (2000)
- Development of live attenuated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine (2000)
- Development of DNA vaccines against canine plarvo virus and IBD virus (2003)
- Conferment of 100 per cent protection in challenged calves by a low volume (2 ml) saponified haemorrhagic septicaemia vaccine, up to 12 months post immunization (2004)
- Conferment of 100 per cent protection in mares challenged with a virulent S. Abortus equi strain by defined deletion double mutant vaccine for Salmonella Abortus equi (2004)
- Development of cell culture vaccine for classical swine fever (2007).