Polygonum cognatum

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Polygonum cognatum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Polygonaceae
Genus: Polygonum
Species: P. cognatum
Binomial name
Polygonum cognatum
Meisn., 1826
  • Polygonum alpestre C.A.Mey.
  • Polygonum ammanioides Jaub. & Spach
  • Polygonum myriophyllum H. Gross
  • Polygonum rupestre Kar. & Kir.
  • Polygonum chitralicum Rech. f. & Schiman-Czeika

Polygonum cognatum, commonly called Indian knotgrass[2] or madimak (from Turkish madımak[3]), is an edible weedy creeping perennial herb in the genus Polygonum, frequently eaten by people of Turkey. It has larger leaves than most other species of Polygonum.


Polygonum cognatum is a perennial, prostrate or ascending branched herb, 15–30 cm long with a thick stout root stock. Stems are prostrate, green like the leaves. Leaves oblong-elliptic, petiolate, often slightly mucronate. Flowers in bundles in the leaf axils. Perianth pinkish, 4–5 mm, hardening and accrescent in fruit. Nut glossy, included in the perianth.[4]


Irano-Turanian Region or Iran-Turan Plant Geography Region element, grows between 760–5600 meters elevation on rocky and drier slopes; distribution: Central to Western Asia, Turkey, Caucasia (Georgia), Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan.[5] The madimak is a weed found in both agricultural and non-agricultural areas.


  • Polygonum cognatum subsp. chitralicum (syn: P. chitralicum): endemic in Chitral, Pakistan.
  • Polygonum cognatum subsp. cognatum (syn: P. cognatum var. alpestre, P. confertum, P. ammanioides, P. pamiroalaicum)


The madimak is one of the widely known traditional edible plants in Turkey particularly Central Anatolia Region. To be able compensate increasing demand easily and supply the plant to the markets, farmers started cultivating madimak in Central Anatolia.[6]


The highest antioxidant activity was found in the water extract.[7]


  1. ^ The Plant List, Polygonum cognatum Meisn.
  2. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-02-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  3. ^ Prof. Dr. Turhan Baytop (1997), Türkçe Bitki Adları Sözlüğü, TDK yayınları: 578, Ankara, 1997
  4. ^ Van herbaryumu
  5. ^ Flora of Pakistan : Polygonum cognatum subsp. cognatum
  6. ^ Hüseyin Öner, İskender Parmaksız & Naif Gebeloğlu (2011), Reproduction Capacity of Polygonum Cognatum Meissn. (Madimak).
  7. ^ Ali Yıldırım, Ahmet Mavi, Ayşe Aydan Kara (2002), Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Polygonum cognatum Meissn extracts, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Volume 83, Issue 1, pages 64–69, 1 January 2003